pakistan army surrenders to Indian army 1971 (in East Pakistan) and formation of Bangladesh

Lt. Gen A. A. K. Niazi signs the instrument of surrender on December 16, surrendering his forces to Lt. Gen Jagjit Singh Aurora.

Indian Lt. Gen J.S. Aurora and Pakistani Lt. Gen A.A.K. Niazi's signatures on the Instrument of Surrender.

During the course of the war, Indian and Pakistani forces clashed on the eastern and western fronts.

Indian Army's T-55 tanks on their way to Dhaka.


A classic shot of the Hunter Mk 56, the same type operated by No.7 Squadron during the 1971

The Nixon administration provided support to Pakistan President Yahya Khan during the turmoil.when Pakistan's defeat seemed certain, Nixon sent the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise to the Bay of Bengal,
a move deemed by the Indians as a nuclear threat. Enterprise arrived on station on 11 December 1971. On 6 December and 13 December, the Soviet Navy dispatched two groups of ships, armed with nuclear missiles, from Vladivostok; they trailed U.S. Task Force 74 in the Indian Ocean from 18 December until 7 January 1972.
The Soviet Union supported Bangladesh and the Indian Army and Mukti Bahini during the war, recognizing that the independence of Bangladesh would weaken the position of its rivals - the United States and China. It gave assurances to India that if a confrontation with the United States or China developed, the USSR would take counter-measures. This was enshrined in the Indo-Soviet friendship treaty signed in August 1971
The war effectively came to an end after the Eastern Command of the Pakistan Military signed the Instrument of Surrender on December 16, 1971 following whichEast Pakistan seceded as the independent state of Bangladesh. Around 97,368 West Pakistanis who were in East Pakistan at the time of its independence, including some 79,700 Pakistan Army soldiers and paramilitary personnel and 12,500 civilians, were taken as prisoners of war by India.
The Indo-Pakistani conflict was sparked by the Bangladesh Liberation war, a conflict between the traditionally dominant West Pakistanis and the majority East Pakistanis. The Bangladesh Liberation war ignited after the 1970 Pakistani election, in which the East Pakistani Awami League won 167 of 169 seats in East Pakistan and secured a simple majority in the 313-seat lower house of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament of Pakistan). Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman presented the Six Points to the President of Pakistan and claimed the right to form the government. After the leader of the Pakistan Peoples Party, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, refused to yield the premiership of Pakistan to Mujibur, President Yahya Khan called the military, dominated by West Pakistanis to suppress dissent


Indira was a bitch to Nixon - The Times of India › World

Jun 30, 2005 - 35 ys ago, US president and national security advisor called Indira Gandhi a bitch and a witch.

Nixon called Indira Gandhi an "old witch" - The Hindu

Jun 30, 2005 - WASHINGTON: The former United States President, Richard M. Nixon, referred privately to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi as an "old witch" and ...

December 1971: When The US Sent Its Naval Ships Into Bay Of ...
Dec 17, 2016 -

  • BBC NEWS | South Asia | Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira

    Jun 29, 2005 - Ex-US President Richard Nixon called Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi an "old witch", according to recently released documents from the ...
  • BBC NEWS | South Asia | Kissinger regrets India comments

    Jul 1, 2005 - According to the documents, President Nixon called Indira Gandhi an "oldwitch" in a conversation with Mr Kissinger. 'High regard'.

  • ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                            UK navy supports pakistanBritish aircraft carrier 'HMS Eagle' tried to intervene in 1971 ...

    ... the Soviet Intelligence has reported that the British Naval group with the leadership of 'Eagle' carrier went closer to the territorial waters of India.

    HMS Eagle (R05) - Wikipedia
    HMS Eagle

    Synchronizing with the US, UK navy also started to move, seemingly to support US and hence, Pakistan. Soviet intelligence reported that a British naval group led by the aircraft carrier HMS Eagle with commando carrier HMS Albion, several destroyers and other ships was approaching India’s territorial waters from west.
    The British and the Americans planned a coordinated pincer attack to intimidate allied forces: the British ships in the Arabian Sea will target India’s western coast, while the Americans would make a dash into the Bay of Bengal from the east to Bangladesh.
    Caught between the British and the American ships was the Indian Navy’s Eastern Fleet, led by the 20,000-ton aircraft carrier, Vikrant, with barely 20 light fighter aircrafts. The Indian Air Force however, having wiped out the Pakistani Air Force within the first week of the war, was on alert to fend off any possible intervention by aircrafts from USS Enterprise.
    In this situation, India requested Moscow for help, under the security treaty.

    Soviet Union / Russian Role in the Indo Pakistan 1971 War.

    As India had decided to go on with the war, and Indira Gandhi had failed to gain American support and sympathy for the Bengalis who were being tortured in East Pakistan, she finally took a hard move and on August 9, signed a treaty of peace, friendship and cooperation with Soviet Union.

    The State Department historian says, ‘in the perspective of Washington, the crisis ratcheted up a dangerous notch, India and the Soviet Union have signed a treaty of peace, friendship and cooperation.’ It was a shock to America as this was what they feared, expansion of Soviet influence in South Asia. They feared that involvement of Soviet Union could sabotage their plan.
    On December 4, just one day after Pakistan raided Indian airfields in Kashmir and Punjab declaring war on India, America’s proxy involvement in the war was becoming clear. Thinking that the Soviet Union might enter the war if they come to know this, which could cause a lot of destruction to Pakistan and American equipment given to Pakistan, US ambassador to the United Nations George H W Bush [later 41st president of the United States and father of George Bush] introduced a resolution in the UN Security Council, calling for a cease-fire and the withdrawal of armed forces by India and Pakistan. Believing India can win the war and Indira Gandhi being determined to protect the interest of Bengalis, Soviet Union vetoed out the resolution, thus letting India fight for the cause. Nixon and Kissinger pressurized Soviets to a very extent but luck did not support them.

    1971 War: How Russia sank Nixon's gunboat diplomacy ...
    Dec 20, 2011 - The 1971 war is considered to be modern India's finest hour, in military terms. ... However, it could all have come unstuck without help from veto-wielding ... provision of the Indo-Soviet security treaty, under which Russia was bound to .... What measures stopped india attack west PAK to Liberate POK, at that ...

    Task Force 74 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    ... by Nixon administration in December 1971, at the height of the 1971 Indo-Pak War. ... as a Show of force by USA in support of the beleaguered West Pakistani forces, ... The Task Force withdrew from the Bay of Bengal after reports of Soviet ...

    Rusian Help in 1971 indo pak war - YouTube
    Aug 12, 2010 - Uploaded by youmazdatube
    This video is about the Russian role in 1971 y. Indo-Pakistani conflict and about the Soviet-American ...

    Video Translated by : Ella Salomatina, The World Reporter.
    On 3rd December, 1971, the World was shaken by another war between India and Pakistan. Pakistani airforce raided Indian cities and airstrips. The Indian PM, Indira Gandhi, brought the country in the state of emergency and ordered Indian army to reflect the aggression. Fierce military operations developed on the ground, in the air and in the sea.
    Historic document: “Confidential. December, 10, 1971. Moscow. For the DM Marshal Andrey Grechko.
    According to the information from our ambassador in Delhi, in the very first day of the conflict the Indian destroyer ‘Rajput’ had sunk a Pakistani submarine with deep bombing. On December, 4 and 9, the speed boats of India had destroyed and damaged 10 Pakistani battle ships and vessels by Soviet anti ship P-15 missiles. In addition 12 Pakistani oil storage were burned in flame.”

    Britain and Soviet Confrontation

    Confidential – The Commander of the Military Intelligence Service Gen. Pyotr Ivashutin.
    “The Soviet Intelligence has reported that the English operative connection has come nearer to territorial India, water led by an aircraft carrier “Eagle” [On December 10]. For helping friendly India, Soviet government has directed a group of ships under the command of contr-admiral V. Kruglyakov.”
    Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers:
    “I was ordered by the Chief Commander to track the British Navy’s advancement, I positioned our battleships in the Bay of Bengal and watched for the British carrier “Eagle”.
    But Soviet Union didn’t have enough force to resist if they encountered the British Carrier. Therefore, to support the existing Soviet fleet in the Bay of Bengal, Soviet cruisers, destroyers and nuclear submarines, equipped with anti ship missiles, were sent from Vladivostok.
    In reaction English Navy retreated and went South to Madagascar.
    Soon the news of American carrier Enterprise and USS Tripoli’s advancement towards Indian water came.
    V. Kruglyakov “ I had obtained the order from the commander-in-chief not to allow the advancement of the American fleet to the military bases of India”
    We encircled them and aimed the missiles at the ‘Enterprise’. We had blocked their way and didn’t allow them to head anywhere, neither to Karachi, nor to Chittagong or Dhaka”.
    The Soviet ships had small range rockets (only upto 300 KM). Therefore, to hold the opponent under the range, commanders ran risks of going as near to the enemy as possible.

    “The Chief Commander had ordered me to lift the submarines and bring them to the surface so that it can be pictured by the American spy satellites or can be seen by the American Navy!’ It was done to demonstrate, that we had all the needed things in Indian Ocean, including the nuclear submarines. I had lifted them, and they recognized it. Then, we intercepted the American communication. The commander of the Carrier Battle Group was then the counter-admiral Dimon Gordon. He sent the report to the 7th American Fleet Commander: ‘Sir, we are too late. There are Russian nuclear submarines here, and a big collection of battleships’.
    Americans returned and couldn’t do anything. Soviet Union had also threatened China that, if they ever opened a front against India on its border, they will receive a tough response from North.

    Role of Sri Lanka

    Pakistani high commissioner in Colombo, Seema Ilahi Baloch said in her speech addressed to Lanka-Pakistan business council in Colombo in June, 2011 that Pakistan can never forget the help which Sri Lanka offered to Pakistan during the 1971 war between India and Pakistan.
    “We in Pakistan cannot forget the logistical and political support Sri Lanka extended to us in 1971 when it opened its refueling facilities for us,” she said.
    Pakistani Aircraft destined to East Pakistan flew taking a round of India via Sri Lanka, since they could not fly over Indian sky. This forced Pakistan to get its aircrafts refueled on the way. Sri Lanka eager to help Pakistan, allowed Pakistani aircrafts for refueling at the Bandaranaike airport.
    The war ended with the surrender of Pakistani army as they missed American help due to quick Russians who blocked both America and China from preventing India to advance. With this, a new country named Bangladesh was formed, which was recognized by the whole world and by Pakistan in the following year with Shimla Agreement.

    After the completion of the political process which skirted the LTTE, the hidden agendas came alive. President Premadasa all but revoked the ISLA, cut a deal with the LTTE and began Operation Double Cross, which ironically claimed his life. Once Premadasa formally issued the ultimatum for the IPKF to leave Sri Lanka in June 1989, it became clear that his eviction strategy sponsored by the LTTE was irrevocable.

    Tackling the Tigers - Seminar
    A Sri Lankan military band played the Indian national anthem followed by Auld Lang Syne. ... V.P. Singh welcoming them when they touched Indian soil, the troops were flown ... in both India's capacity to influence and manipulate the Tamil Tigers. .... At the same time, the SLA and LTTE joined hands; it was then that the IPK

    US Fleet in Bay of Bengal: A game of deception

    Dec 16, 2013 - Thus, the liberation war of Bangladesh became a battlefield for the super powers. ... deal with China, delivered arms to Pakistan directly or through third countries, ... Synchronizing with the US, UK navy also started to move, seemingly to ... the British ships in the Arabian Sea will target India's western coast, ...

