jallikattu and bull fighting

bullfighting | spectacle | Britannica.com

Oct 21, 2016 - Bullfighting's exact origins are lost to history, though the spectacle seems ... (A similar “running of the bulls,” called jallikattu, occurs among the .


Alternative Titles: combats des taureaux, corrida de toros, corrida de touros, tauromachy, tauromaquia

Bullfighting, Spanish la fiesta brava (“the brave festival”) or corrida de toros (“running of bulls”), Portuguese corrida de touros, French combats de taureaux, also called tauromachy, the national spectacle of Spain and many Spanish-speaking countries, in which a bull is ceremoniously fought in a sand arena by a matador and usually killed. Bullfighting is also popular in Portugal and southern France, though in the former, where the bull is engaged by a bullfighter on horseback, and in many bullrings in the latter, it is illegal to kill the bull in the arena. A kind of bullfighting is popular in Korea, Japan, and some countries of the Middle East, but this form pits bull against bull. Bloodless bullfights, in which the bull is caped but unharmed and its killing only simulated, are popular in many countries and in several U.S. states, but they are often denigrated by bullfighting traditionalists.
Bullfighting has long generated commentary and controversy. To anthropologists and psychologists, the corrida has signified everything from a confrontation between culture and nature to a symbolic exposition of gender, sexual, or filial relations. In centuries past, clerics assailed bullfighting for degrading the work ethic and diverting public attention away from the church and prayer. Many observers—from Renaissance popes and Bourbon kings to contemporary animal-rights activists—have seen bullfighting as barbaric, as a perversion of the Christian principle of animal stewardship. Others have blamed the spectacle on a debased elite class, which historically held corridas in commemoration of royal weddings and to celebrate the graduation of doctoral students; in the latter case, graduates adorned a wall of their college with the blood of the bull, a tradition that lingers today but in the form of applying red paint, not blood. To still others, blame for the bullfight lies not with a decadent elite but with mass popular culture’s taste for bread-and-circuses kinds of entertainment. To many Spanish intellectuals (especially to the Generation of 1898, which grappled with the meaning of the loss of the Spanish empire, and to many intellectuals after the death of Francisco Franco in 1975), the corrida has been a window into the soul of Spain and its people, an unrelenting reminder of the so-called Spanish “problem”: Spain’s supposed rejection of the Enlightenment and the modern world, a refusal to “Europeanize,” which hurts Spain’s standing in world opinion and its stature in the European community of civilized nations. The European Union, however, has declared bullfighting a protected activity under the heading of “national culture.”
Bullfighting’s defenders are as passionate as its detractors, and they have hailed from all social and economic classes. Jean-Jacques Rousseau credited bullfighting with keeping alive a certain “vigour” in the Spanish people. Other defenders point out that the corrida employs hundreds of thousands of people worldwide and generates much-needed revenue for private charities and state welfare agencies, not unlike the role gambling and lotteries play in many nonbullfighting countries. To still others, bullfighting is but another form of contemporary commercialized mass entertainment—less violent than professional boxing, less injurious than American football, and less cruel to the animal than the ignoble fate that awaits the slaughterhouse steer. Many bullfighters take a more philosophical view and see in the bullring a morality play of sorts, a rare microcosm of the world in its various manifestations. As described by Conchita Cintrón, the most acclaimed female bullfighter of modern times,
Within its small circle one finds life, death, ambition, despair, success, failure, faith, desperation, valor, cowardliness, generosity, and meanness—all condensed into the actions of a single afternoon or even a single moment.
The classic Spanish type of bullfighting, which this article largely deals with, is often characterized as a sport, but it is not considered as such by its supporters and enthusiasts. While most sporting events value victory over method, in modern bullfighting the method is the essence of the spectacle. Its supporters see it as an art form not unlike ballet but with one major difference. As bullfighting aficionado Ernest Hemingway famously said in Death in the Afternoon (1932), “Bullfighting is the only art in which the artist is in danger of death.”

