A Kochi Portuguese Girl in the Mughal Court - 1707-1732 - Calicut Heritage

blog.calicutheritage.com/2011/07/kochi-girl-in-mughal-court-1707-1732.html
Jul 17, 2011 - Gives some details about Juliana(1658- 1732), ie not only her Husband Her ... Forum to explore about Senhore / Doña Juliana Dias da Costa.
It was an unusual love affair between a woman of Portuguese origin and a Mughal prince.
timesofindia.indiatimes.com

A love affair that saved Portuguese from Mughals

Jul 23, 2017, 04:15AM IST TNN[ Gauree Malkarnekar ]
It was an unusual love affair between a woman of Portuguese origin and a Mughal prince. And such was the intensity of their love that the Portuguese woman, Dona Juliana Dias Da Costa, held sway over Aurangazeb's son, Shah Alam, and she not only helped safeguard Christians in the then Mughal-ruled India but also assisted in spreading on the faith in Portuguese India.

Juliana Nama, a book by former director of National Museum in Delhi Madhukar Tewari and archivist Raghuraj Singh Chauhan, has for the first time pieced together information from five different languages, including Persian and Portuguese, to bring to light the role of this lady-in-waiting to Shah Alam.

Tewari and Chauhan stumbled upon the diplomatic role of this Portuguese Catholic lady in the eighties and spent four decades to write arguably the most comprehensive documentation of Mughal, Portuguese, British, Dutch and French interaction in India. They narrate the Portuguese tactics for survival with the Mughals through the story of the love affair between Juliana and Shah.

From the time they established a settlement in Hugli with the favour of Mughal emperor Akbar, the Portuguese were comfortably living there till they managed to annoy his son with their transgressions, leading to him sacking the settlement in 1632. As a result, "4,000 Christians were taken captives in lamentable conditions" to Agra. Juliana's parents, according to the book, are said to have been among these prisoners and so Juliana was born in Agra around 1645, by which time her mother was attached to one of the ladies in Shah Jahan's harem.

Following her parents' death, Juliana was brought up by Father Antonio de Magalhanes in Delhi.

And this upbringing under the patronage of Jesuit Fathers, including years spent in Goa, according to the authors, made her proficient in skills that would make her a diplomat par excellence. "Skills like her proficiency in languages, international exposure to the happenings around the world, including the knowledge of international trade and merchandise, knowledge of medicine and surgery as the Fathers had in their company Portuguese doctors from Goa, and above all the royal manners and customs," helped her gain experience, write Tewari and Chauhan.

Though Juliana was married, she was widowed young, paving the way for her entry to the Mughal court through Father Magalhanes in 1681-82.

"Aurangzeb entrusted the education of Prince Muazzam (later Shah Alam), his second son, to Juliana. She was 17 and his youngest tutor. Muazzam was 18 and was filled with remorse for the merciless imprisonment of his grandfather Shah Jahan," says Tewari, and the seeds of a lifelong love affair were sowed.

The book provides Portuguese letters written by the viceroy in Goa to the King in Portugal telling him of the favour Juliana holds in the Mughal courts.

Juliana, states the book, moved wherever Shah Alam was posted by Aurangzeb, including to Goa to put an end to the threat posed by the Maratha leader, Sambhaji. When later Shah Alam was suspected of treason by Aurganzeb and jailed, Juliana is believed to have risked her life to make his seven years in prison comfortable by smuggling items of luxury.

This loyalty bore fruit when Shah Alam finally ascended the throne after his father Aurangzeb's death.

The book elaborates the role of Juliana in helping Shah Alam win the battle to the throne against his own brothers. Juliana is said to have got Shah Alam to deploy Portuguese gunners in his artillery, which proved a successful move.

The book says of her correspondence with the Portuguese viceroy in Goa as her influence rose in the Mughal court under Emporer Shah Alam, "What becomes more than clear from the exchange of these letters to and from Juliana is not only the higher position attained by her at the Mughal court after the release of prince Shah Alam, but her continued devotion in making favours to the cause of Christianity from the Mughal territories as well."