    Pakistan's enemy is our enemy: Cameron – The Express ...

    May 1, 2014 - Describing Pakistan's enemy as his enemy, British Prime Minister DavidCameron said on Wednesday that “Pakistan's progress is in the .
    Mass arrests of dissidents began, and attempts were made to disarm East Pakistani soldiers and police. After several days of strikes and non-cooperation movements, the Pakistani military cracked down on Dhaka on the night of 25 March 1971. The Awami League was banished, and many members fled into exile in India. Mujib
    See full size image
    was arrested on the night of 25–26 March 1971 at about 1:30 a.m. (as per Radio Pakistan’s news on 29 March 1971) and taken to West Pakistan.
    On 27 March 1971, Ziaur Rahman, a rebellious major in the Pakistani army,
    See full size image
    declared the independence of Bangladesh on behalf of Mujibur In April, exiled Awami League leaders formed a government-in-exile in Baidyanathtala of Meherpur. The East Pakistan Rifles, a paramilitary force, to the rebellion. A guerrilla troop of civilians, the Mukti Bahini, was formed


    to help the Bangladesh Army.

    Mukti Bahini
    During the army crack down on the night of 25 March, 1971, there were reports of small scale resistance notably at Iqbal Hall, Dhaka University and the Rajarbagh Police Headquartes (later initially put a strong fight against the pakistan army). As political events gathered momentum, the stage was set for a clash between the Pakistan Army and the Bengali people vowing for Indpendence. Bengali members of the army were also defecting and gathering on various pockets in the country.
    All these early fights were dis-organised and futile because of the greate military strength of the pakistani army. Outside of Dhaka , resistance was more successful . The earliest move towards forming a liberation army officially came from the declaration of Independence made by Major Ziaur Rahman of East bengal Regiment oon behalf of Seikh Mujibar Rahman. In the declaration made from Kalurghat Betar Kendra (Chittagong) on 27 march, 1971, Zia assumed the title of provisional commander-in-chief of the Bangladesh Liberation Army.

    indian army pictures:-

    with minister y.b.chavan

    The Pakistan army conducted a widespread genocide against the Bengali population of East Pakistan,

    East Pakistani Refugees (Woman and Child) in India - Krishnanagar 1971

    East Pakistani refugees continue to flood into northern India and although the cholera outbreak has been brought under control, many are still dying as they journey toward Calcutta (Kolkata) - Krishnanagar India 1971 Press Photo
    Robert Payne describes scenes of systematic mass slaughter around Dacca (Dhaka) that, while not explicitly “gendered” in his account, bear every hallmark of classic gender-selective roundups and gendercidal slaughters of non-combatant men:
    Bengali intellectuals murdered and dumped at dockside in Dacca.In the dead region surrounding Dacca, the military authorities conducted experiments in mass extermination in places unlikely to be seen by journalists. At Hariharpara, a once thriving village on the banks of the Buriganga River near Dacca, they found the three elements necessary for killing people in large numbers: a prison in which to hold the victims, a place for executing the prisoners, and a method for disposing of the bodies. The prison was a large riverside warehouse, or godown, belonging to the Pakistan National Oil Company, the place of execution was the river edge, or the shallows near the shore, and the bodies were disposed of by the simple means of permitting them to float downstream. The killing took place night after night. Usually the prisoners were roped together and made to wade out into the river. They were in batches of six or eight, and in the light of a powerful electric arc lamp, they were easy targets, black against the silvery water. The executioners stood on the pier, shooting down at the compact bunches of prisoners wading in the water. There were screams in the hot night air, and then silence. The prisoners fell on their sides and their bodies lapped against the shore. Then a new bunch of prisoners was brought out, and the process was repeated. In the morning the village boatmen hauled the bodies into midstream and the ropes binding the bodies were cut so that each body drifted separately downstream. (Payne, Massacre [Macmillan, 1973], p. 55.)

    Bangladesh Liberation War

    The Bangladesh Liberation War started on March 26, 1971 between the State of Pakistan and East Pakistan. India intervened on December 3, 1971. Armed conflict ended on December 16, 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan, which became the independent nation of Bangladesh. Refugee camps were set up in the border areas in West Bengal.

    Strikingly similar and equally hellish scenes are described in the case-studies of genocide in Armeniaand the Nanjing Massacre of 1937.Chuknagar: The largest genocide during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971
    Chuknagar is a small business town located in the Dumuria Thana of Khulna district and very close to the India Bangladesh border. In 71 thousands of refugees gathered in Chuknagar to go to Kolkata. According to a conservative account around ten thousand people were in Chuknagar waiting to cross the border.
    In the early morning of May 10, the fatal day around 10am two trucks carrying Paki troops arrived at Kautala (then known as Patkhola). The Pakis were not many in number, most possibly a platoon or so. As soon as the Paki trucks stopped, the Pakis alighted from the truck carrying light machine guns (LMGs) and semi automatic rifles and opened fire on the public. Within a few minutes a lively town turned into a city of death.
    The accounts of the two hundred interviewees were same. They differed only in details. “There were piled up dead bodies. Dead Kids’ on dead mum’s laps. Wives hugging their beloved husbands to protect them from killer bullets. Dads’ hugging their daughters to shield them. Within a flash they all were just dead bodies. Blood streamed into the Bhadra river, it became a river of corps. A few hours later when the Paki bastards ran out of bullets, they killed the rest of the people with bayonet.”
    Source: Muntassir Mamun, The Archive of Liberation War, Bangabandhu and Bangladesh Research InstituteDenials:-
    According to Gregory H. Stanton, President, Genocide Watch there are eight stages of a genocide. All of them are evident in the genocide commited by the Pakistan forces. The last of the eight stages is denial:

    Bangladeshi authorities claim that 3 million people were killed, while the Hamoodur Rahman Commission, an official Pakistan Government investigation, put the figure as low as 26,000 civilian casualties. The fact is that the number of dead in Bangladesh in 1971 was almost certainly well into seven figures. It was one of the worst genocides of the World War II era, outstripping Rwanda (800,000 killed) and probably surpassing even Indonesia (1 million to 1.5 million killed in 1965-66).
    As R.J. Rummel writes:
    The human death toll over only 267 days was incredible. Just to give for five out of the eighteen districts some incomplete statistics published in Bangladesh newspapers or by an Inquiry Committee, the Pakistani army killed 100,000 Bengalis in Dacca, 150,000 in Khulna, 75,000 in Jessore, 95,000 in Comilla, and 100,000 in Chittagong. For eighteen districts the total is 1,247,000 killed. This was an incomplete toll, and to this day no one really knows the final toll. Some estimates of the democide [Rummel's "death by government"] are much lower — one is of 300,000 dead — but most range from 1 million to 3 million. … The Pakistani army and allied paramilitary groups killed about one out of every sixty-one people in Pakistan overall; one out of every twenty-five Bengalis, Hindus, and others in East Pakistan. If the rate of killing for all of Pakistan is annualized over the years the Yahya martial law regime was in power (March 1969 to December 1971), then this one regime was more lethal than that of the Soviet Union, China under the communists, or Japan under the military (even through World War II). (Rummel, Death By Government, p. 331.)
    People regard that the best option is to regard “3 million” as not an absolute but an arbitrary number.
    aimed in particular at the minority Hindu population,

    Killings. On 16 May 1971, a contingent of the Pakistan Armed Forces led Major Newaz arrived at the Boalmari railway station from Jessore cantonment. They raided the ancestral residence of Shah Mohammad Abu Zafar.
    Perpetrators: Pakistan Army, Razakars
    Date: 16 May 1971 (UTC+6:00)
    Location: Boalmari, Faridpur, Bangladesh
    Mar 19, 2006 — The caption of the photo is just as grim as its content: 'April 2, 1971: Genocide by the Pakistan Occupation Force at Jessore.' It is in a book printed ...

    verdana, arial, sans-serif; font-size: 11px; line-height: normal;">

    Jessore massacre in 1971

    leading to approximately 10 million people fleeing East Pakistan and taking refuge in the neighboring Indian states. The East Pakistan-India border was opened to allow refugees safe shelter in India.
    Bengali refugees heading to India to flee persecution

    The governments of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura established refugee camps along the border. The resulting flood of impoverished East Pakistani refugees placed an intolerable strain on India's already overburdened economy

    General Tikka Khan earned the nickname 'Butcher of Bengal' due to the widespread atrocities he committed
    See full size image

    Wary of the growing involvement of India, the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) launched a pre-emptive strike on India. The attack was modelled on the Israeli Air Force's Operation Focus during the Six-Day War. However, the plan failed to achieve the desired success and was seen as an open act of unprovoked aggression against the Indians.
    Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi declared war
    Mahatma Gandhi
    on Pakistan and in aid of the Mukti Bahini, then ordered the immediate mobilisation of troops and launched the full-scale invasion. This marked the official start of the Indo-Pakistani War.
    Three Indian corps were involved in the invasion of East Pakistan. They were supported by nearly three brigades of Mukti Bahini fighting alongside them, and many more fighting irregularly. This was far superior to the Pakistani army of three divisions. The Indians quickly overran the country, bypassing heavily defended strongholds. Pakistani forces were unable to effectively counter the Indian attack, as they had been deployed in small units around the border to counter guerrilla attacks by the Mukti Bahini. Unable to defend Dhaka, the Pakistanis surrendered on 16 December 1971.

    Indian Air Force gained total air supremacy over erstwhile East Pakistan during 1971 war due to gallant efforts of the air warriors of the EAC. Shooting down of three Sabre jets of Pakistan Air Force (PAF) over Boyra by Gnats of IAF speaks volumes about professionalism and valour of the command personnel. The first ever large-scale para drop of Army troops was conducted in the eastern sector. The Packet aircraft operating from air base under EAC carried out the famous Tangail Drop. This bold action had precipitated early fall of Dhaka and surrender by the Pakistan army in the east. Even helicopters played an offensive role during the 1971 war. Operating from helibases in Tripura, the Mi-4 helicopters were utilized to carry out special heliborne operations behind the enemy lines.

    US-India relations (The nadir was the Nixon-Kissinger support for Pakistani tyranny against Bangladesh in 1971.)Pakistan’s bemedalled army generals were backed by the United States against Mujibur Rehman’s impoverished student-rebels, and India’s support frowned upon regardless of how just the Bangladeshi cause.)US Senator Edward Kennedy, Congressman Cornelius Edward Gallagher played a crucial role in creating opinion in favour of Bangladesh; singers Ravi Shankar, George Harrison and Joan Boaz staged the famous Concert for Bangladesh to raise funds for Bangladeshi refugees; French author André Malraux championed Bangladesh's cause across Europe. But Indians beat them all: in 1971, Indian actress Waheeda Rahman, famous for her roles in 'Kaagaz Ke Phool' and 'Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam', donated signing money of all her films to Bangladesh Shohaok Samiti (Bangladesh Assistance Association), Oscar-winning director Satyajit Ray raised money for the organisation. Artist Maqbool Fida Hussain exhibited his works on the streets of Bombay and donated the earnings.