Six bulls and three bullfighters participate in the traditional bullfight, each matador fighting two bulls; a variation on this is the mano-a-mano bullfight, which is a duel between two matadors, each killing two or three bulls. (Almost every year, in a bravura gesture, a top matador, such as Joselito in years past or El Juli in the early 21st century, will kill all six bulls.) The bulls are paired and assigned to each matador through a random drawing of lots (el sorteo) by the matadors’ assistants on the morning of the late afternoon fights. The bullring is known as the plaza de toros. Bulls used in bullfights are not common meat or milk cattle but a special, distinctly savage breed, which has been bred for centuries for the sole purpose of attacking people in the arena. Mature fighting bulls can weigh as much as 1,300–1,600 pounds (600–700 kg).
The Spanish bullfighting season, la temporada, starts at the end of March and continues until early October. The top bullfighters then go to Lima for the monthlong Peruvian season before heading to Mexico City in December and January. The aspirants, los novilleros, perform in Mexico only in the summer, whereas in Spain they perform from March to October.


Origins and early forms

Bullfighting’s exact origins are lost to history, though the spectacle seems to have many antecedents. Historians have long debated the relative weight to give to these various influences, and, for every historian who sees the seeds of the spectacle sown in Moorish Spain, there is a counter voice discoursing on the bull cults of ancient Mesopotamia or highlighting the prenuptial bull-taunting ritual common in medieval Spain. What is likely the case is that modern bullfighting hails from a confluence of influences, rituals, and cultures, many of which are thousands of years old. The excavations at Knossos on the island of Crete, for example, have revealed ancient Minoan frescoes (c. 1500 bce) depicting games with bulls in which young people of both sexes are shown grabbing the animals’ horns and vaulting over them.
Combats and spectacles with bulls were also common in ancient Rome, but the action depended on the inherent trait of domesticated cattle to flee their attackers. The distinguishing trait of the Iberian stock used in bullfighting as it is known today is its spirited and continuous attack without provocation. Prior to the Punic Wars, the Celtiberians knew the peculiarities of the wild cattle that inhabited their forests. They developed the hunt into a game and herded the animals for use as an auxiliary in war, where advantage was taken of the animals’ ferocity. For example, the Celtiberian defenders of a city besieged by Hamilcar Barca, Hannibal’s father, in 228 bce gathered a great herd of wild horned beasts, harnessed them to wagons loaded with resinous wood lit with torches, and drove the herd at the enemy. (The Moors later adopted a similar strategy, except they tied firebrands to the animals’ tails to initiate the stampede.) In the ensuing melee Barca was killed and his army annihilated. Carthaginians and Romans were astounded by accounts of Barca’s demise. They were equally amazed at subsequent tales of games held in Baetica (the Spanish region of Andalusia) in which men exhibited dexterity and valour before dealing the death blow with ax or lance to a wild horned beast. The Iberians were reported to have used skins or cloaks (precursors to the cape) to avoid the repeated attacks of the bulls before killing them.
Conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by Vandals, Suebi, and Visigoths modified the customs of the people. Three centuries of Visigoth rule (415–711 ce) evolved a spectacle featuring brute strength of men over bulls that was later adopted by Portuguese bullfighters (discussed below) and is still retained as one of their specialties. The Muslims from Africa who overran Andalusia in 711 ce also modified these bull-related games: as great horsemen, they relegated to assistants the inferior position of simply maneuvering the animals on foot so that their mounted masters might perform to better advantage with their lances. Bull-lancing tournaments developed as a result of the rivalry between Moorish chieftains and Christian Iberian knights, and, except in large cities that boasted amphitheatres—Sevilla (Seville), Córdoba, Toledo, Tarragona, Mérida, and Cádiz—most festive combats were held in the city square, or plaza, from which all contemporary bullrings derive their names, or in the open fields outside of town. These organized bullfighting festivals had become commonplace by the end of the 11th century and continue to be popular today, the most famous perhaps being the Fiesta de San Fermín, during which bulls are run through the streets of Pamplona. (A similar “running of the bulls,” called jallikattu, occurs among the Tamil of southern India as part of the annual Hindu festival of Pongal.)

The early Christian church opposed these spectacles and never perceived the bull in a very positive light. In fact, the Council of Toledo in 447 ce compared the Devil to a bull:
a large, black, monstrous apparition with horns on his head, cloven hoofs, hair, ass’s ears, claws, fiery eyes, gnashing teeth, and huge phallus, and sulphurous smell.
This description is less surprising when one remembers that the early church’s foremost rival was the cult of Mithra, the pagan god of Persian mythology that was widely worshipped in ancient Rome. The most important Mithraic ceremony was the sacrifice of a bull, an act emulating Mithra’s legendary slaying of a bull, which was depicted in art throughout the Roman Empire.

