Mongol Empire in 1300-1400
Genghis Khan’:-According to the works of Iranian historian Rashid-ad-Din Fadl Allah, Mongols massacred over 700,000 people in Merv and more than a million in Nishapur. China suffered a drastic decline in population as a direct result of the Khan: before the Mongol invasion, China had about 100 million inhabitants; after the complete conquest, 1279, the census in 1300 showed it to have roughly 60 million people.The invasions of Baghdad,Samarkand, Urgench, Kiev, Vladimir among others caused mass murders, such as when portions of southern Khuzestan were completely destroyed. His descendant, Hulagu Khan destroyed much of Iran's northern part.The Mongol violence and depredations killed up to three-fourths of the population of the Iranian Plateau, possibly 10 to 15 million people.n much of Russia, Middle East, Korea, China, Ukraine, Poland and Hungary, Genghis Khan and his regime are credited with considerable damage, destruction and loss of population.the legend about his conquers of Nishapur, took a terrible turn when his favorite son-in-law got killed.
The ever so “good hearted” Khan (his rule was that if you surrendered you were allowed to live) got so angry, he put out a death warrant on all the inhabitants of the city, population at the time 1,748,000.
MASS RAPES OF WOMEN:-
Thanks to his far-flung travels and his appetite for women, a 2003 study found that as many as 16 million people alive today — or about 0.5 percent of the global population – are descendants of Khan.In the thirteenth century a tidal wave of devastation swept over the Muslim world. City after city, region after region disintegrated amidst a storm of iron and fire. The death toll was incredible.
1202 -- Genghis Khan manages to totally exterminate the Tatar people.
1215 -- Beijing besieged and sacked. (Full conquest of North China not complete until 1234).
1219 -- war with the empire of Khwarizm, ruled by Sultan Muhammad (covering the present-day countries of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and most of Iran). Reaches Otrar. His forces lay siege and capture the town.
1220 -- attacks and seizes Bukhara. Capture Samarqand. Finds and kills Sultan Muhammad. Crosses Caucasus mountains and defeats an army of Russians and Kipchak Turks in the Crimea.
1221 -- crosses the Oxus into northern Afghanistan. His youngest son sacks towns in Persia. Sultan Jalal al-Din, the son of Sultan Muhammad, wins a battle at Parvan, north of Kabul, Afghanistan, but is then defeated on the banks of the Indus River. Genghis Khan starts back home.
1231 -- Mongols conquer Korea.
By 1235-Subodei had conquered as far as Georgia in 1221 and fought Russians in 1224- led an army of 50,000 Mongols and 100,000 allies north up the Volga River to Bulgaria. Mongke led a force south to take on the Kipchak Turks. Cities that did not agree to hand over ten percent of their wealth as tribute were attacked, and aristocratic rulers were put to death. Captives were enslaved and forced to fight at the front of the Mongol army and were killed if they did not. Kiev was taken in December 1240, looted, and then burned down. Mongol armies swept across Poland to Germany and through Hungary up to Vienna. A major battle was fought at Liegnitz on April 9, 1241 as the clever Mongols by retreating lured the German knights into swamps, where 25,000 were killed or captured. Prisoners were sold or put to work; miners helped develop the mineral resources in Dzungaria of western Mongolia. Hungarian king Bela IV retreated from the army of Subodei. The Mongols used burning oil and gun powder to cause panic, forcing the Hungarians to flee toward Pest. There Christian priests marched with bone relics, which offended the Mongols' religion; two archbishops, a bishop, and many Templar knights were killed. In this war the Europeans lost nearly a hundred thousand knights.
December 1241-Ogodei died of excessive drinking-and the next year the Mongols withdrew from Europe to Russia. They sold their prisoners to Venetian and Genoese merchants, who distributed them in Mediterranean markets; most ended up in Egypt's slave army.