    Pakistan launched a number of armoured thrusts along India's western front in attempts to force Indian troops away from East PakistanReaction to the defeat and dismemberment of half the nation was a shocking loss to top military and civilians alike. No one had expected that they would lose the formal war in under a fortnight and there was also anger at what was perceived as a meek surrender of the army in East Pakistan. Yahya Khan's dictatorship collapsed

    and gave way to Bhutto who took the opportunity to rise to power. General Niazi, who surrendered along with 93,000 troops, was viewed with suspicion and hatred upon his return to Pakistan. He was shunned and branded a traitor

    Major Battles
    Battle of Boyra

    Battle of Garibpur
    Battle of Dhalai
    Battle of Hilli
    Battle of Kushtia.

    Indian Army's T-55 Tanks

    niazi refuses to give up

    General Niazi Surrendoring Pak India War 1971

    Fall of Dhaka 15-12-07

    Fall of Dhaka 15-12-07

    Fall of Dhaka 15-12-07

    Fall of Dhaka 15-12-07-PAKISTAN NEWS

    The Instrument of Surrender was signed at Ramna Race Course in Dhaka on December 16, 1971, by Lt General J. S. Arora, General Officer Commanding in Chief of Eastern Command of the Indian Army and Lt. General AAK Niazi, Commander of Pakistani forces , as the formal act of surrender of all Pakistani forces. Also present during the ceremony were Lt. General JFR Jacob, Chief of Staff of the Eastern Command and architect of the plan for the capture of Bangladesh.

    India took approximately 93,000 prisoners of war that included Pakistani soldiers as well as some of their East Pakistani collaborators. 79,676 of these prisoners were uniformed personnel, of which 55,692 were Army, 16,354 Paramilitary, 5,296 Police, 1000 Navy and 800 PAF.

    Prisoners of war during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 ...

    Image of PAKISTANI PRISONERS, 1971. - Pakistanis Captured By Bangladeshi  Pro-independence Forces At A Prison Camp In Kashmir At The Conclusion Of  The Bangladesh Liberation War, December 1971. From Granger - Historical  Picture Archive

    Image of PAKISTANI PRISONERS, 1971 ...

    The True Story of India's Decision to Release 93,000 Pakistani POWs After  1971 War
    Pakistani POWs After 1971 War

    Pakistani Prisoners of War in 1971 - YouTube
    Pakistani Prisoners of War in 1971 ...



    The Pakistani Surrender at Dhaka: Brigadier SS Kanbargimath
    948 × 680 - All photos are copyrighted to Brigadier S S Kanbargimath (Retd), who was attached to the 95 Mountain Brigade during the 1971 Indo-Pak War. Brigadier Hardev ...
    POW Camp


    Independence for Bangladesh
    Indian troops are hailed as liberators as they enter Dhaka, East Pakistan, during India and Pakistan's third major conflict. The war ends with a decisive Indian victory and statehood for East Pakistan, which becomes known as Bangladesh.



    Day One: 4th December 1971, Baghdogra.
    CO[i] came to our rooms the previous evening with the news that the 'Balloon had gone up' in the western sector so we were on the next morning. Briefing at 5am. He told us he would be at the Bar later to ensure nobody had more than 3 drinks and it would be closed on time. I thought some of us may not be there the next evening but quickly banished the thought.
    After the Met briefing we got the FLOT (Forward Line of own Troops) briefing by the GLO (Army Major) to ensure we engaged targets beyond that. To our utter dismay one senior guy questioned the GLO's brief by quoting BBC news, betraying his anxiety, while the others were putting up a brave face.
    After that we checked that all Indian tags on under clothes etc were removed. Then we were given a revolver each with 12 rounds and a Bangla Deshi flag which was supposed to be shown to the Mukti Bahini if shot down. It would get us help. We also got a money belt with 200 Paki rupees.
    I flew two missions the first day which were a life changing experience. I found my anxiety vanished when my engine roared to life. The best part was firing a long burst at the Lal Munir Hat Control tower. Boss shouted Good burst laddie as the glass shattered. It was like throwing a glass on the wall in the bar.
    We lost two Hunters and one pilot, Flt Lt Andre D'Costa. Guptaji[ii] had his hydraulics shot up and a single out board drop tank hang up,. so he had to eject overhead at 10G. It was like a demo ejection.

    Flt Lt Andre Rudolf Da Costa
    8175 F(P) was the first pilot that the Battle Axes lost.
    In the evening we brought Sandra (Mrs D'Costa ) and the kids to the mess and clumsily tried to give them hope. His body was never found in the marshy area where he went down.

    Some put on the Pak radio news on a transistor and the annoucer said that Pak troops had reached Siliguri. I remember telling the Barman Dey "Dekho bahar koi paki officers ghoom raha hai to andar drink ke liye bulao"
    Tomorrow will be another day, as it sunk in to live from day to day.

    Day Two: 5th December 1971, Baghdogra.
    The second day started early too. I was to continue in the same formation led by the boss Bunny Coelho. Our deputy leader Guptaji who was shot down, on day one, was replaced as he was hurt from the ejection.
    Our targets were Ferries and bridges. No Air Opposition was expected as Dacca and other bases were subjected to a severe pounding and neutralized on the first day itself. We later learned that there was no credible Air Power retained to defend against IAF strikes. It was said that the few pilots left, fled to West Pakistan via Burma. Under this Favourable Air Situation the Army I believe made a beeline for Dacca skirting all resistance enroute and moving by day light too.
    Hunter F.56 BA209 in UK
    A classic shot of the Hunter Mk 56, the same type operated by No.7 Squadron during the 1971
    The fire power of the Hunter's 30mm x 4 Aden guns using HE ammo (not used before in practice firing on the Range) was deadly. When I fired a 3 to 4 second burst on train nothing happened for a sec and then the bogie just blew off the rails. Why was this train moving about in the day? By the time we swung around for the second pass, we drew heavy small arms fire. Some bullet holes under wing but not in any critical area.
    So this was a troop train needing to move urgently enough, to risk day movement.
    Another unforgetful sad sight was the masses of people scrambling for cover if by chance we flew over a refugee camp (there were many near the border).To see this mass of humanity trying to outrun a fighter, told it's own story.
    Perhaps to these hapless people the sound and sight of a screaming jet was associated with the imminence of death being rained on them. We would waggle wings to show our friendly status.
    Another rather funny, somehow encouraging sight would be the DSC guards, patrolling the taxi tracks and near the ORR making crude signs when we taxied past them. These signs wished the pilot luck and conveyed to him to sock it hard to the enemy. This was followed by a sharp rifle salute.
    The Hunter has two globular pods on either side of the four Front Guns ,where the links deposit after rounds are fired. These are called 'Sabrinas', I believe after some well endowed film star. After a mission when the Airmen would open the Sabrina the links would fall to the ground with a clanging sound. This would result in an impromptu Bhangra with cheering and shouting.
    I always left my jacket with the airman who helped me strap up and told him I would be back to claim it. This became a sort of ritual hand over/take over, with the take over after returning, accompanied with clapping and cheering.
    That evening when thinking of the front gun burst on the train, I realized that I may have killed some people. But when I recalled the many flashes from the ground near the target on which I was firing in a dive, I said to myself, that they were trying to get me too for those flashes were real anti- aircraft fire. It was a matter of one getting the other.So it is better to thank your stars, that you are still alive today,for tomorrow is another round in this deadly game being played by both sides for the honour and freedom of our countries. At least that is what most of felt back then.
    At the end of day two, we were told to pack our bags as the squadron. would be moving to the western sector the next day. We did not lose any pilot or airplane the second day.
    Day Three: 6th December 1971, Baghdogra-Kanpur-Hindon
    This was a day of no action.
    The CO was only told to move the Squadron to Kanpur. Further Orders would be given on reaching there. Transport support arrived early and we loaded up. Surprisingly we saw our squadron, Doc. Jackie Gupta arrive fully geared up. He announced that he would move with the squadron. This was the 'Battle Axes' josh.
    So we ferried all the available aircraft with loaded/armed Front Guns only to Kanpur. From Kanpur we were ordered to fly to Hindon, where we reached late afternoon. Unexciting day.
    Someone's brother came in from Delhi in an Ambassador car so a few of us drove off to have a meal in a Delhi's Moti Mahal, in Darya Ganj under Black Out conditions. We were clad in Flying suits (transport support had nor reached with personal baggage) .
    The owners refused to bill us and with folded hands wished us luck with the punjabi blessing 'Jinde Raho' (May you live long)
    We stayed in town with friends to return early the next day to learn that the Squadron. was to move to NAL forward base near Bikaner, Rajasthan.
    Day Four : 7th December 1971, Hindon-Nal
    That day was my mother's birthday. The first thought in the morning was that it is not a good day to buy it (get killed). However there were no strike missions on this day too.

    We received orders to proceed to NAL forward base at Bikaner. Take off was delayed due to the Hindon Fog.
    The ferry was completed early afternoon. NAL turned out to be a pretty desolate place in the Rajasthan Desert.. The Base was active as a Mystere squadron was already operating from there. The airfield had been bombed a few times in the past few days. The aircraft were parked in Blast Pens but there was no ORR or crew room. Only a small underground Base Ops Complex.

    The day ended with the Transport support Packet being given CAP (Combat Air Patrol) cover for arrival and Unloading.
    Again after take off it was escorted 100 miles out by a dusk patrol, a two ship formation with Guns, loaded up. Never seen a Packet being unloaded so fast

    Some of us were dispersed to the Signal Unit (SU) Officers mess in town while others stayed on base Fighter Controllers were nice lot. Meeting them personally created a good sense of camaraderie , for these guys gave Radar Cover for missions flown in the next few days.

    The town group was given a requisitioned civil Jonga Taxi as aircrew transport, driven by a local civilian driver named Jetharam. Wonder what was his security clearance for he could see whatever was going, as he was around the whole day.

    Extra Messing special was, you guessed it Bikaneri Bhujia.
    Day Five: 8th December 1971, Nal
    Came in early with Jetharam for briefing at the Base Ops. There were no targets allocated so we could not decide what armament should be loaded up and the drop tank configuration. It made Chief Bhasin"s work tentative. Typical order "Keep both Bombs and rockets on the cradles"
    Boss reassured Bhasin he would get the time needed to configure the planes. Then Indian ingenuity chipped in "Configure 4 aircraft with Bombs and 4 others with Rockets. Problem solved (When two 1000lb Bombs are carried under wing then only two fuel drops tanks can be attached reducing strike range. However Rocket pods allow four drop tanks to be attached)
    Later in the morning two search and destroy missions were ordered. Look for enemy Tanks on the other side of the border was the briefing.Boss decided to go with T-10 rockets with Guns always remaining loaded with HE/AP (High Explosive/Armour Piercing) Rounds

    The mission did not see anything worthwhile to report. Secondary targets were engaged.The story was the same for all missions flown that day including one flown by me.
    Nobody reported any anti-aircraft fire nor did anybody take any hits. On the Air Defense side the ORP aircraft were static the whole day. A CAP was mounted at dusk to shake off the monotony and get into the air.
    Logistics were poor. Food was a problem and operating from open Blast pens in the desert meant being exposed both to cold and heat as the day dragged on. Back at the Mess sleeping on the carpet became irritating as most of us were wondering what was the purpose of coming to this disorganized place. People wanted some action which was missing after the first two days. Even the PAF bombers did not come that night.
    Day Six: 9th December 1971, Nal
    This day started with a briefing by the O i/c Base ops who was the Mission Liason with Command Hq, and the day ended with losing our Boss who was shot down.
    Once again the missions being ordered were more of search and destroy type . Radar Cover was limited. Flying deck level made navigation difficult in the desert especially when weaving all the time. Ammo was T-10 rockets and Guns.

