Saint Thomas Christian names
Their names are both biblical and inherited and are passed on from one generation to the next. The male names are patronymic and the female names are matronymic. Usually a person’s name will include the names of their parents and grand parents or that of a very close blood relative. At the same time, these names will not have names of saints or of great religious personalities or of political leaders or of foreign names. Family names are also included and all parts of the name are always in Malayalam. Foreign family names are shunned. So a Nasrani can easily be identified by name, from among other Christians. Even today, this pattern of giving name is visible in almost all Syrian Christian denominations.
HistoryBefore the arrival of the Portuguese in May 1498, Saint Thomas Christians of Kerala were known to belong to the Margam, a word when translated is ‘The Way’.
In 1599, Catholic Archbishop Alexio-de-Menezes called a synod at Udayamperoor, in which Christians in and near the kingdom of Cochin attended. Here he decreed that St. Thomas Christians should abandon their ancient naming conventions. They were specifically told not to use the name Easow because it was holy. But, the Nasranis (St. Thomas Christians) just ignored this command and had continued with their ancient customs. Even today they do follow this method of naming. Even the Nasranis that did convert to Catholicism (Syrian Catholics) still use the "old margam" names. The Latin names are shunned
During the 20th century some names were created by joining two or more syllables. For example Abey (AB), Aji (AG), Bibi (BB), Biji (BG), Jessy (JC) and so on. Today, several Syrian Christians name their children by Indian names like Deepak, Rahul, Neethu, Asha etc. But by the 21st century biblical names began to reappear. Thus names like, Isaac, Joshua, David, Ezekiel, Timothy, appeared on the scene. Generally they still follow the system detailed below.
Formation of a nameA name will include the baptismal name (generally the person is known by that name ) and the name of the father. The practice of appending the first name of father to the child's name instead of family name is also followed by Hindus of South India. Examples are given below.
Male namesTheir names traditionally have a threefold structure.
- Family or house name – Father’s name – Baptismal name
Another form is that the name will include the baptismal name (generally the person is called by that name) and the name of his father. The practice of appending the first name of father to the child's name instead of family name is also followed by Hindus of South India. Examples are given below.
As an example, the name, Thomas Mathew is similar to Shimon bar Jona. which means Shimon son of Jona. In the same way, Thomas Mathew means Thomas son of Mathew. Thomas Mathew is to be addressed as Thomas and not by his father’s name.
- Here the correct spelling is ‘’’Mathew’’’ and not ‘’’Matthew’’’ as in English.
Their bishop receives a new name on consecration. This also has a threefold structure.
Female namesAs an example, the name, Rachel Mathew, means Rachel daughter of Mathew. After marriage, father’s name is replaced by the husband’s name. Rachel Mathew is to be addressed as Rachel and not by her father’s name.
Another naming pattern is Anita Rachel Mathew where Anita is a formal given name chosen by the parents, Rachel is the biblical and baptismal name and Mathew is father's name. The given first names can be of any origin and many Syrian Christians give Indian names like Neethu, Deepa etc. to their children.
Use of initialsWhen initials are used, abbreviations of the family name or house name (name of the plot where the parents of the child live at the time of birth) and the father’s name are given before the given name. For example, the name P.M. Thomas means Palakkappilly (family name), Mathew’s (father’s name) son, Thomas (given name). His sister’s name will be P.M. Rachel.
Other formsWhen family name or house name need to be used, it comes first followed by the given name. As an example, P.M. Thomas is, Palakkappilly Thomas Mathew or Palakkappilly P.M.Thomas.
HypocoristicHypocoristic (Pet names) are often used in a familiar and friendly manner in informal situations. In more formal situations, the given name is to be used instead. This alludes to the fact that using a person's pet name betokens familiarity. Pet names for Syrian Christians can be Hindu, Arabic or Biblical in nature
Order in giving names
For BoysMale names are patronymic.
- The first born is given the name of his paternal grandfather.
- The second born is given the name of his maternal grandfather.
- The third born is given the name of one of his uncles.
For girlsFemale names are matronymic.
- The first born is given the name of her paternal grandmother.
- The second born is given the name of her maternal grandmother.
- The third born is given the name of one of her aunts.
ChangesThe last name (father’s name) changes with each generation. The family name would also change if members who move out of their consanguineal family homes with the changing ownership of property upon the death of the patriarch decides to adopt a new name. However, several families claim that they are ancient and their family names have remained unchanged for centuries.