1253, kept the Mongols out of southern Song China for a while. Mongke and his brothers ruled over an immense empire that was symbolized by a Silver Tree with four serpents that provided drinks
By 1274 the Mongols had assembled ships built in Korea to invade Japan; but after winning a battle on land, a storm destroyed the fleet, and 13,000 invaders were lost.
when a large rebellion erupted in Jiangnan- china in 1279, the Mongol army crushed it in 1281 and beheaded 20,000 rebels
Tibet-1285-The Brigung sect attacked his Saskya sect and the Mongols in 1285. Khubilai sent his son Temur Bukha with an army that destroyed the Brigung monastery and killed 10,000 men in 1290 in Tibet
In 1281 a Korean fleet invaded Japan again and was to be joined by a Chinese fleet, which arrived late; but again a storm destroyed them, drowning about a hundred thousand. Southern Chinese merchants complained about building 500 more boats for a third invasion, and Khubilai cancelled the campaign in 1286.
in 1287 and occupied Hanoi -vietnam
Khubilai sent an army to invade Burma in 1283, and in 1287 they occupied Pagan for a few months.
In 1289 Java's Kertanagara branded the Mongol envoy on his face. A naval expedition with a thousand boats led by Gao Xing went to Java in 1293, but despite the current civil war in Java they fell into an ambush and retreated.
Italian traveler Marco Polo served Khubilai Khan from 1275 to 1291- he wrote that anyone encountered by the funeral procession of a Khan was killed, claiming that 20,000 were put to death when Mongke Khan died in 1259;Khubilai celebrated the religious feasts of all major religions, revering Jesus, Muhammad, Moses, and Sakyamuni (Buddha). He thought the Christian faith was best, because he found its teachings only good and holy. However, with so few Christians in his empire Khubilai would not accept baptism unless the Pope sent him a hundred religious scholars to teach the religion; but his repeated requests for this were ignored.Marco Polo also described the incredible wealth and luxuries of Khubilai's court and the speed of his postal messengers, who covered over 200 miles per day on horseback. Marco Polo praised the comfort of stations on the trade routes every twenty or thirty miles. Where possible Khubilai had trees planted along these roads, because his advisors told him those who plant trees live long. In addition to providing food and clothing for the poor, he also supported about 5,000 astrologers and soothsayers. Although the Mongols obviously dominated by using violent warfare, they contributed to world culture by promoting free trade, allowing open communication, sharing knowledge and technology, tolerating religious diversity under a secular state, and encouraging diplomatic immunity. Khubilai died in 1294 and was succeeded by his grandson Temur.
Artist's rendition of the silver tree at Karakorum, as described by William of Rubruck
-airak (fermented mare's milk) for the Mongolian north, mead from honey for the European west, grape wine for the south, and rice wine for the east
Nishapur 1,747,000 dead
Baghdad 1,600,000 dead
The Mongols also immediately executed the caliph and his sons on charges that they spent too much money on their palaces and not enough defending their nation. They killed most members of the court and administration. The Mongols took no prisoners and allowed no torture, but they executed swiftly and efficiently, including the soldiers of the defeated army who, they believed, would be a constant source of future problems if allowed to live. The first several months of a Mongol invasion were bloody, but once the takeover ended, the bloodshed ended.
the Mongol siege of Baghdad in 1258
Herat 1,600,000 dead
When the armies of Genghis Khan were rampaging across Central Asia, they were brought to a temporary halt by a woman in Bamyan in 1221 AD. She was the ruler of a tribe in Central Afghanistan. Her army had built a fort on a cliff on the side of a mountain. The Army of Genghis Khan attacked her fort, but without success.
Finally, they climbed the mountains above her and found her water supply. They cut off her water. She was forced out. As a lesson to all others who might oppose Genghis Khan, she was killed along with all of her people. Not only were every man, woman and child killed, but even all the domesticated animals and the wild animals were killed too. The villages were plowed under and the trees and the grass were all killed.Samarkand 950,000 dead
The Mongols encountered resistance in both Bukhara and Samarkand and consequently sacked them both in 1220, decimating their populations, only sparing the artisans that they considered useful. Balkh, Merv and Nishapur followed in 1221.The cities of Yazd and Shiraz were both spared destruction by offering tribute to their marauding armies.