Development in the modern era

The first Castilian to lance a bull from horseback in an enclosed arena is thought to have been Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, known as El Cid (c. 1043–99). After the Muslims were driven from Spain in the 15th century, bull-lancing tournaments became the favourite sport of the aristocracy. By the time of the Austrian accession in 1516, they had become an indispensable accessory of every court function, and Charles V endeared himself to his subjects by lancing a bull on the birthday of his son Philip II. Queen Isabella, however, opposed bullfighting, and in 1567 Pope Pius V banned it outright, excommunicating Christian nobles who sanctioned bullfights and refusing Christian burial to anyone killed in the ring. Corridas nevertheless continued to grow in popularity, and in time the church lifted the ban and accommodated that which it clearly could not stop, though it did insist on certain modifications to reduce the number of slain bullfighters, such as stopping the common practice of mass bullfights (the release for battle of dozens of bulls at the same time). In fact, corridas became such a routine part of Spanish life that they were eventually held during fiestas in commemoration of holy days and the canonization of saints, and even now the opening day of the bullfighting season in some areas is Easter Sunday. These bullfighting-related fiestas are important community events, often reflecting local and regional identities and traditions.

For 600 years the bullfighting spectacle consisted of a mounted aristocrat armed with a lance. During the reign of Philip IV (1621–65), the lance was discarded in favour of the rejoncillo (short spear), and leg armour was introduced to protect the mounted bullfighters. As knowledge of the nobles’ prowess spread beyond their domains, they were invited to competitive jousts in provincial tournaments. However, the nobles’ performance was hampered by their unfamiliarity with the spirit of bulls from other areas, causing their lackeys (assistants on foot)—who daringly maneuvered the bulls by dragging capes before the animals—to gain greater experience and fame. Further changing the character of bullfighting was the secession of the house of Bourbon, which rose to power in Spain with Philip V (1700–46) and which disapproved of bullfighting. But while the aristocracy gradually abandoned bullfighting, the public enthusiastically continued the spectacle. Any nobles still bullfighting now performed on foot and relegated to their former foot assistants the subordinate role on horseback, that of picador (whose exact role is discussed later).
The opposite development occurred in Portugal. While mounted bullfighting waned in Spain and was transformed by the masses into the foot-based corrida common today, equestrian bullfighting was finely honed into an art and a national specialty in Portugal. The main performers in a Portuguese bullfight are the rejoneadores (lancers mounted on magnificently trained horses) and forcados (daring young “bullgrabbers” who, after the bull has been lanced, provoke the animal into charging and then, one by one from a single-file line, jump on the charging bull and wrestle it to a standstill). The objective of this type of bullfighting is not to kill the bull but to demonstrate the extraordinary ability of the horses—which dramatically charge and dodge the bull at breakneck speeds and are almost never injured—and the skill and bravery of the bullfighters and bullgrabbers. In these spectacles the bull’s horns are padded, blunted, or tipped with brass balls, and, though the bull is indeed lanced (which takes great skill, because the bullfighter must command a horse with knee pressure and not the reins while leaning over and plunging the lance or darts into the bull), the bull is not killed in the ring but is dispatched after being returned to the corral. The rejoneadores have traditionally had “Don” (or “Doña,” for women) attached to their names, which denotes an aristocratic rank and recalls the early days of bullfighting when nobles deemed dismounted kills as beneath their dignity. This form of mounted bullfighting is called rejoneo.
By the 18th century, bullfighting’s popularity had grown sufficiently to make bull breeding financially profitable, and herds were bred for specific characteristics. In fact, many of the royal houses of Europe competed to present the fiercest specimens in the ring. The lack of a spirited native stock of bulls is one reason why corridas never fully took root in Italy and France.