The Syrian Christians who have migrated to Western nations tend to choose surnames which can either be the family name or the father's name will be used as a surname.
Common namesThe mother tongue of Nasranis is Malayalam. So the names given in the following lists are in phonetic spelling. But the first one, given under ‘’Other names,’’ shows how that name is usually written in English. The two lists include the names of a few common names that are in use, and they are not comprehensive. To know the correct pronunciation of these names, see Malayalam script or Tiberian vocalization.
|Avraaham||Abraham, Avraham, Averaan, Averaachen, Aviraa||Abraham|
|Chaacko||Chacko, Yaaqov, Yaakub, Yaakob||Jacob|
|Eappen||Eapen, Esthappan, Punnoose, Uthup||Stephen|
|Ittyavirah||Ittiyerah (= Itty-Avira)||Issac Abraham|
|Iyob||Iyochen, Ivachan, Yoppan||Job|
|Kurian||Kurien, Kora, Kuriaan, Koruth, Kuriakkose, Kuruvila||Kurian, Cyrus, Kyriakos(Greek), Cyriac|
|Mathaayi||Mathai, Mathen, Mathoo, Mathew, Mathualla||Matthew|
|Piyliypaos||Philipose, Peely, Pothan, Poonan||Philip|
|Pathrose||Peter, Pathappan, Peeri||Peter|
|Paulose||Paul, Poulose, Paulo, Piley||Paul|
|Thoma||Thomas, Tom, Thommy, Thommi, Thommen, Mammen, Oommen, Thampan||Thomas|
|Varughese||Varghese, Varky, Varkey, Vareethu, Geevarghese, Geevarughese, Vakkachan||George|
|Yohannaan||Yohannan, Johannan, Lonan, Lonappan, Ninan, Ulahannan||John|
|Yosef||Ouseph, Oauseph, Yoseph, Iype, Outha, Ittoop, Kunjeppu, Joppan, Eapan||Joseph|
|Zacharria||Zacharia, Skarriah, Karriah, Karriaan, Cheriyan, Kuncheria, Scaria||Zachariah|
|Aaleyaamma||Aeley, Aeleykutty Kunjaeley, Kochaeley, Elisa, Elia, Elacha, Eliamma, Elsy||Elizabeth|
|Accamma||Achaama, Acca, Reba, Raca||Rebecca|
|Annamma||Annamma, Hanna, Anna||Hannah|
|Saramma||Saaramma, Saara, Sarah||Sarah|
|Sosamma||Sosaamma, Susamma, Susy, Sosa, Susan||Susan|
|Thresiamma||Thresia, Teresa, Treesa, Terisa, Kochuthresia||Teresa|
Names are sometimes selected from Malayalam language, and are used as pet names, like
- Chinnamma, Kunjamma, Pennamma, Ponnamma, Thankamma.
Table of kinship terms
|Family circle||Term of reference||Term of Address|
|Grandfather||valiyappachen, Appappan||Valiyappachaa, Appappa|
|Grandmother||Valiyammachi, Ammama||Valiyammachi, Ammame|
|Father||Appachen, Appan, Chachan||Appachaa, Appa, Chacha|
|Mother||Ammachi, Amma||Ammachi, Amme|
|Uncle||Achachan, Ammavan, Valyappan, Cheriyappan, Perappan||Achacha, Ammava, Valyappa, Cheriyappa, Perappa|
|Aunt||Ammayi, Valyamma, Cheriyamma||Ammayi, Valyamme, Cheriyamme|
|Eldest brother||Valiyachayan, Achayan, Chetettan||Valiyachayaa, Achayaa, Chettetta|
|Elder brother||(name) Achayan, Achachan, Chettan||(name) Achayaa, Achachaa, Chetta|
|Eldest sister||Kochamma, Chechi, Valiya ammamma, Pengal||Kochammei,Chechi, Pengalei|
|Elder sister||(name) Chechi, Pengal||(name) Chechi, Pengalei|
|Infants (both sexes)||Kunju, Koch||Kunjei, Koch|
A syrian christian takes his own name which is the name of his paternal grandfather, the name of his father and his house or ‘tharavad’ name.
He may make any of these his surname and hence he may be G.J. Olikara, ‘G’ for Gevarghese (name of paternal grandfather), ‘J’ for John(name of father) and ‘Olikara’ for name of his ancestral house from where the line of his paternal family descends. He may be the son of O.G. John, ‘O’ for Olikara(name of the house), ‘G’ for Gevarghese (name of father) and ’J’ for John(name of paternal grandfather).