Merv 700,000 dead
From there the Mongols swept across the Iranian interior, leaving a trail of destruction in their wake. Whole cities were put to the torch and mass killings of women and children as well as fighting men were common.
Aleppo 50,000 dead
Balkh completely destroyed
Khiva completely destroyed
Harran completely destroyed
A battle between a Mongol army and the Mamluks in modern-day Palestine:-[. near modern-day Nazareth] The Mongol army lost the Battle This was the first defeat of theMongol Empire in which they didn't return to seek battle again.
Mongol armies under Kublai Khan attempted two unsuccessful invasions of Japan and three unsuccessful invasions of modern-day Vietnam.
One of the defeats of the Mongols was in the hands of the Delhi Sultanate in India (1299). However, the later Mughal Dynasty was of Mongol origin, and proudly maintained some Mongol customs.
During the 1250s, Genghis's grandson, Hulegu Khan, operating from the Mongol base in Persia, destroyed the Abbasid Caliphatein Baghdad as well as the Hashshashin (the Assassins).
Under Genghis' son, Ögedei Khan, the Mongols gained control of all of China.
John Man is the author of Genghis Khan.: It’s pretty certain, I’d say it’s 90% certain, he was what I call the alpha male, and women were a pretty important part of his booty of dominance, if you like. And the empire spread all over Eurasia and it has been found that there is a genetic marker which indicates nothing more than for sex of those who own it, but it affects now some 16-million males across Eurasia, which is something like 1 in 200 of all men living owe a tiny bit of their genetic inheritance to 'Chingis', not Genghis as he seemed to be spelt in English, but 'Chingis'.
Without portraits of Genghis Khan or any Mongol record, the world was left to imagine him as it wished. No one dared to paint his image until half a century after his death,
The tribe of Genghis Khan acquired a variety of names—Tartar, Tatar, Mughal, Moghul, Moal, and Mongol
When American bombs and missiles drove the Taliban from power in Afghanistan in 2002, the Taliban soldiers equated the American invasion with that of the Mongols, and therefore, in angry revenge, massacred thousands of Hazara, the descendants of the Mongol army who had lived in Afghanistan for eight centuries. During the following year, in one of his final addresses to the Iraqi people, dictator Saddam Hussein made similar charges against the Mongols as the Americans moved to invade his country and remove him from power.
Seemingly every aspect of European life—technology, warfare, clothing, commerce, food, art, literature, and music—changed during the Renaissance as a result of the Mongol influence. In addition to new forms of fighting, new machines, and new foods, even the most mundane aspects of daily life changed as the Europeans switched to Mongol fabrics, wearing pants and jackets instead of tunics and robes, played their musical instruments with the steppe bow rather than plucking them with the fingers, and painted their pictures in a new style. The Europeans even picked up the Mongol exclamation hurray as an enthusiastic cry of bravado and mutual encouragement.
Chaucer, the first author in the English language, devoted the longest story in The Canterbury Tales to the Asian conqueror Genghis Khan of the Mongols. He wrote in undisguised awe of him and his accomplishments.In nearly every country touched by the Mongols, the initial destruction and shock of conquest by an unknown and barbaric tribe yielded quickly to an unprecedented rise in cultural communication, expanded trade, and improved civilization. In Europe, the Mongols slaughtered the aristocratic knighthood of the continent, but, disappointed with the general poverty of the area compared with the Chinese and Muslim countries, turned away and did not bother to conquer the cities, loot the countries, or incorporate them into the expanding empire. In the end, Europe suffered the least yet acquired all the advantages of contact through merchants such as the Polo family of Venice and envoys exchanged between the Mongol khans and the popes and kings of Europe. The new technology, knowledge, and commercial wealth created the Renaissance in which Europe rediscovered some of its prior culture, but more importantly, absorbed the technology for printing, firearms, the compass, and the abacus from the East. As English scientist Roger Bacon observed in the thirteenth century, the Mongols succeeded not merely from martial superiority; rather, "they have succeeded by means of science." Although the Mongols "are eager for war," they have advanced so far because they "devote their leisure to the principles of philosophy."