The rise of professional bullfighting

One of the greatest of the early professional bullfighters was Joaquín Rodríguez Costillares (born in Sevilla in 1729). Known as the father of modern (foot-based) bullfighting, Costillares is credited with creating the pomp and pageantry associated with the modern, commercialized corrida, including the basic cape pass called the veronica, the matador’s tradition of wearing an elaborately embroidered costume, and the most common method of killing the bull—the volapié, in which the bull is transfixed by the cape held low to the ground while the bullfighter lunges forward (as the bull charges) and with the right hand plunges the sword between the bull’s shoulder blades. Costillares’s rival was Pedro Romero of Ronda in Andalusia, who reputedly killed 5,600 bulls during a 28-year career and popularized use of the estoque, the sword still used in the kill, and the muleta, the small red flannel cloth draped over a 22-inch (56-cm) stick that forms the small cape used in the bullfight’s final act. Romero was famous for executing the more dangerous, dramatic, and difficult of the two methods of killing the bull—the recibiendo, in which the matador stands still and receives the charging bull on the sword. These men represent the two classic “schools” of bullfighting, the Ronda school noted for a simpler, more sober approach to the corrida when compared with the more flamboyant style popular in Sevilla.
In all these early corridas, the kill was the pivotal point of the spectacle, and if the kill could be executed after only a few cape passes, so much the better. This changed over time, and the matador’s ability to work the bull, to master the animal, and to exhibit the graceful arte de torero began to be appreciated as much as, if not more than, the actual kill. (Juan Belmonte, whose career extended from 1910 to 1935, was largely responsible for this transformation.)
It was about this time, in the late 18th century, that painter Francisco de Goya (1746–1828), who had sketched scores of bullfighting scenes in his La tauromaquia series, designed a distinctive professional uniform for bullfighters (worn only on commemorative gala occasions in Goya-style corridas, or corridas goyescas). Performers also began using a net to hold back their shoulder-length hair, later tying it in a knot at the base of the skull for protection in falls when they were tossed by the bull. This hairstyle later developed into the satin-covered semispherical cork headpiece and short queue, or pigtail, which became the distinguishing mark of the profession. A kind of pigtail was the caste mark of gladiators who fought bulls in the Colosseum of ancient Rome, and it is often emulated today by this false braid (coleta) worn by contemporary bullfighters. (A matador retiring is still said to be “cutting the pigtail.”)
After the introduction of railways, the plazas de toros in Spain, Portugal, and Latin America (where the conquistadores introduced corridas in the early 1500s) greatly multiplied. In fact, long before football (soccer) and baseball stadiums were built, bullrings had become a staple of Spanish and Latin American life. The corridas in the New World served many purposes. For some they were a training ground for novice bullfighters and matadors of the second rank; for others to this day they are a source of lucrative contracts during the Spanish off-season (November through February).
Along with the expansion of the corrida around the world came increased concern about fan behaviour. Although exhibiting nothing like the hooliganism often associated with contemporary football fans, bullfighting crowds could historically be volatile. Their reputation for rowdiness was such that, in the 19th century, regulations were often passed to prohibit the throwing of fruit, sticks, stones—even dead animals—into the ring. Certain crowd behaviour, in fact, is commonly associated with certain bullrings. According to the stereotypes, the crowds in Sevilla are refined and sophisticated, sometimes unnervingly quiet, concerned above all with the aesthetic of the spectacle; in Madrid they are serious, severe, and critical, allowing for few musical interludes by the corrida bands and as demanding of a clean kill as of a graceful cape pass; and in Bilbao and Pamplona they are festive, raucous, and unpredictable.

Bullfighting at the turn of the 21st century

While football remains the most popular spectator sport on the Iberian Peninsula and in Latin America, bullfighting continues to draw considerable crowds, despite the organized campaigns to ban it. In 1996, for example, some 40 million spectators attended bullfights and bull-related festivals. There were a record 650 fights in Spain, in which some 3,900 bulls were killed, and the Spanish public spent some 160 billion pesetas (U.S. $1.4 billion) to watch the corridas that year; bullfighting employed 200,000 people, more than 1 percent of the workforce. Corridas in Mexico, however, declined in recent decades, and growing intolerance of bullfighting in the Catalonia autonomous community of Spain led it in July 2010 to become the first mainland Spanish region to ban bullfighting; the Canary Islands had done so in 1991. The Catalonian ban, which went into effect on January 1, 2012, was significant in that the region—unlike the Canary Islands—has a long bullfighting history, and its capital, Barcelona, was once home to three bullfighting rings. That a place so steeped in the culture of bullfighting would ban it reflects the extent of the disconnect from the spectacle’s tradition felt by a growing number of Spaniards. The ban was overturned by the Constitutional Court of Spain in October 2016. The ruling stated that Catalonia could regulate bullfighting and enact specific measures but could not outright ban the practice. However, Catalonian politicians vowed to continue to keep bullfighting out of their community despite the ruling.
Partly because of tourism and television (in Spain and many Latin American countries, numerous bullfights are televised each week), there are actually many more corridas today than in Hemingway’s era. An interesting anomaly is the small but ardent group of English, French, and American aficionados. There are several bullfighting clubs (peñas) in Great Britain and a dozen in the United States who meet regularly, show films, review videotaped corridas, contribute taurine items to their Web sites and newsletters, and organize trips to Mexico, Spain, France, and Latin America to see their favourite matadors perform.
Successful bullfighters perform more than 100 times a season and become highly paid media stars. A case in point at the end of the 20th century was the popular Julián López Escobar, called El Juli, a Spaniard born in 1982 who began his professional career at age 15. At that young age the prodigy was awarded ears and tail (an honour discussed below) in Mexico City’s arena, and he had become the highest-paid matador in history by 2000, at age 17. Though severely gored several times, he continued his career on the Iberian Peninsula and in Latin America.

