Ocean Steamships-19th century



OCEAN STEAMSHIPS


A POPULAR ACCOUNT OF THEIR CONSTRUCTION
DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT
AND APPLIANCES


BY
F. E. CHADWICK, U. S. N.
J. D. J. KELLEY, U. S. N.
RIDGELY HUNT, U. S. N.
JOHN H. GOULD
WILLIAM H. RIDEING
A. E. SEATON

WITH NINETY-SIX ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK
CHARLES SCRIBNER’S SONS

1891




A DRAMA OF THE SEA

CONTENTS.


PAGE
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STEAMSHIP 1
BY COMMANDER F. E. CHADWICK, U. S. NAVY.
Slow Growth of the Idea of Steam Propulsion—Models Shown at the Liverpool Exhibition in 1886—Claims of Precedence in the Invention of Steamboats—What Fulton Accomplished—The Clermont—The Voyage of the Savannah in 1819—The First War Steamer—The Atlantic Crossed by the Sirius and Great Western in 1838—Founding of the Cunard Company—Invention of the Screw Propeller—Its Application to the Archimedes and the Great Britain—Early Fleet of the Cunard Company—American Enterprises—The Screw Steamer Princeton—Establishment of the Pacific Mail—The Collins Line—Its Success and Ultimate Failure—The Great Eastern—Beginning of Great Rivalry in Speed—Triple Expansion Engines—Important Changes in Design.

SPEED IN OCEAN STEAMERS 57
BY A. E. SEATON.
The Viking’s Craft and the Modern “Greyhound”—Problems of Inertia and Resistance—Primary Condition for High Speed—What is Meant by “Coefficient of Fineness” and “Indicated Horse-Power”—Advance in Economical Engines—What the Compound Engine Effected—A Comparison of Fast Steamers from 1836 to 1890—Prejudice Against Propellers and High Pressures—Advantages of more than One Screw Propeller—Attempts at Propulsion by Turbine viii Wheels, Ejections, and Pumps—The Introduction of Siemens-Martin Steel in 1875 the Chief Factor in the Success of Modern Fast Steamers—Decrease in Coal Consumption—Importance of Forced Draughts—The Problem of Mechanical Stoking—Possibilities of Liquid Fuel—Is the Present Speed Likely to be Increased?

THE BUILDING OF AN “OCEAN GREYHOUND” 91
BY WILLIAM H. RIDEING.
The Cost of an Ocean Racer—Intricate “Financing” of Such an Undertaking—The Contract with the Ship-builders—The Uncertain Element in Designing—Great Ship Yards along the Clyde—The Plans of a Steamer on Paper—Enlargement of Plans in the “Mould Loft”—What is Meant by “Fairing the Ship”—The “Scrive Board”—Laying down the Keel—Making the Huge Ribs—When a Ship is “in Frame”—Shaping and Trimming the Plates—Riveting and Caulking—Ready for Launching—The Great “Plant” which is Necessary for the Building of a Ship—Description of a Typical Yard—Works Covering Seventy-four Acres—Where the Shaft is Forged—The Lathes at Work—The Adjustment of Parts—Seven Thousand Workmen.

OCEAN PASSENGER TRAVEL 112
BY JOHN H. GOULD.
The First Ocean Race—Passenger Traffic in the Old Clipper Days—State-rooms and Table Fare in Early Days—The First Ocean Mail Contract—Discomforts Fifty Years Ago—American Transatlantic Lines—Government Subsidies—Novelties on the Collins Line—When Steerage Passengers were Allowed on Ocean Steamships—Important Changes in the Comfort of Passengers Wrought by the Oceanic in 1870—The Present Era of Twin-screw Ships—Their Advantages—The Fastest Voyages East and West—Records of the Great Racers—Modern Conveniences and Luxuries—The Increase in the Number of Cabin Passengers from 1881 to 1890—How the ix Larder is Supplied—Electric Lights, Libraries, and Music-rooms—Customs Peculiar to the French, German, and British Lines—Life in the Steerage—Immigration Statistics—Government Regulations.