The only permanent structures Genghis Khan erected were bridges. Although he spurned the building of castles, forts, cities, or walls, as he moved across the landscape, he probably built more bridges than any ruler in history. He spanned hundreds of streams and rivers in order to make the movement of his armies and goods quicker. The Mongols deliberately opened the world to a new commerce not only in goods, but also in ideas and knowledge. The Mongols brought German miners to China and Chinese doctors to Persia. The transfers ranged from the monumental to the trivial. They spread the use of carpets everywhere they went and transplanted lemons and carrots from Persia to China, as well as noodles, playing cards, and tea from China to the West. They brought a metalworker from Paris to build a fountain on the dry steppes of Mongolia, recruited an English nobleman to serve as interpreter in their army, and took the practice of Chinese fingerprinting to Persia. They financed the building of Christian churches in China, Buddhist temples and stupas in Persia, and Muslim Koranic schools in Russia. The Mongols swept across the globe as conquerors, but also as civilization's unrivaled cultural carriers.
The Mongols made no technological breakthroughs, founded no new religions, wrote few books or dramas, and gave the world no new crops or methods of agriculture. Their own craftsmen could not weave cloth, cast metal, make pottery, or even bake bread. They manufactured neither porcelain nor pottery, painted no pictures, and built no buildings. Yet, as their army conquered culture after culture, they collected and passed all of these skills from one civilization to the next.
As he smashed the feudal system of aristocratic privilege and birth, he built a new and unique system based on individual merit, loyalty, and achievement. He took the disjointed and languorous trading towns along the Silk Route and organized them into history's largest free-trade zone. He lowered taxes for everyone, and abolished them altogether for doctors, teachers, priests, and educational institutions. He established a regular census and created the first international postal system. His was not an empire that hoarded wealth and treasure; instead, he widely distributed the goods acquired in combat so that they could make their way back into commercial circulation. He created an international law and recognized the ultimate supreme law of the Eternal Blue Sky over all people. At a time when most rulers considered themselves to be above the law, Genghis Khan insisted on laws holding rulers as equally accountable as the lowest herder. He granted religious freedom within his realms, though he demanded total loyalty from conquered subjects of all religions. He insisted on the rule of law and abolished torture, but he mounted major campaigns to seek out and kill raiding bandits and terrorist assassins. He refused to hold hostages and, instead, instituted the novel practice of granting diplomatic immunity for all ambassadors and envoys, including those from hostile nations with whom he was at war.
Genghis Khan's empire connected and amalgamated the many civilizations around him into a new world order. At the time of his birth in 1162, the Old World consisted of a series of regional civilizations each of which could claim virtually no knowledge of any civilization beyond its closest neighbor. No one in China had heard of Europe, and no one in Europe had heard of China, and, so far as is known, no person had made the journey from one to the other. By the time of his death in 1227, he had connected them with diplomatic and commercial contacts that still remain unbroken.
As Genghis Khan's cavalry charged across the thirteenth century, he redrew the boundaries of the world. His architecture was not in stone but in nations. Unsatisfied with the vast number of little kingdoms, Genghis Khan consolidated smaller countries into larger ones. In eastern Europe, the Mongols united a dozen Slavic principalities and cities into one large Russian state. In eastern Asia, over a span of three generations, they created the country of China by weaving together the remnants of the Sung dynasty in the south with the lands of the Jurched in Manchuria, Tibet in the west, the Tangut Kingdom adjacent to the Gobi, and the Uighur lands of eastern Turkistan. As the Mongols expanded their rule, they created countries such as Korea and India that have survived to modern times in approximately the same borders fashioned by their Mongol conquerors.