Besides her diplomatic services, the book also documents the financial help extended by Juliana to the Portuguese. "It was around 1707 that she is said to have given the province of Goa a great fortune variously estimated to the tune of 40 to 150 contos. In 1734, when she died, the Goan Personnel report of 1735 hailed her as the 'Worthy Benefactress of the College and Mission of Agra' in a most unusual statement."

The book mentions another incident of her help in Portuguese survival.

When Emperor Shah Alam Bahadur Shah ascended the throne in 1707, he planned to raise a modernized fleet under a French general for the Mughal navy. But the insecure Portuguese sought to avert the future threat the French would pose. They employed the services of Juliana to convince Shah Alam against collaborating with the French. A feat she successfully achieved.
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Juliana Dias da Costa

Dona Juliana Dias da Costa was a woman of Portuguese descent from Kochi taken to the Mughal Empire's court of Aurangzeb in Hindustan, who became Harem-Queen to the Mughal emperor of India Bahadur Shah ... Wikipedia

Born: 1658, Kochi

Died: 1733

Juliana Dias da Costa - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juliana_Dias_da_Costa
Dona Juliana Dias da Costa (1658–1733) was a woman of Portuguese descent from Kochi taken to the Mughal Empire's court of Aurangzeb in Hindustan, who

Juliana Dias da Costa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Dona Juliana Dias da Costa (1658–1733) was a woman of Portuguese descent from Kochi taken to the Mughal Empire's court of Aurangzeb in Hindustan, who became Harem-Queen to the Mughal emperor of India Bahadur Shah I, Aurangzeb's son, who became the monarch in the year 1707.
Dona Juliana's family fled the Dutch conquest of Portuguese Kochi (Cochim). She herself ended up in the Mughal court at Delhi, serving the family (wife and mother) of the then prince Shah’Alam. She continued to do so after the prince fell into disfavour with his father and accompanied him into exile. She was rewarded when Shah’Alam became Emperor (Shah) Bahadur I upon his father's death and her influence in the court became great, even though she remained a Catholic in a Muslim state. She is said to have ridden on a war elephant beside Bahadur Shah during his battles to defend his authority, and even after his death she continued to be highly considered, although with less influence.
During her period of strongest influence, while Bahadur Shah I was still alive, she was frequently sought out by European powers like the Dutch, Portuguese, the British, and the representatives of the Pope. She provided much assistance to the Society of Jesus, including helping the Italian Jesuit missionary Ippolito Desideri (1684-1733) in his mission to evangelise Tibet. In recognition of her many contributions and services to the Jesuits she was recognized as a Patroness of the Society.

A Kochi Girl in the Mughal Court - 1707-1732 - Calicut Heritage

blog.calicutheritage.com/2011/07/kochi-girl-in-mughal-court-1707-1732.html
Jul 17, 2011 - Gives some details about Juliana(1658- 1732), ie not only her Husband Her ... Forum to explore about Senhore / Doña Juliana Dias da Costa.
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A Kochi Girl in the Mughal Court - 1707-1732