THE SHIP’S COMPANY 149
BY LIEUTENANT J. D. JERROLD KELLEY, U. S. NAVY.
Has Steam Ruined the Genuine Sailors of Story and Song?—Hauling a Liner out of the Liverpool Docks—The Traits of Master-mariners—Education of Junior Officers—A Fire Drill—Stowing the Cargo—Down the Channel in a Fog—The Routine Life at Sea—The Trials of Keeping Watch—A Bo’s’n’s Right to Bluster—Steering by Steam—Scrubbing the Decks in the Middle Watches—Formalities of Inspection—The Magic Domain of the Engine-room—Picturesqueness of the Stoke-hole—Messes of the Crew—The Noon Observation—Life among the Cabin Passengers—Boat Drill—Pleasures toward the End of the Voyage—The Concert—Scenes in the Smoking-room—Wagers on the Pilot-boat Number—Fire Island Light, and the End of the Voyage.

SAFETY ON THE ATLANTIC 185
BY WILLIAM H. RIDEING.
The Dangers of the Sea—Precautions in a Fog—Anxieties of the Captain—Creeping up the Channel—“Ashore at South Stack”—Narrow Escape of the Baltic—Some Notable Shipwrecks—Statistics since 1838—The Region of Icebergs—When They Are most Frequent—Calamities from Ice—Safety Promoted by Speed—Modern Protection from Incoming Seas—Bulkheads and Double Bottoms—Water tight Compartments—The Special Advantage of the Longitudinal Bulkhead—The Value of Twin Screws—Dangers from a Broken Shaft—Improvements in the Mariner’s Compass, the Patent Log, and Sounding Machine—Manganese Bronze for Propellers—Lights, Buoys, and Fog Signals—The Remarkable Record of 1890.

x THE OCEAN STEAMSHIP AS A FREIGHT CARRIER 217
BY JOHN H. GOULD.
Revenue of the Ship’s Cargo—Amount of Freight Carried by Express Steamships—Gross Tonnage of Important Lines Running from New York—The Merchant Marine of the United States—The “Atlantic Limited”—The Sea Post-office—In the Specie Room—Enormous Refrigerators—The New Class of “Freighters”—Large Cargoes and Small Coal Consumption—The Ocean “Tramp”—Advantages of the “Whaleback”—Vessels for Carrying Grain—Floating Elevators—The Fruit Steamship—Tank Steamships for Carrying Oil—Peculiarities of their Construction—The Molasses Ship—Scenes on the Piers when Steamships are Loading—Steam Hoisting Apparatus—How the Freight is Stowed—Coaling—The Loading of Cattle Ships—“Cowboys of the Sea”—Ocean Traffic the Index of a Nation’s Prosperity.

STEAMSHIP LINES OF THE WORLD 253
BY LIEUTENANT RIDGELY HUNT, U. S. NAVY.
Important Part Taken by the United States in Establishing Ocean Routes—Rivalry in Sailing Vessels with England—Effect of the Discovery of Gold in California—The Cape Horn Route—Australian Packet Lines—The Problem of a Short Route to India—Four Main Routes of Steamship Traffic—Characteristics of the Regular Service between Europe and the East—Port Said and the Suez Canal—Scenes at Aden and at Bombay—The Run to Colombo, Ceylon—Some of the By-ways of Travel from Singapore—The Pacific Mail—From Yokohama to San Francisco—Two Routes from Panama to New York—South American Ports—Magnificent Scenery of the Magellan Straits—Beauties of the Port of Rio—The Great Ocean Route from London to Australia.

