Jallikattu Bullfight Of South India-Bullfighting is often linked to Rome,


THE GREEK AND ROMAN CONTACTS WITH ANCIENT TAMIL COUNTRYhttp://www.tamilnadu.ind.in/tamilnadu_history/sangam_age/greek_and_roman_contacts_in_sangam_age.php

Bullfighting traces its roots to prehistoric bull worship and sacrifice. The killing of the sacred bull (tauroctony) is the essential central iconic act of Mithras, which was commemorated in themithraeum wherever Roman soldiers were stationed. The oldest representation of what seems to be a man facing a bull is on the celtiberian tombstone from Clunia and the cave painting "El toro de hachos", both found in Spain.[6][7]
Bullfighting is often linked to Rome, where many human-versus-animal events were held.
File:Knossos bull.jpg
Bull-leaping: Fresco from Knossosaround 1 st century AD
There are also theories that it was introduced into Hispania by the Emperor Claudius, as a substitute forgladiators, when he instituted a short-lived ban on gladiatorial combat. The latter theory was supported by Robert Graves. (Picadors are the remnants of the javelin, but their role in the contest is now a relatively minor one limited to "preparing" the bull for the matador.) Bullfighting spread from Spain to its Central and South American colonies, and in the 19th century to France, where it developed into a distinctive form in its own right.

Spanish-style bullfighting


José Arévalo en 2009 à Beaucaire.ogg
Welcoming of a toro a porta gayola and series of verónica terminated by a semi-verónica.

Plaza de Toros Las Ventas in Madrid


Cavaleiro and bull



A raseteur takes a rosette

Tamil Nadu or Indian style – Jallikattu


Jallikattu bulls belong to a few specific breeds of cattle that descended from the kangayambreed of cattle and these cattle are pugnacious by nature. These cattle are reared in large herds numbering in the hundreds, with a few cowherds tending to them. These cattle are for all practical comparisons, wild and only the cowherds can mingle with them without fear of being attacked. It is from these herds that calves with good characteristics and body conformation are selected and reared to become jallikattu bulls. These bulls attack not because they are irritated or agitated or frightened, but because that is their basic nature.

A victorious youth taking control of the bull at Alanganallur Jallikattu

There are three versions of Jallikattu:
  1. Vadi manju virattu – this version takes place mostly in the districts of Madurai, Pudukkottai, Theni,Tanjore, and Salem. It has been popularised by television and films and involves the bull being released from an enclosure through an opening. As the bull comes out of the enclosure, one person clings to the hump of the bull. The bull in its attempt to shake him off will bolt in most cases, but some will hook the man with their horns and throw him off. The rules specify that the person has to hold on to the running bull for a predetermined distance to win the prize. In this version, only one person is supposed to attempt catching the bull. Some bulls acquire a reputation and that is enough for them to be given a unhindered passage out of the enclosure and arena.
  2. Vaeli virattu – this version is more popular in the districts of Sivagangai, Manamadurai andMadurai. The bull is released in an open ground. This version is the most natural, as the bulls are not restricted in any way (no rope or determined path). The bulls once released simply run away from the field in any direction. Most do not even come close to any human. There are a few bulls that do not run, but stand their ground and attack anyone who tries to come near them. These bulls will "play" for some time (from a few minutes to several hours) providing a spectacle for viewers, players and owners alike.
  3. Vadam manjuvirattu – "vadam" means rope in Tamil. The bull is tied to a 50-foot-long rope (15 m) and is free to move within this space. A team of seven or nine members must attempt to subdue the bull within 30 minutes. This version is safe for spectators, as the bull is tied and the spectators are shielded by barricades.

Bullfighting in Oman

Bullfighting in Oman
Oman is perhaps the only country in the Persian Gulf and the Arab world in which bullfighting is carried out. In the interiors of the country, temporary bullrings are set up for the events. Al-Batena area is prominent for such events. Wide audiences turn up to see the events unfold. Omani bullfighting is, however, not a violent event. The origins of bullfighting in Oman are unknown, though locals believe it was brought to Oman by the Moors who had conquered Spain. Its existence is also attributed to Portugal which colonized the Omani coastline for nearly two centuries.[14]






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Tamil Brahmi script in Egypt
Special Correspondent
Exciting archaeological discovery with implications of import

— Photo: Dr. Roberta Tomber, British Museum 
significant pointer: Potsherd with Tamil Brahmi inscription, circa first century B.C., found in Egypt.

CHENNAI: A broken storage jar with inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi script has been excavated at Quseir-al-Qadim, an ancient port with a Roman settlement on the Red Sea coast of Egypt. This Tamil Brahmi script has been dated to first century B.C. One expert described this as an “exciting discovery.”
The same inscription is incised twice on the opposite sides of the jar. The inscription reads paanai oRi, that is, pot (suspended) in a rope net.
An archaeological team belonging to the University of Southampton in the U.K., comprising Prof. D. Peacock and Dr. L. Blue, who recently re-opened excavations at Quseir-al-Qadim in Egypt, discovered a fragmentary pottery vessel with inscriptions.
Dr. Roberta Tomber, a pottery specialist at the British Museum, London, identified the fragmentary vessel as a storage jar made in India.
Iravatham Mahadevan, a specialist in Tamil epigraphy, has confirmed that the inscription on the jar is in Tamil written in the Tamil Brahmi script of about first century B.C.
In deciphering the inscription, he has had the benefit of expert advice from Prof. Y. Subbarayalu of the French Institute of Pondicherry, Prof. K. Rajan of Central University, Puducherry and Prof. V. Selvakumar, Tamil University, Thanjavur.
According to Mr. Mahadevan, the inscription is quite legible and reads: paanai oRi, that is, ‘pot (suspended in) a rope net.’ The Tamil word uRi, which means rope network to suspend pots has the cognate oRi in Parji, a central Dravidian language, Mr. Mahadevan said. Still nearer, Kannada has oTTi, probably from an earlier oRRi with the same meaning.
The word occurring in the pottery inscription found at Quseir-al-Qadim can also be read as o(R)Ri as Tamil Brahmi inscriptions generally avoid doubling of consonants.
Earlier excavations at this site about 30 years ago yielded two pottery inscriptions in Tamil Brahmi belonging to the first century A.D.
Another Tamil Brahmi pottery inscription of the same period was found in 1995 at Berenike, also a Roman settlement, on the Red Sea coast of Egypt, Mr. Mahadevan said.
These discoveries provided material evidence to corroborate the literary accounts by classical Western authors and the Tamil Sangam poets about the flourishing trade between the Tamil country and Rome (via the Red Sea ports) in the early centuries A.D.
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A bullfight in Arles in 1898.