    No Military movement were spotted. Later we changed our tactics and decided to operate at around 5000 feet as some loiter time during the mission.This exposed us to the enemy radar with chances of drawing enemy fighters to engage us. It also improved our vision field and contact with our own radar. The scope of the mission was increased by adding this sort of offensive sweep element .
    We were rearing to engage enemy fighters if they came for us. All of us had practiced plenty of low level dog fighting in the run up to this war.
    However there was no joy. No grief, as well for our two aircraft formation could have been bounced by a formation of four or more enemy fighters. To avoid any nasty surprises we remained in our territory near the border and under Radar Cover of our SU.
    Perhaps we were looking for the thrust by the Enemy Armour which actually happened at Longewala therefore we saw nothing.

    Pilots started taking on sundry targets and sometimes the Ordnance was inappropriate for the target engaged. Nobody wanted to return with his weapon load not discharged.

    Boss was shot down near a huge bridge which he and his wing man were engaging with T-10 Rockets. He was seen to eject from a burning aircraft by his wing man. Apparently he ejected almost on the border during a 180* turn.. Enemy troops got to him first and he was taken prisoner. Had the dive direction been easterly instead of westerly, he would have ejected well in our territory after taking a hit. Lesson brought home again for future attacks on targets close to the border like Army Co-op.

    Boss came back after 18 months. He then told us that after his capture there was an heated argument amongst his captors ,with him standing right there. Some soldiers wanted to kill him there and then to avenge the death of some colleagues by his attack, while others wanted to hand him over to their superiors and claim a reward for shooting down his aircraft. Lucky for him that the latter prevailed.
    He recounted a funny story of PAF pilot's wives coming in a group to look at IAF pilots behind bars, in the POW camp.One or our guys asked them loudly " “What did you expect to see Monkeys? You should have brought peanuts to throw at us". They were embarrassed and left quickly.

    I did two useless missions that day. Fired rockets on a rather big factory type structure and the second time on a power station, both the times on the way back to base
    As Adjutant, another problem was brewing up. The Airmen were accommodated in a school building where they were told to cook their own food. This was becoming an issue as we had no cooks. Plus the men had to report before dawn and work till dusk. Looked bad.
    Officiating CO Allan Ally asked me to handle it as he was too busy with ops matters. In turn I told JWO Bhasin (one of the best I have seen) to detail some men of the non-ops trades to manage the cooking whilst I tried to get local help.
    Back to the mess. Three regulation shots and bhujia both Bikaneri and 'do aanda ka' and yet another day behind me with another looming ahead in this deadly scenario of living from day to day.

    92K views 10 years ago
    This video is about the Russian role in 1971 y. Indo-Pakistani conflict and about the Soviet-American opposition in Indian Ocean. It's a part of the Russian TV program 'Strike Force'. The translation is mine. In 1971, December, 3 the World has become an attestor to a new war between India and Pakistan.
    104K views 2 years ago
    Bullet Train Par Chaina Ne Udaya Pakistan Ka Mazakh ttps:// Baahubali Pakistani Army
    128K views 2 years ago
    Himmat Changwal

    This video is about the Russian role in 1971 y. Indo-Pakistani conflict and about the Soviet-American opposition in Indian Ocean. It's a part of the Russian TV program 'Strike Force'. The translation is mine.

    In 1971, December, 3 the World has become an attestor to a new war between India and Pakistan. At afternoon the Pakistani aviation has strike the Indian cities and airstrips. The Indian PM Indira Gandhi put the country in emergency state and gave the order to nip the aggression. Hard clashes were started on the ground in the air, and at the sea.

    Historic document: "Confident. December, 10, 1971. Moscow. For the DM Marshal Andrey Grechko. According to the information from our attaché in Delhi in the first day of conflict the Indian destroyer 'Rajput' has sunk a Pakistani submarine by depth charges. In December, 4 and 9, the Indian fast boats have destroyed and damaged 10 Pakistani battle ships and vessels by the P-15 missiles. In addition 12 oil storages was burned in flame. The Commander of the Military Intelligence Service Gen. Pyotr Ivashutin".

    In the same day the Soviet Intelligence has reported that the British Naval group with the leadership of 'Eagle' carrier went closer to the territorial waters of India. The Soviet Government immediately sent a unit of battle ships under the leadership of counter-admiral Vladimir Kruglyakov for helping to the fraternal country.

    Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers:

    "I received the order from the Chief Commander 'To not allow access of the American Navy to the Indian military objects'.

    - On the way of American Navy stood the Soviet cruisers, destroyers and atomic submarines equipped with anti-ship missiles.

    Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers:

    "We encircled them and I have targeted the 'Enterprise' by missiles. I have blocked them and didnt allow enclosing to Karachi, nor to Chittagong or Dhaka".

    On the Soviet ships then were only the missiles with limited to 300 km range. Thus, to be sure the rival is under the hindsight the Russian commanders have had to take the risk of maximal enclosing to the American fleet.

    Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers:

    "The Chief Commander has order me: 'Lift the subs when they (the Americans) appear!' It was done to demonstrate, there are all the needed in Indian Ocean, including the nuclear submarines. I have lifted them, and they recognized it. Then, we intercepted the American communication. The commander of the Carrier Battle Group was then the counter-admiral Dimon Gordon. He sent the report to the 7th American Fleet Commander: 'Sir, we are too late. There are the Russian atomic submarines here, and a big collection of the battleships'.

    The war was then two weeks long, and it has finished by Pakistani forces surrendering.

    Day Seven: 10th December 1971, Nal
    This day was not very different from the last two as far as Operations were concerned, except for one incident which is still vividly etched in my memory and I still wonder about

    We got a new CO, Wg Cdr N C Suri, who was in the DASI Team before being assigned this job. He was a very experienced Hunter jock, having commanded a type Squadron. I was designated to be his wing man.

    In the morning we were visited by the Governor of Rajasthan Shri Barkatullah Khan and his charming wife. They brought buckets of Rasagollas as a gift. However they were off the mark when it came to what we were doing operationally which was good enough for us.. In an impeccable accent, Mrs Khan congratulated us for creating History. Apparently she thought we were the Hunter Squadron which had put to the sword the enemy Armour thrust at Longewala. The Film 'Border' was later made on this heroic action by the guys operating from Jamnagar.

    One mission was flown by me that day.We were on a Tac/Recee in the area near the town of Bhawalpur in enemy territory. I spotted dust being kicked up which was linked to some vehicle movement. I maneuvered to position for an attack. In the dive my gun safety catch was unlocked and my finger ready to squeeze the trigger. When almost in the firing range, I clearly saw that the moving target was a black Car. I did not fire but made a low pass. telling my wing man to hold fire and also buzz the still moving car which he did.
    Usually on hearing the sound of jets, vehicles immediately stop and the drivers expecting an attack, get away from them to avoid being killed, But not this one, it just kept going. I made another dive attack but just could not get myself to fire. A one second FG burst would have blown up this car to smithereens. I called 'dis engaging' and asked my wing man to join up as we headed back..
    To this day I wonder who could have been at the wheel of that car so oblivious of death screaming above their heads.Perhaps some pretty Damsel on her way to a rendezvous, lost in her own thoughts, unaware of the raging war.

    The new boss was clearly unhappy with the task assigned to the Squadron.. He was instrumental in getting HQ to reconsider our deployment and the next day we learned that we were slated to move to Pathankot, where the real action was.
    Some Airmen were complaining that it was difficult to work without proper food. It became my unpleasant duty to make everyone 'fall in' and remind them that we were at war and we had to take the problems in our stride and work till we dropped. Pilots were flying missions after popping Rasagollas. Refusal to work in the war Zone was a serious offense swiftly punishable by a Field Court Martial.
    I have to confess that earlier; JWO Bhasin had used similar words and requested me to strengthen his position by repeating the same." After all I have to get work out of them", he said. .
    Nothing like a seasoned Warrant Officer on the side of a young Adjutant..

    By the evening it was confirmed that we were going to move the next day.
    Jetharam drove us back to the Mess, via the market place. He treated us to hot tea and Kachuries as a crowd gathered. It was his way of saying "Thank You"
    When back to base after the war, this story about that talk between Bhasin and me leaked out. At a victory Rum Punch some airmen showed their anger but things settled down when I said we had no choice but to keep things going and apologized for that empty threat.
    Their anger quickly dissipated after I did a couple of arms locked Chug Lug (Bottoms Up) with the angry Airmen.

    Day Eight: 11th December 1971, Nal-Hindan-Pathankot
    The aircraft were readied for the ferry to Pathankot via Hindon. Front Guns were armed with a four drop tank configuration. Take off was delayed due to Fog in Hindon.
    One aircraft had to be ferried to the Repair Depot at Kanpur after 'Patch' repair to the Bullet holes. It needed major doing up. Surprisingly one of the Senior Operational Pilots wanted to go He was the guy who had seen Boss eject from a burning aircraft. .Normally this job would be given to a Junior guy and there were many available. CO let him go. He never Re-joined the Squadron till after the day, the war was over. The war exposure affected this guy so much that he committed Suicide a few months later. Nobody knew about Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) those days, nor did this guy get any Medical Help as far as we knew. In fact all of could have used some post war counseling, but we settled down each in his own style with some taking more time ie throwing more glasses on the wall in the Bar.

    Finally we reached our destination late afternoon.

    We learned that the two Hunter Squadrons operating from there since the beginning of the war had taken heavy losses and were sent to Hindon the same day for R&R. Five pilots killed in one of the Squadrons and Two lost by the other. They had been in a tough fight. In comparison we had one killed, and one taken POW with one safe Ejection