In twenty-five years, the Mongol army subjugated more lands and people than the Romans had conquered in four hundred years. Genghis Khan, together with his sons and grandsons, conquered the most densely populated civilizations of the thirteenth century. Whether measured by the total number of people defeated, the sum of the countries annexed, or by the total area occupied,Genghis Khan conquered more than twice as much as any other man in history. The hooves of the Mongol warriors' horses splashed in the waters of every river and lake from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea. At its zenith, the empire covered between 11 and 12 million contiguous square miles, an area about the size of the African continent and considerably larger than North America, including the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and the islands of the Caribbean combined. It stretched from the snowy tundra of Siberia to the hot plains of India, from the rice paddies of Vietnam to the wheat fields of Hungary, and from Korea to the Balkans. The majority of people today live in countries conquered by the Mongols; on the modern map, Genghis Kahn's conquests include thirty countries with well over 3 billion people. The most astonishing aspect of this achievement is that the entire Mongol tribe under him numbered around a million, smaller than the workforce of some modern corporations. From this million, he recruited his army, which was comprised of no more than one hundred thousand warriors—a group that could comfortably fit into the larger sports stadiums
With Chinese engineers and European artisans, Hulegu advanced the machinery of war.
Hulegu supplemented his army with Armenians, Georgians, and Turks. By employing iron tubes instead of bamboo, the Mongols used gunpowder to expel metal projectiles and ceramic balls filled with gunpowder that exploded on contact. Their innovations included explosives to undermine walls, smoke bombs, grenades, mortars, and incendiary rockets. Thus Baghdad was struck from a distance and then stormed; in February 1258 for the first time in its five centuries the capital of the Abbasid caliphs surrendered to non-Muslims. The looting went on for 17 days, and then the city was set on fire. Many Christians in Baghdad supported the Mongols. Damascus surrendered before it was attacked. Mongke Khan died in 1259, and the following September the Mamluks of Egypt stopped the Mongol advance and defeated them in Galilee. Hulegu still had the largest portion of the Mongol empire and took Azerbaijan from his cousins. These descendants of Jochi declined to abandon their remaining territory in Russia to attend the khuriltai and became known as the Golden Horde. Hulegu's descendants in the vast Persian empire from Afghanistan to Turkey became known as the Ilkhans or vassal emperors.
As early as 1263 Khubilai Khan ordered an ancestral temple for his family in the Chinese tradition. The Forbidden City, where only Mongols were allowed, was constructed within Beijing, and other sections were designated for foreigners as well.
Mongols and other foreigners (mostly from Persia) replaced most of the Confucian aristocrats in government, and the civil service exams were abolished. Many Chinese intellectuals had been made slaves until the Mongols realized they could be useful in their administration. The Mongols then decided to staff each office with quotas of northern Chinese, southern Chinese, and foreigners.
Beijing: Khubilai's government guaranteed property rights, reduced taxes, and improved roads. The number of capital offenses was reduced, and less than 2,500 criminals were executed during his reign.
The Mongols facilitated commerce and the spreading of many Chinese technologies to Europe; Francis Bacon considered the most important of these gunpowder, printing, and the compass. The Chinese had begun using moveable type in the 12th century, and the Mongols applied this to their new alphabet, greatly reducing the cost of books. Physicians from Persia and India shared knowledge with the Chinese, improving the skills of all. Persian doctors and translators were imported, and 10,000 Russians colonized the region north of the capital.
Genghis Khan as portrayed in a 14th century Yuan era album.
Genghis Khan and Toghrul Khan. Illustration from a 15th century Jami' al-tawarikh manuscript
code, called the Yassa, created by Genghis Khan. The Mongol Empire did not emphasize the importance of ethnicity and race in the administrative realm, instead adopting an approach grounded in meritocracy. The exception was the role of Genghis Khan and his family. The Mongol Empire was one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse empires in history, as befitted its size. Many of the empire's nomadic inhabitants considered themselves Mongols in military and civilian life, including Turks, Mongols, and others and included many diverse Khans of various ethnicities as part of the Mongol Empire Mausoleum of Genghis Khan in the town of Ejin Horo Qi, China
Monument in Hulunbuir
his mausoleum in Ejin Horo Qi, China