Bulls and bullrings

Perceptions of bulls are often culturally circumscribed. North Americans, some say, are too urbanized, suburbanized, and alienated from the ancient association of the bull with the divine to appreciate the animal’s many virtues, which is why, in English, semantic associations involving bulls tend to be negative, signifying only the brutish and the coarse. Spanish and Latin American cultures, on the other hand, still revere the animal for his grace, agility, and controlled strength.
As ganaderos (bull breeders) like to say, “Bulls get their size and build from their fathers, but their hearts come from their mothers.” The bulls used in corridas are invariably of pedigreed lineage raised on special ranches (ganaderías), the most celebrated being those of Miura, from Sevilla, which have killed more famous matadors, including the great Manolete, than any others. Shortly after weaning, vaccinating, and branding, the yearling males are tested in the open fields, and only those displaying the proper ferocity are retained for future corridas. Some of remarkable pedigree and fine physical construction are separated and later put through a series of tests—by mounted men, never by bullfighters on foot with capes—designed to prove the animal’s bravery. If acceptable, such bulls are then used exclusively for the arena; if not, they are sent to the slaughterhouse. At two to three years the heifers are tested in a small ring at the ranch through all phases of the corrida, and only those deemed acceptable are kept for breeding; those rejected are also sent to the slaughterhouse. Royalty used to attend these tests (tientas), which often became social events. During a tienta a ranch may test scores of animals over the course of several days, during which novice or retired bullfighters might perform with young breeding cows, star matadors might practice new maneuvers, and amateur matadors and members of the literati might test their courage in the ring, usually with heifers. Many matadors have been seriously wounded by heifers that were little more than calves. The great Antonio Bienvenida, for example, was killed by a small heifer on his ranch in 1975.
Bulls are never used a second time in the corrida. This is because their memory is remarkable, and former experience would make subsequent fights too dangerous for the matadors to execute their graceful capework, which is the main reason fans come to the arena.
All cattle are colour-blind. The colour red has been adopted for the muleta (the small cape used in the bullfight’s final act) since it minimizes the appearance of blood and other stains and produces a more colourful spectacle; the front of the large work cape (or capote, used in the first act of the bullfight) is magenta and the inside yellow or blue, and the bulls charge either colour just as readily as they do the red muleta. (It is motion that provokes the bull’s charge.) Like racehorses, all fighting bulls are named, generally taking the name of their mother; e.g., the mother of Islero (the bull that killed Manolete) was Islera.
There were some 600 bullrings in Spain at the beginning of the 21st century, from those in Madrid and Barcelona, seating about 20,000 spectators each, to those in small towns accommodating mere hundreds. The size of the arena floor never varies more than a few yards, those at higher altitudes being smaller than those at sea level to help compensate for altitude fatigue. The Plaza México in Mexico City seats approximately 55,000 spectators and is the largest bullring in the world; the 18th-century Plaza de Acho in Lima, Peru, is one of the oldest arenas; and Sevilla’s Real Maestranza and Madrid’s Plaza Monumental, known as Las Ventas, are the two most prestigious rings for bullfighters to perform in. Spain’s oldest bullring (c. 1785) is the Neoclassical stone arena in Ronda and is still used. Many of the accoutrements commonly associated with contemporary sporting events—food vendors, program sellers, and billboard advertisements—can be found at the corrida, and some bullrings also house bullfighting museums.

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