    We settled down quickly in the crew room of one of the Squadron's that had ferried out. Things were pretty organized.The base was being bombed multiple times a day,so procedures during an attack had to be followed to the hilt.
    There was a Pilot Dispersal Plan in place. Not more than six pilots were to stay in one building, so that casualties would be reduced in case the building took a direct Bomb hit.
    This was also ensure, there were guys available to fly the next day.
    I was amongst the lucky six who were to stay in a Hotel in town.It was called the Airlines Hotel .We landed up there late evening to be allotted three rooms for the six of us. We ordered a good meal which was a luxury after NAL. As adjutant I signed the bill. and the six of us knocked off on a comfortable bed in a heated room.
    It was un-said but surely everyone knew that tomorrow would be a day perhaps more challenging than any we had seen thus far.
    Day Nine: 12th December 1971, Pathankot
    We left our Hotel early when it was still dark and reported to the Squadron. The bosses were huddled in the underground Base Ops complex which was the nerve Centre of all Operations.
    When a mission was ordered the pilots selected for it would be driven to the Base Ops for Briefing. After that they remained there in an separate room and did not get to speak with anyone who was not a part of their Mission.There was a senior escort with them at all times after the mission briefing.
    When the time came to go we were taken straight to the aircraft from the base Ops. This ensured we did not discuss our mission details with any one. This 'need to know' policy was to prevent information being passed to enemy intelligence, suspected of infiltrating our security.
    During previous missions it was reported that. the enemy knew the mission call sign, frequency and had given R/T calls to split the formation over the target, thus losing mutual cross cover. Enemy fighters were able to shoot down one formation leader, after his wing man was told to turn the wrong way. There was radio jamming too.
    Boss decided that any maneuver ordered by a mission leader, would be by using our short name and not mission call sign. My only mission that day was an bomb attack on a enemy Railway Yard of a town close to the border. The aim was cause enough damage to the yard so as to disrupt movement of supplies by rail, to their forward line of troops, during the night.
    We struck late afternoon, to give less time for repair.Encountered heavy anti-aircraft fire like they were expecting us, but no enemy fighters were spotted.. Our formation was escorted by two Gnats to cover our tail and take on enemy fighters, in case bounced. If something like that happened our 'Jettison live' guard was open. Jettison bombs and engage was the briefing. Keep going towards home after neutralizing enemy positional advantage. It is not heroic to engage in a extended dog fight in enemy territory and be unable to make it back, running short on fuel or worse having to eject in enemy territory.
    Ordnance was 2x1000 pounders and front guns. A two pass attack was made with the Gnats circling above. When finished we went buster power and hugged the ground. The escort formation had a tough time keeping up.. There was a CAP over base for our recovery.
    My aircraft had no bullet hits.Wing man's fin had some proximity damage by shrapnel from a AA shell burst. Gun Camera Film showed a direct hit by the bombs and a punishing long FG burst in the second pass. Debrief over it was back to the crew room.
    Returned to the Hotel,after dark, ton avoid being seen by the public, wearing G-suits. Matters were becoming standard. Order some good hot food a couple of shots, eat and off to bed, privately thanking our stars, to be back.
    Day Ten: 13th December 1971, Pathankot
    This day was more or less like the previous one except that I did not lead a mission but flew wing man to Boss. The target was a Radar Tower which was engaged in the morning. The briefing pictures showed it looked like a Water Reservoir . It was said to be heavily defended as it was vital to the enemy in detecting incoming Army Support missions, in the 'Chicken Neck Area' where a raging Ground Battle was going on.
    Two SU-7's had taken bad hits, with one Ejection, trying to neutralize this target the previous day. Ours was going to be a two ship formation armed with Rockets and Guns. We would be escorted by two MIG 21's. A Hunter had the same fire power as a SU-7, but would present a smaller target to the Anti Aircraft Batteries.
    After a section Take off we were on our way with the MIGs covering us.Visibility was pretty limited. Boss was an ace Navigator and made a flawless run from IP (Initial Point) where I moved to a Tactical Starboard position from the Open Battle. We pulled up on dot at the Pull-Up Point (PUP). Boss rolled in and I followed. The target appeared bang on at the nose. The MIG leader called "Tail Clear".
    We fired our Rockets in sequence and then my concentration was not to lose Boss in that poor visibility. We turned around and pulled up for the FG Run. Perfect maneuver and the Tower appeared in the front wind shield and I was able to track it with minimum correction. I had lagged a bit to squeeze in a longer burst after Boss pulled out. I was able to press home a longish burst with my pipper riding the target.

    "Catch Up" was the only call by boss, I replied "Contact" as we started our home run. MIG leader again gave a cool call "With you Tiger Leader, Tail Clear"
    Recovered at Base un eventfully.
    No hits on any of the aircraft. Perhaps the poor visibility helped . Have to say Boss's excellent Positioning allowed me to make a pretty good attack. After seeing the Gun Camera film, boss looked at me and just nodded his head and said go and relax. We were later told that intelligence reported that the Tower was rendered Non-Ops for a couple of days.
    Back to Squadron, I asked the Armourer, how many rounds were fired from my kite? (Airmen called AIRCRAFT Kites). He said 386, and that Boss had already called from Base Ops, and asked him. I should have thought so. Knowing that and seeing my tracking on the film, would allow Damage assessment. With Four guns firing at 80/rounds/Sec/per gun that made it a little more than a one 'sec' burst.

    That afternoon some Major from the Army Hq. Called me to ask how I was. He said my father in Bombay, wanted to know. This was the state of communication.
    Back at the Hotel the Locals had come to know that some Pilots were staying there. People gathered outside with Parathas, milk/ lassi and sweets. So much affection shown, made it a moving experience. We mingled freely receiving their good wishes and blessings. There was not even a guard outside. I suppose those days Wars were fought on the Battle field by Men and not like today,by raining death on innocent women and children.
    Day Eleven: 14th December 1971, Pathankot
    We were getting the news from the east that the Army was making good progress and Dacca was being bombed by Daks and Caribous. This war may end soon, was the rumour going around. Hearing such things one cannot help thinking 'Hope I am OK when that happens'.
    Anyway another day was on us and a job had to be done
    The Hunter has an Armament Safety Plug which makes all electrical armament circuits live when connected. It is plugged in just before TaxI out to ensure safety,in that no Armament is discharged in-inadvertently on the ground. The final action which makes the weapons LIVE to be fired is the retraction of the under carriage after take off.
    I was to again fly today as wing-man to Boss in a strike on another Rail Head.
    We finished the Briefing. The TOT was around noon. Start up , Taxi out and a line up for a right echelon section takeoff was uneventful. We were rolling for take off with the nose wheel off the ground when I felt a lurch to the left, and the aircraft started pulling that a way. I applied rudder to correct and yanked her off the ground seconds ahead of Boss, who perhaps did not notice what was going on to his right.
    My mind was racing as Boss put his wheels up and started to pull away.On Instinct I put my under carriage up,so as not to lag and got back into position. We continued on our mission with no R/T call by me, reporting the suspected Tyre blow out.No call from ATC too,perhaps they could see that well from the Bunker they were operating from.
    The tester burst went off OK. (Short Gun Burst fired after crossing the border to check circuits are functional ). I maintained the Open Battle Position in the run in from IP. In the Pull up I fanned out as this was a area target and could be simultaneously tracked.
    The attack was executed with precision with direct hits and long FG runs fired in parallel dives taking on different targets.My Bombs hit one end of the huge yard and the guns ripped open a few of what looked like storage sheds.Boss gathered up the formation by throwing a turn into me as I slipped into an open battle position. MIGs were on the ball as Boss called 'Buster' and we hugged the deck on the way home.

    After peel off at base,our Escort MIGs set up a CAP for our Landing as there was an Air Raid Warning in place. On down wind I transmitted" Suspect LEFT Tyre burst, will be landing on Right Edge , request assistance". Due to the Air Raid Warning there was no time for any fly past inspection, by ATC, who were anyway located in a Bunker
    Landed and managed to control the aircraft and keep it on the concrete and cleared the runway.. ATC said "Jump out and get away from the aircraft." I stood up on the seat with the Ejection seat Pin still out, managed to slide down over the Nose and drop to the ground in front of the aircraft.
    No fire Tenders arrived, due to the Air Raid Alert. Luckily I was OK and there was no Fire at the shredded out tyre with an exposed rim, nor on the opposite side where heavy differential braking had occurred .
    Not healthy to be on the Runway during an Air raid, I started running away from my aircraft. Memories of four Mirages tearing up their Target with long walking bursts were fresh enough to make me run as fast as I could. There is nothing more vulnerable than a sitting duck in the open during an Air Raid.
    The Raid did not happen so an ALR jeep picked me up after the 'All Clear' was sounded.
    We went thru the usual de-brief My attack Film showed a good job done. No hits taken by anybody.
    Afterwards I was sipping a cuppa when Boss called me aside. “Tell me boy, do you have some sort of meter or Tyre pressure guage in the cockpit? How could you know in the Air, that your Left Tyre has burst?”.
    I just kept looking at him.
    “Tell me when did it burst?”
    “On take off” I sheepishly replied.
    He went ballistic, calling me a Mission crazy mad man who retracted a burning wheel into the tyre bay of a fully armed aircraft. You could have blown up your aircraft, he repeated a few times before telling me to get the hell out of his sight.
    Later in the crew room we discussed this amongst us and I realized how close I may have come to killing myself. I should have kept the wheels down and aborted the mission.But then Boss would have had to abort too, as he could not go without a wing man. A senior pilot had gone alone, a few days ago.He was pounced upon by enemy fighters and shot down quite easily, after being sandwiched.
    Looking back, I feel this was no dumb display of bravado but a reflex action in a hyper charged environment where most of us wanted to get the job done..
    All I remember clearly is that I wanted to get back into position. Lagging by a wing-man is a cardinal sin.
    Boss put up my name for a Vir Chakra that day but did not tell or congratulate me. That was another day behind us.
    Day Twelve: 15th December 1971, Pathankot
    A fighter Pilot's biggest Nightmare is not getting killed but having to Eject in Enemy territory and that too near the Target which has been just attacked. Capture by angry civilians is about the worst thing that can happen to someone shot down.
    All of us were required to memorize a personal background cover up story, in case captured. A rather useless ploy to sell to angry people who have been just bombed by you and your colleagues.They are going to let you have it, story or no story.
    Anyway I had decided I would pretend to be a 'Parsi Bawa' as I could speak Gujarati and hope like hell that would spare the thrashing I believe there were Parsi Pilots in the PAF.
    We had heard stories about Pilots being caught by the civilian mob after ejection. One guy had his own gun put to his head and the trigger pulled. Luckily the bloke had not loaded it, and the bullets were shoved into some pocket of his G-suit.The crowd shouted 'Russian Russian' as they beat him. This Anglo Indian could not speak Hindi to save his skin. The local Police arrived and took him away before too much damage was done.
    Another guy was shot down in a dog fight over an enemy Airfield He was captured by local guards. PAF Officers came over in a jeep and took him to their crew room with his guard. There he met the pilot who had shot him down,a senior Squadron Ldr. They shook hands and our young Flying Officer was de-briefed about his mistakes which got him shot down. He was told that, he fought well for his experience. Bad luck that his adversary was far more experienced.
    This guy was treated well, till he was taken away by the MPs (Military Police) who were not so well disposed to Pilots to start with, leave alone a downed enemy.
    Some guys were not so lucky, for today we learned from our Intelligence that one pilot who was shot down whilst attacking a Rail Head was captured by a civilian mob. They beat him mercilessly and dragged him to the town square. There he was mutilated, tortured and finally his throat was slit. This was cold blooded Murder.
    After hearing this, some of us decided not to Remove our Ejection Seat Safety Pin.This would prevent us from Ejecting in a dire situation, when panic could set in. Better to go down with the aircraft.
    Boss told us we could take on Targets of Opportunity after engaging our primary Target. That meant a sort of free for all He thought we would vent off some of our anger that way.
    Today I flew two identical missions with our target being the same Rail Head in a town. close to the border. The first mission was uneventful but let me talk about the second. I was to lead a two aircraft strike with 2x1000 lbs Bombs and Guns My No. 2 was a Mumbai boy and so was I. We were escorted by Gnats lead by my course mate, Son Of Rock Bedi, Fate had decided to pitch in our lot for this daunting task.
    We struck late evening with a dusk recovery. One cannot screw up when the attacking such a large Target. Our Bombs were on the button, as Son of Rock shouted encouragement circling above the yard.. I remember him screaming “Chak de Chak de” on R/T.
    In the second pass I opened up my Guns on some built up structures which could be in use for anything. I could see flashes of Anti-aircraft fire coming from the ground, so I gave a pretty long burst. One can see AA fire in front, as you enter the dive, but as you come closer the firing stops. Perhaps the gunners anticipating your burst, scamper for cover.
    No 2 called 'No Fire' and caught up, with me in the turn. Son Of Rock positioned slightly above and behind us. I called 480 to give the Gnats some leverage, as I hit the deck. Past experience had shown they had problems keeping up LL if we went Buster and flew in excess of 500Kts.
    I must admit that if any fear of getting shot/bounced ever went through my mind, it was at the time of a get away, after the attack was executed. A over whelming ' get the hell out of here' feeling would come over me. This would vanish on first contact with friendly Radar, as we entered our own territory, squawking the designated IFF code (Identify Friend or Foe). It was a relief to hear Radar's call ' Blood Stone Leader Identified , Your tail is clear' to which I replied 'ALL Four'. Meaning nobody was left behind.
    After landing I saw that I had taken hits under wing and near the tail cone from a small caliber AA fire. Thank God for self -sealing fuel tanks.
    In the de-brief Boss asked my No.2 why did he not fire his Guns? He bluntly replied he will not fire unless he can positively identify the target as Military. He added that some guys were fighting a personal war, but he had nothing personal to settle with the enemy. No comment from Boss. This goes to show the latitude given to Individual belief or principles, even during a War.
    Boss then asked me what I had fired upon? I said built up structures near the Yard. Possibly storage sheds. Boss gave me a hard look, and told me for the record, Opportunity Targets meant Military Targets.. 'Yes Sir' was my reply, and we left.
    As the days rolled on the crowd outside the Hotel would swell in the evening and wait to meet us, patiently standing the cold. This evening we were blessed by an old lady. who had brought 'Krah Parsad' for all of us after offering prayers for our well being.
    Day Thirteen: 16th December 1971, Pathankot
    Throughout the last thirteen days no Pilot in our Squadron was bounced and had to engage in Air combat. Perhaps one of the reasons was that an Airfield Strike was not given to us.
    No complaints on that, for enemy Airfields were pretty well defended and their Radar cover did not allow any surprise element.They were always waiting at action Stations when the Strike came as we had seen others take losses. Most Airfield strikes were also engaged by enemy fighters both in the Approach and Get Away phase.
    When attacking an Airfield certain points had to be kept at the back of your mind. During an attack, if AA (Anti Aircraft) fire was encountered, no worry about enemy fighters when pressing home the attack No AA fire will come up if their own fighters are milling around in the same sky. Therefore lack of AA fire, meant their Fighters are on patrol
    Ironically we had to revise these tactics on the last day, though we did not know it would be so, at the time of flying the mission. I was to be No.2 in a four aircraft formation strike on a enemy Airfield. Boss was to lead. Ordnance was 2x1000lbs each. The two MIG Escort were armed with a single Gun and wing mounted Air to Air Missiles.
    We took off in pairs, with Boss throwing an Orbit for the MIGs to get into position and then set course. Speed 420 kts which afforded maneuver ability both in a turn and the vertical plane, if bounced.
    Boss's TOT was to the second and the two of us pulled up for the single pass, Bomb Attack. MIGs pulled up behind us creating some lateral separation so that they could see our tails and would able to roll on to any bogey, who came between us and the MIGs.
    AA was seen so the attack was pressed home without worrying about being bounced. My Bombs were un-loaded on a Hangar whilst Boss went for the Intersection.
    Nos. 3 &4 continued skirting the Air field, keeping low so they could clear the tails of both the Hunters and the MIGs above them. We dropped our load at 3000 ft AGL, turned hard to avoid Debris Damage and continued the dive to get Low.As we hit the deck, I could see Nos 3& 4 pulling up on my right and the MIGs above them, so cross cover was maintained.
    Called “Tail Clear”, as Boss threw a turn into 3&4 as they pulled out, crossed over right to left. behind and slightly above us and reversed. This allowed them to quickly join up in a open battle position. The MIGs who had kept an eye on everything going on below them, dropped one each, outside the flanks of our formation as we set course for base.
    We were keeping our eyes peeled. Must have flown about 20 miles when the MIG leader called ' bogey 4 o clock, high, 2000 yds. Boss yelled 'Hard Starboard'.We turned level giving her the Gun, whilst the MIGs pulled up.
    The bogey, a single Mirage had to engage in a turning fight with the Hunters or go for the MIGs. Anyway he would have been sandwiched. Fighting 6 to 1 no matter how good your aircraft maybe is not healthy, even in your own air space.
    He did what was the best in his situation.Turn 180 from his position opened up his burners and vanish.. Boss called Reverse' and the formation turned towards home.
    Why the single interceptor.? Or we saw only one.? Perhaps the Mirage was trying to sneak in a missile attack but could not get a 'look down' lock on due to the terrain. The important thing was he was spotted and engaged, before any damage was done.
    Uneventful recovery.Back at the Base Ops AOC called us and said Good job Boys. The war is over. No Debrief.. The All missions on Standby signal had come from WAC, when we were still in the Air.
    Later in the day, came the Declaration of an Unilateral Cease Fire, by the PM of India.
    Back to the Hotel when it was still day time. The people in the street, stopped to cheer when we arrived Even the waiters thumped our backs. Lots of hand shakes all around. Generally the public appeared 'Happy' that it was over.