                                           Cochin -1656      courtesy:www.farelli.info
Portuguese had ruled Cochin for nearly 160 years between 1503 and 1663 before the Dutch invasion. Although the capital of Portuguese India was shifted from Cochin to Goa in 1510, Cochin continued a favourite destination for the Portuguese and many Portuguese families chose to stay on in Cochin, soaking in the sun and sand, gossiping and leading their exclusive fidalgo life. (Fidalgo literally means 'son of somebody' and refers to nobility.)
Juliana was born in 1658 in Cochin to Agostino Diaz da Costa and his wife. She grew up as a frolicsome young girl, playing on 'the sandy beaches, where my sister and I could run with the waves lapping our feet'. When she was five, fate struck in the form of the Dutch who invaded Cochin in 1663. Just before the Dutch attack started, the da Costa family managed to flee to Goa, although they lost all their baggage in a ship wreck. The family then decided to try their luck in another Portuguese enclave, Calcutta, but by the time they reached there, Portuguese there had earned such a bad name through their indulgence in piracy and slave trade that  the conditions were not considered favourable for their relocation to Calcutta.
It was then that the da Costas decided to move down to Agra where the father had been invited to attend on the Emperor. It was here that Juliana got to know the doctor who attended to the Mughal emperors whom she married later. Juliana herself was adept at home remedies, having picked up some from her stay in Goa and from Garcia de Orta's book Colloquios published in 1563. (We in Kerala know much more about Hortus Malabaricus which was published more than a hundred years later in 1678. Garcia was himself a medical doctor - unlike Van Rheede who depended on local vaidyans like Itty Achuthan)
Juliana got to know the royals closely through her husband and even had an audience with Aurungzeb, thanks to the influential Jesuit priest Fr. Magalhaes (a colourful character who worked assiduously for promoting Society of Jesus in India and China). Juliana recorded faithfully the experience of an audience with the Alamgir who had a reputation for being brusque and curt. 'The old emperor was sharp, but I was amazed at the amount of time he spent talking with me. He asked me a great deal about the Malabar region, of the Portuguese interests, and of the Deccan interaction with the Portuguese'.
Juliana was soon appointed as Superintendent of the Zenana, looking after the women in the Palace and teaching the young princes and princesses. Juliana soon came to be known for her piety and her ability to work miracles - putting out fires with consecrated palm fronds and curing illness through prayers. She was particularly close to Prince Muazzam who carried the title Shah Alam and was later to be crowned as Bahadur Shah in 1709, after killing his brother. 
 Juliana continued in the Mughal Court even after the death of Bahadur Shah in 1712 and continued to serve the Mughal household with her advice, prayers and cures. Farukhsiyar ascended the throne in 1713 after another bout of internecine blood-letting, but Juliana not only survived the intrigues of the powerful Sayyid brothers who had the Emperor under their control, but even had powers to get the Emperor to issue firmans. 
British colonial historians have been asserting that it was the English surgeon, William Hamilton who had cured Farukhsiyar of a painful carbuncle and obtained a firman  for trading without duties. But, apparently, it was Juliana who had cured the Emperor with her herbal concoctions (and a liberal dose of Christian prayers). She records that she had got firmans out of Farukhsiyar not only for the Portuguese, but even for the English traders!
Mohammed Shah courtesy: wikipedia
The crowning glory of Juliana's days in the Mughal Empire was in 1719 when she was asked to physically crown the new Emperor, Mohammed Shah (Rangila)! The day she chose for this was, of course, the day of St.John the Baptist, her Patron Saint. She wrote: 'At mid-morning today, I , Juliana Diaz da Costa, actually crowned the emperor! I carried the crown and placed it on the head of Prince Mohammed Shah'.
Donna Juliana (she had been conferred the title for her services to the Church and the Jesuits) continued in the service of the Mughals. A letter written in 1727 testifies: 'The Chief Surgeon of Bacaim is in the Court, who has been called to look after the mother of the king. The treatment is pending the arrival of Donna Juliana to the palace, to touch and give medicines to the patient with the help of the Surgeon mentioned'.
Juliana passed away in 1732 and was buried in Agra in an unnamed grave! Thus ended the saga of the girl from Fort Cochin who wielded great influence in the Mughal Court during an era when heads around her were rolling in the relentless wars of succession.
Source : Forgotten (2010) by Bilkees I. Latif, Penguin Books


Was it Juliana or Joga? - Delhi - The Hindu

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Sep 23, 2013 - All this was once part of the estate of Dona Juliana Dias Da Costa, a Portuguese lady who came to be known as Bibi Juliana in the time of ...
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