It was customary that the eldest son be given the name of his paternal grandfather and the eldest daughter the name of her maternal grandmother. The second son bears the name of his maternal grandfather and the second daughter bears the name of her maternal grandmother.
As a general rule, the Syrian Christians bear names which are biblical. It is interesting to record that despite Decree XVI of the Synod of Diamper of 1599, which forbade the use of old testament names, for 400 years after this date the Syrian Christians still continued using such names, though through usage they became Indianised.
Some common Syrian Christian names are:
For Men: (Thomma, Thoman, Mamman, Oommen) from Thomas, (Chacko, Yakob) from Jacob, (Pathros, Pathe, Pathappan) from Peter, (Yohannan, Lonan, Ninan) from John, (Mathai, Mathan, Mathu, Mathulla) from Mathew, (Yesoph, Ouseph, Ipe) from Joseph, ((Koshy, Easo) from Joshua, (Abragam, Itty) from Abraham, (Ittack) from Isaac, (Lukose) from Luke, (Philipose, Pothan, Pothen, Poonen) from Philip, (Paulose, Piley) from Paul, (Chandy, Chandi, Idichandy) from Alexander, (Iyob, Iyoben, Eapen) from Job, (Cheriyan,
|Cyriac||[Roman]. =Cirieco||=||Kurian- Kuriakose|
For Women: (Mariam, Maria, Mariamma) from Mary, (Akka, Rabka, Raca, Akkamma) from Rebecca, (Rahel, Rahelamma) from Rachel, (Susanna, Sosa, Sosamma, Achi, Achamma) from Susan, (Saramma) from Sara, (Elspeth, Elisa, Elia, Elacha, Eliamma) from Elizabeth.
This ‘nativising’ of root Greek, Latin and Hebrew names can be seen in all the ancient chrurches like the Ethiopian, Slavic as well as the Armenian ones.
In kerala, the Syrian Christians are known by the distinguishing nomenclature of ‘Nasrani Mappilas’. They also shared with the Nairs some honorific titles. The word ‘Tharagan’ or ‘tariff collector’ is a title that some families bear. Similarly, ‘Panikkar’ which denotes proficiency in arms is a title borne by certain Nasrani families. In and around Quilon, there is a group of families claiming descent from the fourth century Syrian immigrants and this group has the title ‘Muthalaly’ in common among them.
Many Syrian Christian families followed a unique custom that they shared with the kerala Hindus of adopting a male member into their family on his marrying a girl from theirs. The boy would then carry the family name of his wife. This would mostly happen when a family had no male heirs to carry on the family name.
The most popular name among the Syrian Christians was George. This was on account of the popularity of this name in Asia Minor where the tomb of George exists in Jaffa, Palestine. He was revered as a ‘Punyavalan’ in kerala.
However in recent times it is normal for the child to take the surname of his father or to use the family name as his surname. The discarding of Biblical names to be replaced with Sanskritised names is also being seen in increasing frequency.
Names, Origin and their Malayalam variants
|Abraham||Hw. Avraham||אַבְרָהָם||Avira, Avaran, Avarachan|
|Alexander||Gr. Alexandros||Αλεξανδρος||Chandy, Idiculla|
|Cyril||Gr. Kyrillos||Κυριλλος||Korula, Kuruvilla|
|David||Hw. Dvd||דוד||Tharian, Thavu|
|Francis||Lt. Franciscus||Pranji, Pranju, Porinju|
|George||Gr. Georgios||Γεωργιος||Varghese, Varkey, Vakkachan,|
|Issac||Hw. Yitzchaq||יִצְחָק||Ittack, Itty|
|Issac Abraham||Ittyavirah, Ittiyerah|
|Jacob||Hw. Ya’aqov||יַעֲקֹב||Chacko, Yakob|
|John||Hw. Yochanan||יוֹחָנָן||Yohannan, Ulahannan, Lonan,|
|Joseph||Hw. Yosef||יוֹסֵף||Yesoph, Ouseph, Outha, Ipe,|
Ittoop, Kunjeppu, Joppan
|Joshua||Hw. Yehoshu’a||יְהוֹשֻׁעַ||Koshy, Eenashu, Easow|
|Mathew||Hw. Mattityahu||מַתִּתְיָהוּ||Mathew, Mathai, Mathan,|
|Paul||Lt. Paulus||Paulose, Paili, Pailo|
|Peter||Gr. Petros||Πετρος||Pathros, Pathappan|
|Philip||Gr. Philippos||Φιλιππος||Philipose, Peeli, Pothan|
|Sebastian||Lt. Sebastianus||Devasy, Devasia, Devasianos|
|Stephen||Gr. Stephanos||Στεφανος||Eapen, Esthappan, Punnoose, Uthup|
|Thomas||Ar. Te’oma||Thomma, Thampan, Mamman,|
|Zachariah||Hw. Zekharyah||זְכַרְיָה||Cheriyan, Kuncheria, Karia, Scaria|
|Elizabeth||Hw. Elisheva||אֱלִישֶׁבַע||Elisa, Elia, Elacha, Eliamma|
|Mary||Hw. Miryam||מִרְיָם||Mariam, Maria, Mariamma|
|Rebecca||Hw. Rivqah||רִבְקָה||Akka, Raca, Akkamma|
|Rosa||Ger. Rose||Orotha, Kunjorotha|
|Susan||Hw. Shoshannah||שׁוֹשַׁנָּה||Susanna, Sosa, Sosamma, Achamma|
|Theresa||Sp. Teresa||Thresia, Therthia, Theyya, Iyya,|
Saint Thomas Christian names - Wikipedia
Why some people in India have Christian names while they see themselves as lower caste Hindus?