    A distinguished looking Sikh Gentleman came over to the Hotel. He introduced himself as the President of the Pathankot Truck Owners Association. He invited us to Dinner at his place that evening. Many prominent Business folks were present there. Lots of praise and kudos. Lots of Scotch too.
    We hit the Sack that night just happy that it was over and we were lucky to come through in one piece.

    The Battle of Air Superiority

    In the war between India and Pakistan in 1965 air superiority was never contested, air power was largely restricted to ground support and the air war came to an early halt as a result of shortage of spares and weapons imposed by international embargo.
    Tony Mason
    On the eve of 1965 war, IAF had 466 combat aircraft against 203 of the PAF.2 PAF had 16 aircraft in East Pakistan and the rest in West. Against this IAF had deployed 176 aircraft in the East to take care of the Chinese and East Pakistani threat. Thus, IAF had 290 aircraft facing West Pakistan. Numerically this gave IAF a superiority of 1.4:1 against PAF in the West and 11:1 in the East.
    The 1971 inventory of the IAF is assessed as 625 combat aircraft, while the PAF strength is estimated at about 275. After providing day-by-day accounts of air defence, counter-air close support and maritime air operations, the HoW compares aircraft losses on both sides, and attempts a cursory analysis of the air war.Feb 20, 2018

    Did IAF win 1971 war? Pak scholar says no. Ex-Indian Navy ...

    Quantitatively, India has an edge over Pakistan as the Indian Air Force (IAF) is the fourth-largest air force in the world after the US, China, and Russia with around 1,70,000 personnel and 1,500 aircraft. However, the IAF currently has a ratio of 1.5 pilots per aircraft as against 2.5 pilots per aircraft for the PAF.Sep 7, 2020

    Where Does Indian Air Force Stand Against Pakistan After 55 ...

    On 6th Sept PAF launched pre-emptive attack against four IAF air bases and three radar stations, i.e. Pathankot, Adhampur, Halwara, Jamnagar airfields and radar stations at Amritsar, Firozpur and Jamnagar. PAF’s attack over Pathankot met with great success. PAF claimed to have destroyed 7 MiG-21s, 5 Mysteres, and 2 Packet transport aircraft. IAF admitted to losing 2 MiG-21s, 6 Mysteres, 1 Packet, 1 Gnat as destroyed and damage to 2 Gnats and 1 Mystere. These aircraft were destroyed because they were not sufficiently dispersed and camouflaged. Some of them had just landed back after operational sorties and were being refuelled.
    One may like to explain it away as an unkind hand of fate. In the East, PAF attacked Kalaikunda air base. PAF claimed destroying 14 Canberra, 1 x Packet and damage to 4 Canberra and 3 Hunters.3 IAF admitted loss of 4 Canberra and 4 Vampires. This happened because Kalaikunda did not have any dispersal facilities. Here the aircraft had to operate from a large apron.One may like to explain it away as an unkind hand of fate. In the East, PAF attacked Kalaikunda air base. PAF claimed destroying 14 Canberra, 1 x Packet and damage to 4 Canberra and 3 Hunters.3 IAF admitted loss of 4 Canberra and 4 Vampires. This happened because Kalaikunda did not have any dispersal facilities. Here the aircraft had to operate from a large apron.
    Nur Khan claimed air superiority for PAF by the end of 6th Sept, the first proper day of air war itself. He went on to claim air supremacy by the end of 8th Sept. No other Air Chief has made such hollow claim either before or after. What actually transpired was a half-hearted counter air battle by fighters of both sides on 7 Sept. In the face of heavy attrition both sides stopped using fighters by daylight, for counter air battle.6 Both the air forces preferred the option of night bombing utilising Canberra bomber. Canberra bombing though causing occasional damage and serving to harass the personnel was ineffective in winning the battle of air superiority. But it was persisted with since night interception capability was rather limited. “In 1965, night interception proved most frustrating for the PAF when often the F-104s failed to locate low flying IAF Canberras. Streaming tactics used by IAF with multi-pronged attacks and constant changes in altitude and heading strained PAF”.7On the Indian side MiG-21s (T–74) had recently been inducted and were not yet night capable for interception. Night flying of Gnat aircraft was limited due to poor cockpit lighting. The night fighter Vampires were already obsolete. Therefore, for all practical purposes, both the air forces having gone at each other on 6th and 7th Sept, gave up any further fighter effort as they had suffered unsustainable attrition.8 The exception being a four Mystere fighters strike over Pasroor on 12 Sept by the IAF.9 During the limited air superiority battle IAF suffered an attrition rate of 20 percent whereas PAF suffered 12.5 percent attrition.10
    The Pak Air Chief continued to express strange notions of air superiority. The PAF, barring the night attacks by the Canberras, totally gave up its forays into Indian territory. It concentrated on air defence of PAF airbases and certain amount of support to its army coming under attack at Lahore and Sialkot. Whereas at Khem Karan where Pak armour had launched its major offensive, Indian troops of 3 Cavalry and 4 Div did not come under any air attack. If PAF had achieved air supremacy as claimed, it could have decimated Indian Army’s opposition to its major armour thrust – which some claimed was to isolate Amritsar by capturing Beas Bridges. Pak lost 108 tanks here, quite a few in working condition. Nevertheless, Nur Khan claimed air supremacy over Pak air space, even though it was the IAF which attacked Pak armour and its supplies. IAF fighters continued to operate over Pak territory and air space.
    t is true that IAF lost 36 aircraft destroyed and 17 damaged on ground due to enemy air strikes.

    A very daring and innovative idea of the PAF with regard to use of commandos to destroy IAF’s aircraft on ground, where fighter aircraft are always most vulnerable. It was definitely a maverick idea full of surprise but fortunately for the IAF it failed due to insufficient planning, training and last minute coordination between the PAF and the commandos. As the war balloon went up Pakistan launched the commandos without adequate preparation, therefore, this novel idea, failed miserably before it could inflict physical damage. Out of 180 commandos dropped around Halwara, Adhampur and Pathankot only 11 managed to escape back.12 Rest were either killed or captured. Such operations are either spectacular success or catastrophic failure. In the case of Pakistan though many termed it a failure, it nevertheless had an adverse impact on IAF’s operation and did reduce the IAF’s potential.
    IAF by resorting to rigid deployments in the face of over exaggerated threat from China had forsaken the tremendous advantage of numbers.
    overall IAF had a better control of air. Thus it is IAF and not PAF which won the battle of air superiority in 1965 Indo-Pak war.
    95K views 8 years ago
    NDTVWalk The Talk: Recently honoured by Bangladesh for his role in the 1971 operations in its war for Independence against Pakistan, Lieutenant General JFR Jacob shares his thoughts on the war and the part he played to secure the country's freedom. Watch full interview: ...
    39K views 4 years agoReplug : A 2012 interview with Lt. Gen.(Retired) J.F.R. Jacob, the hero of 1971 India-Pakistan War who was instrumental in ensuring the historic public surrender by Pakistan Army that had led to the liberation of Bangladesh. He chronicles extraordinary events of bold tactical and strategic decisions take

    General Jacob keeps his parents’ ketubah (Jewish marriage certificate) (Shira Schoenberg)
    NEW DELHI, INDIA -- In a dimly lit apartment here filled with antique furniture, Buddhist statues and old Indian paintings sits a war hero. He is Major General Jack Frederick Ralph Jacob, the Jewish general who commanded the Indian army through the 1971 war with Pakistan that resulted in Bangladeshi independenceJacob embarked on what was to be a 37-year career in the military, the highlight of which was negotiating the 1971 surrender of Pakistan. He retired from the army in 1978, after becoming its highest ranking Jew, but remained involved in politics, with close ties to the National Party (BJP). He served as governor of Goa and Punjab in the 1990s before retiring to Delhi.