xi

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


    FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS.
PAGE
A Drama of the Sea,
Frontispiece
Specifications of Early Patents taken out in England,
15
The Etruria,
37
Triple-expansion Engine of the Aller, Trave, and Saale,
41
The Giovanni Bausan, of the Italian Navy,
49
The North German Lloyd Steamer Kaiser Wilhelm II.,
65
The White Star Steamer Majestic,
75
The Inman Line Steamer City of Paris,
81
General View of the Frames of the City of New York—June 25, 1887,
99
In the Grand Saloon of an Inman Steamer,
115
The End of the Voyage,
139
In the Steerage,
145
On the Bridge in a Gale,
161
Muster, all Hands,”
167
Night Signalling,
177
Out of Reckoning.—A Narrow Escape,
187
Landing Stages at Liverpool,
191
xii At Close Quarters, Among the Icebergs,
201
The Deep-sea Sounding Machine at Work,
207
Loading Grain from a Floating Elevator,
221
Unloading and Loading a Coastwise Steamer by Electric Light,
227
The “Whaleback” Steamship for Grain and other Freight,
235
Unloading a Banana Steamship,
241
A Cattle Steamship at Sea,
249
Chart of the World, Showing the Principal Steamship Routes,
257
Deck Quoits on a P. and O. Liner,
261
Entrance to the Suez Canal at Port Said,
267
The Port of Valparaiso in a Norther,
285
ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT.
The Great Western, from an Old Painting,
10
Cross-Section of the Great Western,
11
The Great Britain,
13
Plan of the Hibernia and Cambria,
22
Model of the Persia and Scotia,
31
Longitudinal Section of the Warship Duilio,
33
The Britannic,
34
Cross-section of the Oregon,
40
Cross-section of the Servia,
40
Longitudinal Section of the Champagne,
42
The Chilian Cruiser Esmeralda,
47
The Belted Cruiser Orlando, with Twin Screws,
51
xiii The City of Rome,
54
H. B. M. S. Polyphemus at Full Speed—1858 Knots,
59
The Impérieuse going at Full Speed,
64
Passenger Steamer Princesse Henriette at Full Speed—2412 Miles per Hour,
69
Engines of the Comet,
70
Passenger Steamer Duchess of Hamilton at Full Speed—21 Miles per Hour,
71
Passenger Steamer Columba at Full Speed—21 Miles per Hour,
72
The Twin Screws of the City of New York,
84
The Propeller of the North German Lloyd Steamer Havel,
85
Recent Naval Engine,
87
Italian Cruiser Piemonte at Full Speed—22.3 Knots = 2534 Miles per Hour,
89
The Umbria just before Launching,
94
Frames of the City of New York, looking aft—July 19, 1887,
102
Frames of the City of New York, looking forward—July 19, 1887,
103
The Manganese Bronze Propeller-Blade of the Wrecked Steamer Mosel, after it had Beaten upon a Reef,
106
A Stern View, Showing Twin Screws,
108
The City of New York ready for Launching,
109
Model of a Steamer Designed to Cross the Atlantic in Five Days,
110
The Steamer’s Barber-shop,
121
More Comfortable on Deck,
123
A Quiet Flirtation,
125
Smoking-room of a French Liner,
127
xiv The Gang Plank—Just before Sailing,
132
The Saloon of a Hamburg Steamer,
134
The Pilot Boarding,
135
Revenue Officer Boarding, New York Bay,
142
Down the Channel in a Fog—A Narrow Escape,
157
The Skipper,
158
The Deck Lookout—“Danger Ahead,”
160
The Boatswain’s Whistle,
164
The Cook,
165
Washing Down the Decks,
169
The Stoke Hole,
172
In the Fo’castle,
174
Watching for the Sun on a Cloudy Day,
176
The Deck Steward,
180
Captain’s Breakfast,
181
The Night Signal of a Disabled Steamer,
183
Eddystone Lighthouse, English Channel,
194
A Whistling Buoy,
195
Lighthouse, Atlantic City, N. J.,
197
A Bell Buoy,
199
Lighthouse, Sanibel Island, Fla.,
205
Off Fire Island, New York,
210
Gedney’s Channel, outside New York Harbor, at Night,
211
The Lightship, off Sandy Hook,
213
Broken Bow of La Champagne, after her Collision outside New York Harbor, December, 1890,
214
xv A Sunken Schooner,
215
The Specie-room of a Passenger Steamship,
232
Cross-section of a Tank Steamship, showing the Expansion Tank,
244
Loading a Tank Steamship with Oil, by Force Pumps,
245
The Port of Aden, Arabia,
270
A Deck-bath in the Tropics,
271
Promenade Deck of an Orient Liner,
274
Landing Passengers at Natal, South Africa,
279
Steamer at Anchor, Simon’s Bay, Cape of Good Hope,
291