Why some people in India have Christian names while they see themselves as lower caste Hindus?https://www.quora.com
1. Syrian Christians of Kerala
The Oldest Christian community in the subcontinent, with roots dating back to the 1st century AD. Believed to be converts from the elite Hindu classes, who also intermarried with Persian/Middle eastern Christian migrants to the Malabar coast in the 1st millennium. They use the 'Syriac liturgy' in their rites and prayers (Syriac - sister language of Aramaic, the language spoken by Jesus). They hail from the Central and South central regions of Kerala, but now spread all over the state as well as the urban centers of the country. Majority of the Syrian Christians belong to the Roman Catholic Church, with a large minority belonging to both Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches. The Syrian Christians are a Malayalam speaking group, and have traditionally been considered an upper caste in the Kerala society.
The Syrian Christians have traditionally used Syriac-Malayalam names such as Chacko, Kurien, Cherian, Chandy, Ooommen, Maammen, Matthai, Maani, Varghese, Poonnen, Ittyavira, Uthup, Inashu, Eapen, Ousep etc. The influence of the Catholic Portuguese on the Syrian Christians resulted in names such as Devassya (Sebastian), Dummini (Dominic) Praanchi/Porinchu (Francis) etc. Anglicized names of Biblical origin became common following the introduction of the English educational system in the 19nth century. This include names such as Jacob, Thomas, Matthew, Joseph, Abraham, Philip, Paul, George etc.
Syrian Christians have a custom of naming their children after their parents. The eldest male gets his paternal grandfather's name, and the second son, his maternal grandfather's. The same applies for female children as well (they inherit their grandmother's names). Of late, many of the Syrian Christians adopt an Indian name as their first name, which is followed by their Christian surname or father's name. Examples include Deepak Joseph, Rahul George, Rohan Varghese etc.
2. Goan Christians and Mangalorean Catholics
The second oldest group of Christians in the country, the Goan Christians are both descendants of Portuguese intermarriages with the local population, and Jesuit missionary converts from various Hindu castes including the Brahmins, Kshatriyas and others that took place in the 16nth and 17nth centuries. The Mangalorean Catholics belong to the same group, who migrated out of Goa to Mangalore a couple of centuries ago. These Christians speak Konkani, and enjoy the same social status as their caste Hindu Brethren.
The Goan Christians have absorbed several European customs in their lifestyle, owing to their long association with the colonial Portuguese who occupied Goa for nearly 5 centuries. The Goanese Christian names are almost entirely Portuguese, with predominance of surnames such as Gonsalves, Pereirra, Da'costa, Da'silva, D'Cruz etc. Some of them also use Anglicized Christian names as their first name.
Eg: Peter Perreira, Jose' Gonsalves etc.
3. Local Converts by Western Colonialists:
The Third group of Indian Christians in the chronological order, these groups constitute the major share of the country's Christians, who originally hail from the lower caste groups. These local converts to Christianity can be divided into:
a) Converts by Portuguese missionaries to Latin Roman Catholicism
These groups comprise the coastal community of fishermen in the southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. There's also a small Marathi speaking group around coastal Bombay. These folks were converted to Catholicism in the 16nth and 17nth centuries by Jesuit missionaries under the leadership of St Francis Xavier. In Kerala, this group is called the 'Latin Catholics', in order to distinguish them from the older community of 'Syrian Catholics'. In Tamil Nadu, the converts come from other oppressed castes such as Nadars - a caste of palm climbers, apart from fisherfolks. Typically, these groups of Christians are categorized under 'Other backward castes' by the Govt. of India.