    A soldier’s General, Field Marshal Sam Hormusji Framji Jamshedji Manekshaw crafted India’s greatest military victory in the 1971 Indo-Pak war that created just not history, but also a new nation. Affectionately called “Sam Bahadur”, Manekshaw, 94, was the architect of many a military triumph, but his finest hour came when Pakistani forces were vanquished in 14 days flat. And Bangladesh was born.

    Russian Help in 1971 indo pak war

    Uploaded on Aug 12, 2010
    This video is about the Russian role in 1971 y. Indo-Pakistani conflict and about the Soviet-American opposition in Indian Ocean. It's a part of the Russian TV program 'Strike Force'. The translation is mine.

    In 1971, December, 3 the World has become an attestor to a new war between India and Pakistan. At afternoon the Pakistani aviation has strike the Indian cities and airstrips. The Indian PM Indira Gandhi put the country in emergency state and gave the order to nip the aggression. Hard clashes were started on the ground in the air, and at the sea.

    Historic document: "Confident. December, 10, 1971. Moscow. For the DM Marshal Andrey Grechko. According to the information from our attaché in Delhi in the first day of conflict the Indian destroyer 'Rajput' has sunk a Pakistani submarine by depth charges. In December, 4 and 9, the Indian fast boats have destroyed and damaged 10 Pakistani battle ships and vessels by the P-15 missiles. In addition 12 oil storages was burned in flame. The Commander of the Military Intelligence Service Gen. Pyotr Ivashutin".

    In the same day the Soviet Intelligence has reported that the British Naval group with the leadership of 'Eagle' carrier went closer to the territorial waters of India. The Soviet Government immediately sent a unit of battle ships under the leadership of counter-admiral Vladimir Kruglyakov for helping to the fraternal country.

    Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers:

    "I received the order from the Chief Commander 'To not allow access of the American Navy to the Indian military objects'.

    - On the way of American Navy stood the Soviet cruisers, destroyers and atomic submarines equipped with anti-ship missiles.

    Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers:

    "We encircled them and I have targeted the 'Enterprise' by missiles. I have blocked them and didnt allow enclosing to Karachi, nor to Chittagong or Dhaka".

    On the Soviet ships then were only the missiles with limited to 300 km range. Thus, to be sure the rival is under the hindsight the Russian commanders have had to take the risk of maximal enclosing to the American fleet.

    Vladimir Kruglyakov, the former (1970-1975) Commander of the 10th Operative Battle Group (Pacific Fleet) remembers:

    "The Chief Commander has order me: 'Lift the subs when they (the Americans) appear!' It was done to demonstrate, there are all the needed in Indian Ocean, including the nuclear submarines. I have lifted them, and they recognized it. Then, we intercepted the American communication. The commander of the Carrier Battle Group was then the counter-admiral Dimon Gordon. He sent the report to the 7th American Fleet Commander: 'Sir, we are too late. There are the Russian atomic submarines here, and a big collection of the battleships'.

    The war was then two weeks long, and it has finished by Pakistani forces surrendering.








    48th Anniversary of decisive Indian victory in 1971 - Page 2 - Bharat  Rakshak

    decisive Indian victory in 1971 ...

    Pakistan Supported, Trained Terror Groups: Pervez Musharraf

    NDTV - ‎1 hour ago‎
    Lahore: Former Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf has admitted in an interview that Islamabad supported and trained groups like the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) in the 1990s to carry out militancy in Kashmir.

    CIA and ISI directors in the Mujahideen training camp in Pakistan, 1987
    Front row, from left: Major Gen. Hamid Gul, director general of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), Director of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Willian Webster; Deputy Director for Operations Clair George; an ISI colonel; and senior CIA official, Milt Bearden at a mujahedeen training camp in North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan in 1987.




     [1]Dawood stays in Karachi under ISI cover, Tunda claims


    post script:-[1] "An earlier conversation at the White House in June 1971 is even more revealing. Nixon and Kissinger discuss the possibility of Indian intervention to liberate East Pakistan – and are frustrated by the thought. It’s also on record that Nixon sought China’s help to fend off India from intervening in East Pakistan to enable Pakistan to prevail. But China, to its eternal honour, declined. And Bangladesh was born."
    click and read:-(wikileaks)

    The circumstances leading to his killing and the subsequent disposal of his body in the sea has left everyone guessing on the authenticity of the story.

                The news report says that the operation to eliminate Osama took place at Abbotabad, a garrison- town very close to Islamabad. The report adds that the hide out , a three – storeyed  mansion , is only a stone’s throw from a Leading Military Academy.

                None in the Government of Pakistan , none in the Military , none in the civil administration or police were aware of the operation and yet , we, the so called intelligentsia , have to believe it.

                Okey, we concede the story. But let us look back into the history of this most dreaded personality, Osama.

    Who is Osama bin Laden?

    According to Ronald Reagan, Osama was a FREEDOM FIGHTER .

                This is what the  Wikipedia says on Osama.

                “After leaving college in 1979 bin Laden joined Abdullah Azzam to fight the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan and lived for a time in Peshawar.From 1979 through 1989 under U.S. Presidents Carter and Reagan, the United States Central Intelligence Agency provided overt and covert financial aid, arms and training to Osama’s Islamic Jihad Mujahideen through Operation Cyclone,and the Reagan Doctrine. President Reagan often praised the Mujahideen as Afghanistan’s “Freedom Fighters.”

                “Operation Cyclone was the code name for the United States Central Intelligence Agency program to arm, train, and finance the Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan, 1979 to 1989. The program leaned heavily towards supporting militant Islamic groups that were favored by neighboring Pakistan, rather than other, less ideological Afghan resistance groups that had also been fighting the Marxist-oriented Democratic Republic of Afghanistan regime since before the Soviet intervention. Operation Cyclone was one of the longest and most expensive covert CIA operations.”

                Michel Chossudovsky, Professor of Economics, University of Ottawa in his post Who is Osama bin Laden? dated 12 September, 2001, had this to say.

                “A few hours after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon, the Bush administration concluded without supporting evidence, that “Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda organisation were prime suspects”.

                “CIA Director George Tenet stated that bin Laden has the capacity to plan “multiple attacks with little or no warning.”

                “Prime suspect in the New York and Washington terrorists attacks, branded by the FBI as an “international terrorist” for his role in the African US embassy bombings, Saudi born Osama bin Laden was recruited during the Soviet-Afghan war “ironically under the auspices of the CIA, to fight Soviet invaders”.

                “In 1979 “the largest covert operation in the history of the CIA” was launched in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in support of the pro-Communist government of Babrak Kamal.

                “With the active encouragement of the CIA and Pakistan’s ISI (Inter- Services Intelligence), who wanted to turn the Afghan jihad into a global war waged by all Muslim states against the Soviet Union, some 35,000 Muslim radicals from 40 Islamic countries joined Afghanistan’s fight between 1982 and 1992. Tens of thousands more came to study in Pakistani madrasahs. Eventually more than 100,000 foreign Muslim radicals were directly influenced by the Afghan jihad.”

                “ The Islamic “jihad” was supported by the United States and Saudi Arabia with a significant part of the funding generated from the Golden Crescent drug trade.”

                If according to USA , Osama is a Freedom Fighter, the world has to believe it. If according to USA , Osama is a Terrorist , the world has no option but to believe it, again.

    Mujahideen wanted to nuke Surat, Yasin Bhatkal tells cops


    Indian Mujahideen wanted to nuke Surat, Yasin Bhatkal tells cops
    Yasin himself was the bomb expert of Indian Mujahideen and the outfit's bomb-making capabilities have been affected after his arrest, say intelligence officials.
    NEW DELHI: The prospect of terror organisations getting their hands on a nuclear device has long concerned both security agencies and thriller writers. Now, it seems Indian Mujahideen India chief Ahmad Zarar Siddibappa alias Yasin Bhatkal too was thinking along similar lines. Bhatkal recently told interrogators that he was planning to explode a nuclear bomb in Surat, according to sources.

    Bhatkal was arrested on August 27 in Pokhra, Nepal and has been constantly questioned by the NIA, Intelligence Bureau and police of several states. TOI has accessed the interrogation report.

    Bhatkal told the interrogators that he had asked his Pakistan-based boss, Riyaz Bhatkal, over phone whether the latter could arrange a small "nuclear bomb". According to him, Riyaz responded, "Anything can be arranged in Pakistan".

    "Riyaz told me that attacks can be done with nuclear bombs. I requested him to look for one nuclear bomb for Surat," Yasin told the officials.

    "Riyaz told me Muslims would also die in that (nuclear bomb blast), to which I said that we would paste posters in mosques asking every Muslim to quietly evacuate their families from the city," Yasin said, according to the report.

    However, the plan could not be initiated since Yasin was tracked by the IB and arrested in August.

    Surat has always been on Yasin's radar and he had also played an important role in preparing 27 bombs along with Atif Ameen in 2008 when serial blasts took place in Delhi, Jaipur and Ahmedabad.

    Yasin himself was the bomb expert of Indian Mujahideen and the outfit's bomb-making capabilities have been affected after his arrest, say intelligence officials.

    The IM leader has also given details of army level training of IM cadres and other terrorists in Pakistan, which shows that advanced training is given to terrorists with the help of Pakistan. Elaborating on training schedule for IM members in Pakistan, Yasin said, "Training included morning PT, weapon handling and explosive/IED training, pistols to revolvers, AK-47 etc. Indian weapons like LMG, SLR and sniper rifles and so forth".

    Yasin further stated that "we were also exposed to handling of explosives like PE3A (black colour explosive), C4, C3, TNT, etc. Besides this, we were also exposed to fabrication of IEDs with the help of ammonium nitrate, hydrogen peroxide, gelatin stick and so forth. This training schedule was for 50 days".

    For all the plans and active operations, Yasin remained in touch with Riyaz Bhatkal. Riyaz, according to sources, had sent Yasin Rs 17 lakh in 2013 out of which his personal expenses every month were Rs 25,000.

    A senior intelligence official said, "We have been coming across different kinds of IEDs over the years. The reason is that terrorists are undergoing all kind of advanced army level training in Pakistan with the help of ISI. And if terror outfits have access to nuclear bombs, then it is very dangerous for us (India)". 
     comment:- America knows all this through NSA snooping of everybody's phones ;but remains quiet;wishing - let Pakistan and India destroy themselves with nuclear bombs  ; [ so that America's supremacy remains in 21st century with only china to be  tackled next]

    Pakistan and state sponsored terrorism - Wikipedia, the free ...
    Eco-terrorism · Anti-abortion .... India has been consistent in alleging that Pakistan was involved in training and arming ... as the Taliban's virtual emissaries abroad, arranging training for Taliban fighters, ..... "Report: Bin Laden hid in Pakistan compound for more than three years – Haaretz Daily Newspaper | Israel News".

    26/11: 'America sacrificed Mumbai' - News › News
    Nov 21, 2013 - 'What America could figure out is that this finally was an American with an American passport operating in Pakistan who had access to Al ...
     File:Reagan sitting with people from the Afghanistan-Pakistan region in February 1983.jpg
     President Reagan meeting with Afghan Mujahideen leaders in the Oval Office in 1983

     The joke of the year

    Pakistan and India: The Nuclear Threat - The New York Review of ...
    Nov 21, 2013 - Confronting the Bomb: Pakistani and Indian Scientists Speak Out ... the scientist largely responsible for India's atom bomb, was born in Bombay on ... When he was on vacation in India in 1939 the war broke out and Bhabha ...

    1. Times of India ‎- 2 hours ago
      On the eve of Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's visit, the United States has quietly re-opened the aid spigot to its troubled ally, lately ...

    Indo-Pak nuclear war to 'end civilization' with famine: study | NDTV ... › All India
    Dec 10, 2013 - A nuclear war between India and Pakistan would set off a global famine ... Even if limited in scope, a conflict with nuclear weapons would wreak ...

    Indian Mujahideen group capable of striking from Pakistan

    1. Times ‎- 1 day ago
      India has always maintained that Pakistan has been waging a proxy war against us. And now a Pentagon report vindicates this. Exposing Pakistan's proxy war ...
    1. Microfinance Monitor‎ - 1 day ago

      US Deputy Defense Secretary Ashton Carter, center, looks over the damage to the U.S. Consulate in Herat, Afghanistan, Sept. 14, 2013. Consulate personnel fought off a Taliban attack a day earlier. (DOD photo by Glenn Fawcett )
      US Deputy Defense Secretary Ashton Carter, center, looks over the damage to the U.S. Consulate in Herat, Afghanistan, Sept. 14, 2013. Consulate personnel fought off a Taliban attack a day earlier. (DOD photo by Glenn Fawcett )

      Pentagon Report Nails Down Pakistan in Proxy War with India

      Deputy Defense Secretary Ash Carter addresses service members as he surveys the damage to the U.S. Consulate in Herat, Afghanistan, Sept. 14, 2013. A day earlier, troops fought off a Taliban attack. (DOD photo by Glenn Fawcett )
      India on Tuesday welcomed the US Defense headquarters Pentagon’s report that nailed down Pakistan’s role in using militant groups in waging a proxy war against India, which is any day militarily superior.
      The Pentagon, in its report submitted to the US Congress accused Pakistan Islamabad for providing a safe haven for terrorists to fight against India and also Afghanistan and clearly stated that Pakistan got used to these tactics to counter the superior Indian forces.
      “Afghan- and Indian-focused militants continue to operate from Pakistan territory to the detriment of Afghan and regional stability. Pakistan uses these proxy forces to hedge against the loss of influence in Afghanistan and to counter India’s superior military,” said the report on its page 95 assessing Pakistan’s role in Afghanistan.
      India currently offers training to ANSF personnel across its defence establishments the Indian Government is committed to expand this programme, though India does not provide direct military support or training in Afghanistan, the report said.
      The Pentagon Report also said for the first that Pakistan-based militants were behind bombing the Indian consulate in Herat in May, and even named the terrorist group Lashkar-e-Toiba as the culprits.
      Responding to the report, Indian External Affairs Ministry said that India welcomes the assessment of Pentagon. “If international community is now acknowledging the fact that terrorism derives support from Pak, its something that we welcome,” Syed Akbaruddin, the Official Spokesperson of Ministry of External Affairs, said extending support to the report.
      He further said, “We have been of the view that we do not need to segment terrorists… We need to focus on terrorism as an evil scourge against whole of mankind. We have always held that the issue of terrorism should not been segmented,” he told reporters in New Delhi.
      The Pentagon report, running into more than 100 pages, for the first time openly accused Pakistan that is home to Lashkar-e-Toiba. Here is the original text from the report, Pages 95 &  96:
      “Afghan- and Indian-focused militants continue to operate from Pakistan territory to the detriment of Afghan and regional stability. Pakistan uses these proxy forces to hedge against the loss of influence in Afghanistan and to counter India’s superior military.” (Page 95 on Pakistan) 
      “In May of this reporting period, the Indian consulate in Herat Province was attacked by a group of four heavily armed militants. The attack came three days prior to the swearing in of the new Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi. Prime Minister Modi is perceived as being close to Hindu nationalist groups, a fact that may have played into the timing of the attack. In June, the U.S. Department of State announced that the terrorist group Lashkar-e-Taiba was responsible for the attack. Following the attack, former Afghan President Karzai denounced the attack and made strong statements supporting relations with India.” (Page 96 on India)

      Share this:

      Pakistan uses terror groups to combat Indian army: US

    2.  Pakistan protests against Pentagon report
      US Defence dept says Pakistan using militants against India, Afghanistan; FO summons US ambassador; terms allegations baseless; says facts mutilated
      Mariana BaabarThursday, November 06, 2014
      From Print Edition
      405 3 2 1

      ISLAMABAD: Adviser to Prime Minister on National Security and Foreign Affairs Sartaj Aziz summoned US Ambassador Richard Olson to the Foreign Ministry and clearly told the envoy that the recent comments in a report by the US Department of Defence against Pakistan were not only “unwarranted” but “unsubstantiated allegations”.

      The Foreign Office has said that the allegations were levelled without any evidence and the facts were mutilated.On Monday, the US Department of Defence sent a report to Congress under the title “Progress Towards Security and Stability in Afghanistan,” in which it was alleged that terrorist “sanctuaries” inside Pakistan were operating against Afghanistan and India.

      While there were no newspapers published in Pakistan on Tuesday, the Indian media had highlighted the report and many anchors had based their evening programmes on these ‘allegations’.

      Sartaj Aziz did not mince his words and was quoted by the spokesperson at the Foreign Office as saying that, “The Government of Pakistan takes serious exception to comments contained in the report,” which interestingly also notes Pakistan’s cooperation with the US in areas of mutual interest.

      However, the same report also points to unsubstantiated allegations of the existence of terrorist “sanctuaries” or that proxy forces are operating from this country against Afghanistan and India.

      The spokesperson said that such allegations were of particular concern at this point when the Pakistan government had launched comprehensive operations against militants in North Waziristan.

      “The military operation Zarb-e-Azb has been broadly welcomed internationally, including in the US. The operation has successfully eliminated terrorist hideouts and is directedagainst all militants, without any distinction. We therefore hope that the issues will be seen in their correct perspective,” the spokesperson added.

      The US has publicly and in closed door meetings consistently complained about the fact that Pakistan Army was selective while trying to rid North Waziristan of all different groups of militants and needed to take an even-handed approach.

      US Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan Daniel Feldman, in a meeting with a group of journalists recently in Islamabad, also hinted that the operation had not succeeded in taking out all militants saying that “It is in the process of being done and more has to be done.”

      Online adds from Washington: The report came just days after the militants, believed to be affiliated with Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan or TTP, carried out an attack near the Wagah border crossing between India and Pakistan killing over 60 people.

      “Afghan and Indian-focused militants continue to operate from Pakistan territory to the detriment of Afghan and regional stability. Pakistan uses these proxy forces to hedge against the loss of influence in Afghanistan and to counter India’s superior military,” the report, which is an assessment of the current situation in Afghanistan, claimed.

      The report also alleged that Pakistan was providing “sanctuary” to militants of the Haqqani network, a group reportedly considered by Pakistan to be part of a moderate faction of the Taliban.

      According to the report, the Haqqani network “remained the most potent strain of the insurgency and the greatest risk to U.S. and coalition forces due to its focus on high-profile attacks…they will likely remain the most significant threat to coalition forces in the post-2014 non-combat mission, especially if they are not denied sanctuary in Pakistan.”

      1. Pak runs special trains for Hafiz Saeed meet - Hindustan ...
        2 days ago - ... Saeed-led JuD, Pakistan government is running two special trains to transport people to Lahore for the terror group's two-day congregation.
      2. Pakistan to Run Special Trains For Terror Mastermind Hafiz ...
        3 days ago - The Pakistan government will run two special trains to transport people to Lahore for the two-day congregation of his banned terror ...
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        1 day ago - In another sign of official patronage to Hafiz, Pakistan government reportedly is running two special trains to transport people to Lahore.
      4. India condemns Pak support to Hafiz Saeed's rally in Lahore ... › IndiaNorth
        1 day ago - In a sign of official patronage to JuD, Pakistan government is running two special trains to transport people to Lahore for the terror group's ...

      Kashmir will be freed, 1971 will be avenged: Saeed(terrorist)

      Imtiaz Ahmad , Hindustan Times  Islamabad, December 05, 2014
      First Published: 22:04 IST(5/12/2014) | Last Updated: 14:01 IST(6/12/2014)
      Mumbai terror attacks mastermind Hafiz Saeed criticised New Delhi on Friday for conducting what he termed were sham elections in Kashmir and said “the battle of Indian subcontinent is inevitable”.
      Saeed also asked why Prime Minister Narendra Modi was “visiting Kashmir again and again”, saying this was part of a larger conspiracy to silence the people of the state.

      The Jamaat-ud-Dawah (JuD) chief addressed a party convention in Lahore on a day alleged Pakistan-sponsored militants staged a string of attacks in the Valley.

      “Ghazwae Hind is inevitable, Kashmir will be freed, 1971 will be avenged and Ahmedabad Gujrat victims will get justice Insha Allah,” Saeed tweeted.

      Thousands of people arrived in Lahore this week to participate in the two-day convention that began at the Minar-e-Pakistan grounds on Friday. Many of those attending are volunteers and members of the JuD recruited after the outfit carried out relief work in the country through its social welfare wing, the Falah-e-Insaniyat Foundation (FIF).

      The BJP wanted to win in Kashmir by foul means to give an impression to the world that Kashmir was not a disputed territory, said Saeed. “We will not let that happen.”

      The JuD chief said he wanted to get all Pakistani political parties on one platform so they could have a common policy on Kashmir.

      “We should work in a manner so that there is no confusion over what our stand is,” he said.

      Saeed said his organisation would continue to “help their Kashmiri brethren on the other side of the border”. In his hour-long speech, he also vowed to extract revenge from India for the role he said New Delhi played in Pakistan’s split in 1971.

      “No one can stop us in our just struggle,” he said. “They are conspiring against us and India wants us to abandon our nuclear programme”.

      The JuD chief said the US and Indian governments were trying to silence him, and praised Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif for raising the Kashmir issue in the United Nations without being cowed by the pro-India lobby in Islamabad.
      "If India can send troops to Afghanistan to help the US, then Mujahideen have every right to go to Kashmir and help their brethren," he said.

      The two-day JuD congregation, held with logistical support from the Pakistan government, concluded Friday.
      The Nawaz Sharif government had run two special trains from Karachi and Hyderabad in view of the JuD event.
      'Mainstreaming of terrorism'
      India said Pakistan's support to UN-designated terrorist Saeed and his JuD was "nothing short of mainstreaming of terrorism."

      "This was an event which took place in national monument in Pakistan. It was an event (for which) large number of police personnel were deployed.

      Terrorists stormed an army school in Peshawar. Over 100 students killed after armed men open fire in the private school. Stay with TOI for live updates

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