The Latin Catholics also use western names, mostly with Portuguese flavors like that of the Goanese Christians. There are many who also use Indian names as their first names. Eg include Silvester Rodriguez, Dileep Fernadez etc. The Nadar Roman Catholics use full Tamil names, or Christian names combined with Tamil names or Caste name etc. Eg: Remigius Nadar, Rosylin Soosa Pakiam, Lurduraj Jebaratnam etc
b) Converts by British missionaries to Anglicanism and Protestanism
This group largely constitute the oppressed classes/lower castes who were converted by the British missionaries in the 19nth and 20th centuries. They have a Pan Indian presence, with relatively high concentrations in regions of British colonial presence such as urban centers and hill stations of North and South India. All local Christians of Northern India fall under this category. Large number of lower castes from Kerala and Tamil Nadu, particularly Ezhavas, Naadars, Dalit groups such as the Pulayas, Parayas, Chakiliyaars and tribes such as the Mala Arayas have been successfully converted by Anglican missions in the 1800s. The churches are presently organized as CSI (Church of South India) and CNI (Church of North India). British Missionaries have also succeeded in converting very few members of the upper castes such as Bengali Brahmins, Reddys of Andhra Pradesh, among others, who too are part of the above mentioned 2 churches.
These Christians either maintain their Hindu surnames with their Christian first names (in case of high caste converts) or adopt fully Western or Christian names. Some also use an Indian first name with a western/christian Surname. Eg: Rohan Gladwyn, Edward Johnson, Robert Singh, Peter Banarjee etc, Vimal Livingston etc.
4. Anglo Indians
Anglo Indians are a small minority in India who are the descendants of British residents that intermarried local Indians. Anglo Indians typically belong to the Anglican church (now CNI and CSI) but some also adherents of Roman Catholicism as well. Anglo Indians can be found in regions of traditional British presence and influence such as Urban centers (places of British administration), hill stations etc. Eg: Bombay, Calcutta, Chennai, Lucknow, Bangalore, Quilon, Cochin, Shimla, Ooty, Dehradun, Nainital etc.
The Anglo Indians mostly speak English, and can often handle a local Indian language. They follow the Western culture and lifestyle, and use completely western/British names. Eg: William Dungston, Rosylin Campbell, Nadiya Tailor, Christopher Smith etc.
5. Recent converts to Christianity
The latest group of Christians in the country, the recent converts are those who became Christians in the early and late 20th century, the vast majority hailing from the scheduled tribes category (tribal communities). They can be further classified into:
a) Northeastern tribal converts to Baptist and Pentacostal churches
Northeast Indian Christians are largely the descendants of those tribal folks converted to Protestant and Evangelical Christianity by independent western Missions, particularly the American Baptist missions of the early and mid 20th century. Such neo-converts are presently the majority group in states such as Meghalaya, Mizoram and Nagaland, and are a growing minority in other regions of the Northeast such as Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and the hills of Assam. There's also a significant presence of local Indian missionaries, particularly from the southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, who work among the tribal groups of the region.
The Northeastern Christians are one of the most westernized indigenous groups in the country, who are quick to adopt changes in lifestyle, culture etc. Many of the Christians here still retain their traditional tribal customs that are practiced alongside their Christian faith. Their names largely remain non Christian, with a few using western first names with their native surnames. Eg: Zhapuvi Legasy, Jamiti Jamir, Tokape Tacoza, Wetso Kezo etc.
b) Tribal converts in Eastern and Central India
Tribals of the forested plateaus of Jharkhand, Chatthisgarh, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, such as the Gonds, Mundas, Santalis among others, have been targets of both independent western missions and local Christian missions (based in Kerala and TN) for several decades. A large minority of them embraced the Christian faith in the mid and late 20th centuries, who practice their tribal way of life alongside their newfound faith. They belong to all sects of Christianity such as Pentacostal, Evangelical, Protestant and Roman Catholic churches. Such Christians retain their original Hindu names, and barely adopt Christian names. Eg: Sathish Munda, Mahesh Soren etc.
c) Arbitrary conversions from other religions to Pentacostalism
Such conversions are arbitrary and have a pan indian distribution, cutting across caste, class, religion, region or language. These converts embrace Christianity owing to the influence of other devout Christians. They are common in colleges, schools, work places and other organizations etc, and are exceptionally high among the youth groups. Such converts either retain their original names, or adopt a Christian name as per their choice
Christian Migration TO KOTTAYAM
There were few Christians in Thekkumkoor state till the early part of the 14th century based at Kadathuruthy. For various reasons some Christian families lead by Pulikal family from Poonjar migrated to Kottayam and settled nearby Eruthical temple belonging to Thekkumkoor Raja. Large scale migration of Christians from Kuruvilangad, Kaduthuruthi and Poonjar occurred in the 16th century and they settled nearby Thazhathangady, Pazhayachanda, and Valiaangady. As the population grew, need for church aroused because the migrants still had to visit their mother churches to satisfy their spiritual needs. Arrival of (Fr.) Cherian Mathen Kathanar from Kadathuruthy helped it. Thekkumkoor Godavarma Raja was glad to provide the land free of cost, when the Christians approached him, very soon the construction of Valiyapally started and completed in 1550.
There were two types of Christians (thekkumbhaghar meaning southern (knanaya Christians) and Vadakkum bhaghar meaning northern) worshipping at Valiyapally. Soon difference of opinion merged out, that united worship became impossible. So Vadakkumbhaghar lead by (Fr.) Ouseph Kathanar met Thekkumkoor Raja explained him the plight. The generous Thekkumkoor Raja donated them 82 cents of land near to Valiyapally, thus leading to construction of a new church named after Mother Mary. During those times only one Church was allowed to be built in a Kara(territory) ,so the boundary of Veloor territory was extended till where the church stands.The church was completed in AD 1579, also known as Kottayam Cheriapally. The Kumbagopuram(Cuppola) of St. Peter right above the Madbaha (Santum Santorium) was completed in AD 1590.
The above poem is narrated during church festival commemorating the foundation of the church. The meaning is as follows:
According to Malayalam calendar (Kollavarsham) 754, 6th month, Makaram, 13th Thursday(i.e. 1579 AD) a church was constructed at Kottakkakam (old name of Kottayam) within Veloor territory named after of virgin Mary with the permission granted by foreigner, Bishop Mar Rouhem from Syria and then king of Thekkumkoor, Raja Godavarma.
During those days roof was thatched with Coconut palm leaves, because only palaces were allowed to be thatched with roof tiles.. Only in the 19th century roof tiles were allowed to be thatched on the roof of churches. During those days there were about 5000 families as members of parish of this church among 82 wards and its boundary ranging from Kuruchy, Pallom, Neelamperoor, Manganam, Thiruvanchoor, Malloossery, Kallungthara, and Aymanam up to Kumarakom.
ROMAN EMPIRE ,SOLDIERS,SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA 100B.C TO 300A.D
|Ancient Roman Settlement in India|
|Written by Vrndavan Parker|
|S.O. News service, Monday, 14 July 2008:|
Pliny, the Roman historian lamented, 1800 years ago, how India, the sink of precious metals, was draining Rome of gold - an appellation that resonates even today. The early Christian saint John Of Ephesus predicted that Roman love of Indian spices (paid for in gold) will be the reason for Roman downfall.
To "manage" this drain of gold, Romans started cheating the Indians. They reduced the gold content in coins. Septimus Serverus, (193 AD-xxx) further debased the currency. Indians just stopped accepting the debased coin - and demanded payment in pure gold
Tabula Peutingeriana de kaart, Museumstukken II (edited by A.M. Gerhartl-Witteveen and P. Stuart) 1993 Museum Kam, Nijmegan, the Netherlands
(Taprobane , indicated at the bottom of the map refers to Sri Lanka) Muziris is indicated by a circle and described as a pirate prone area biy Pliny
|“||"At any rate, when Gallus was prefect of Egypt, I accompanied him and ascended the Nile as far as Syene and the frontiers of Kingdom of Aksum(Ethiopia), and I learned that as many as one hundred and twenty vessels were sailing from Myos Hormos to India,|
Myos Hormos was a Red Sea port constructed by the Ptolemies around the 3rd century BC. Following excavations carried out recently by David Peacock and Lucy Blue of the University of Southampton, it is ... Wikipedia
whereas formerly, under the Ptolemies, only a very few ventured to undertake the voyage and to carry on traffic in Indian merchandise."
So much gold was used for this trade, and apparently recycled by the Kushan Empire(Kushans) for their own coinage, that Pliny the Elder (NH VI.101) complained about the drain of specie to India:
In India, the ports of Barbaricum (modern Karachi), Barygaza, Muziris in Kerala, Korkai,Kaveripattinam and Arikamedu on the southern tip of India were the main centers of this trade, along with Kodumanal, an inland city
AUGUSTUS CAESAR COIN FROM SOUTH INDIA
ROMAN WINE AMPHORA FROM KERALA SOUTH INDIA
ANCIENT INDO-ROMAN TRADE
The legendary seaport of MUZIRIS, was once a bustling Indo-Roman trading center. It was situated in the KODUNGALOOR-CHETTUVA belt in the South Indian state of KERALA
and many historians believe that it was through MUZIRIS, Christianity came to India.
Many ancient literary works reveal that the entire area was occupied by trading communities, like Arabs, Jews and Chettis. Historians believe the lost port of MUZIRIS was a key center of mercantile trade between India and the Roman Empire. To the local people however it was known as VANCHI, and until recently there were no archaeological records to prove that this ancient mythical port really existed.
However in 1983, Roman coins were found at a site around six miles from PATTANAM, which prompted historians to look for further evidences. Many speculated that MUZIRIS must have been at the mouth of River Periyar, at a place called KODUNGALOOR -
but new evidence suggests that a smaller town nearby, named PATTANAM must have the real place.
Introducing the Muziris Papyrus:-http://historicalleys.blogspot.com/2010/06/introducing-muziris-papyrus.html
This ancient town existed during the early CHERA period, an ancient dynasty which ruled South West India. The CHERAS were seafaring people and so they established trade links with Rome. The Romans brought in gold which they traded for aromatic spices and pepper which was then called the 'black gold'.
THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERY
It was however Dr K.P.Shajahan and his colleagues of the National Institute of Oceanography who stumbled upon the evidence during a geological survey. Remote sensing data, provide additional evidence that a river close to PATTANAM had changed its course and the ancient port may have been buried due to earthquakes or floods.
This is the first time that tangible evidence is available in Malabar Coast. The clay that is used is very different from what was used in India during the same period and there are a lot of black minerals present.
The most remarkable finds are the rim and handle of a
classic Italian wine amphora from Naples
.This was common during the late first century BC and 79 AD.
The pottery production in the region was however disrupted by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. PATTANAM also provides evidences of foundation of early historic structures, pieces of Roman amphora
The entire site covers an area of about 1.5 sq km with deposits that are about two meters thick. Fragments of imported Roman amphora, which were mainly used for transporting wine and olive oil were found besides
Yemenese and West Asian pottery. Bricks, tiles, pottery shards, beads and other artifacts found at PATTANAM are very similar to those found at ARIKAMEDU and other early historic sites in India.
As excavations are still in progress, more evidences are bound to come which will throw light on Ancient Indo-Roman trade
ancient roman ship route to kerala
Early Roman coins
In 1847 a most fascinating discovery of Roman coins was reported from Kottayam near Kannur (British Malabar), yet another evidence for the existence of a great deal of trade between Kerala and the west in the first centuries B.C./A.D.
copying a coin of Augustus.
Trade of exotic animals
|Indonesia and in Africa. The intercontinental trade of exotic animals was one of the sources of richness of the owners of the villa. In theAmbulacro della Grande Caccia, the hunting scenes, especially the capture of live animals are well represented with many details, it is possible to identify the species. There is a scene that shows the technique to distract the mother Tiger to take the puppies using a shimmering ball of glass or mirror. It is also represented the hunt of Tiger with red ribbons. In the mosaic there are also numerous other animals as Rhinoceros, Indian Elephant recognizable from the ears, with his Indian conductor and Indian Peafowl, and other exotic birds.|
Arikamedu in Tamil Nadu, a centre of early Chola trade (now part of Ariyankuppam), about 2 miles from the modern Pondicherry Huntingford further notes that Roman pottery was found at Arikamedu in 1937, and archeological excavations between 1944 and 1949 showed that it was "a trading station to which goods of Roman manufacture were imported during the first half of the 1st century AD
- Amphora Jars
- Cups and Plates of Terra Sigallata
- Ceramic Lamps
- Unguentaria ( Vessel for holding perfumed oil or unguen)
- Blue glazed Faience ( Tin glazed or decorated earthen ware or pottery originally made in Faenzain Italy)
- Glass Bowls
- The most common imported items was amphora Jars
- Pieces of containers for wine from Kos, Knidos and Rhodes ( 1 BC to 1 AD)
- Spanish Jars for Garum Sauce and Olive oil.
- Olive jars from Istrian Peninsula in the Northern Adriatic sea
The merchants and Romeand Egypt bought eastern products from Malabar. The forwarding of merchandise between the two coasts were in local vessels (Casson 1989.16 n 24:25) . In order to reconcile the evidence of Western residents in Arikamedu and Kaveripattinam with that of Periplus Casson suggests that westerners residing on the east coast were chiefly middle men engaged in forwarding goods to their associate on the Malabar coast and not all the way to Egypt .
The paroxysmal explosion and collapse of the volcano of Krakatoa generated formidable tsunami waves that were up to 37 m (120 feet) in height. These waves destroyed 295 towns and villages in the Sunda Strait in Western Java and Southern Sumatra. A total of 36,417 people were drowned.
Kudankulam N-plant equipped to deal with tsunami threats ...
Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant
Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant - Wikipedia
Response from officials
Former chairman of Atomic Energy Commission of India Srinivasan said, "The Fukushima plant was built on a beach-front, but the Kudankulam was constructed on a solid terrain and that too keeping all the safety aspects in mind. Also, we are not in a tsunami prone area. The plants in Kudankulam have a double containment system which can withstand high pressure. At least ₹ 14,000 crore has been spent. If we don't operate the plant immediately, it will affect the economic stability of our country".
A centre panel constituted by the Government of India, which did a survey of the safety features in the plant, vouched for the safety of the Kudankulam reactors. Dr Muthunayagam, who headed the panel, said that the protesters asked for some documents which are not related to the safety of the reactor. Nuclear scientist and principal scientific adviser to the federal Government of India Rajagopala Chidambaram has said "We have learnt lessons from the Fukushima nuclear accident, particularly on the post-shut-down cooling system", and also added Fukushima nuclear accident should not deter or inhibit India from pursuing a safe civil nuclear programme.The Tamil Nadu state government formed a four-member expert panel which submitted a report to the government after inspecting the safety features of the plant. The Tamil Nadu government in the wake of the acute power shortages in the state has ordered in favour of the commissioning of the plant.
IDINTHA KARAI, India—Here along India’s southern coast—ravaged by tsunami waves 10 years ago—the country’s newest nuclear plant towers over the shoreline.
It is one of India’s biggest nuclear plants, and in the coming weeks it is expected to officially start selling power into the Indian grid. The Russian-designed, 2,000-megawatt Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project is part of an aggressive nuclear expansion as India struggles to solve severe power shortages.
It comes a decade after the Dec. 26, 2004, tsunami, in which 228,000 people were lost across countries on the Indian Ocean’s rim, and amid concern about nuclear plants on tsunami-prone shorelines since the 2011 meltdown in Fukushima, Japan.
Just this month, Russian President Vladimir Putin visited India and agreed to supply at least 10 more reactors over two decades. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi said the two leaders “outlined an ambitious vision for nuclear energy” during the visit and pledged the “highest standards of safety.”
Activists, however, have been calling for Kudankulam’s shutdown. “We are really afraid,” said Anthony Rayappan Suresh, a fisherman working along the shoreline in Idintha Karai and wearing a skull-and-bones antinuclear T-shirt. “We’ve seen the earlier tsunami, and this plant is not that safe.”
The protesters filed a lawsuit in 2012 to shut down the $2.74 billion plant. Last year, India’s Supreme Court said the plant could proceed but instructed the government to ensure public safety before it starts running.
The fight over the plant echoes wider debates over how authorities should treat low-lying areas after disasters. Japan shut down its nuclear plants after the 2011 tsunami and has yet to restart them.
In India, the 2004 tsunami flooded hundreds of miles of coastline, sweeping away villages and killing about 16,000. Some homes and communities remain abandoned, while others have rebuilt.
But few places have debated the risks of coastal development more than the area just up the coast from Kudankulam, where the village of Idintha Karai was devastated by the waves.
Sitting under the eaves of a century-old Catholic church in the village center, Father Jaya Kumar described the moment. It was “a massive, massive wave,” he said. “I was asking the people to run.”
At the time, work on Kudankulam, which sits directly on the shoreline, had only just begun. But the 2004 tsunami forced another coastal Indian plant, at Kalpakkam some 400 miles or 640 kilometers, up the coast, to automatically shut down after the waves overwhelmed cooling-water intakes, a government official said. The tsunami claimed the lives of 25 people living nearby, he said, but the plant’s safeguards worked as designed.