hen or egg-which came first?

Scientists yesterday claimed to have cracked the riddle of whether the chicken or the egg came first. The answer, they say, is the chicken. Researchers found that the formation of egg shells relies on a protein found only in a chicken's ovaries. Therefore, an egg can exist only if it has been inside a chicken.Jul 14, 2010

Chicken really DID come before the egg, say scientists | Daily Mail ...

www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/.../Chicken-really-DID-come-egg-say-scientists.html

 comment:-
But scientists are also chicken headed as seen above.
Because the question remains how chicken were born without eggs?

 Image result for hen or egg-which came first?Image result for hen or egg-which came first?
religion says all were formed at one go -that is another direction

Image result for hen or egg-which came first?
   today -chicken and egg question  in economics

am asking whether infrastructure will pull out India's 55% agriculturists from poverty? chicken and egg question again

u.p.a government said both go side by side

AT present they  say infrastructure alone will make India prosperous
i think this is wrong 
all these 70 years after independence   when India was dirt poor; after 200 years of British looting  [1750 to 1947] when all were poor except for a very few rich like Tata ,Birla and no industries and no industrialists any were in India ;except a few jute mills in Bengal ,a few cotton mills in Bombay-- what was Nehru supposed to do?
1947
infrastructure for a starving famine ridden illiterate India with 1 crore[more than 10 million] refugees due to formation of Pakistan by British manipulations ,was the last priority for a bankrupt India of 1947
 see below:-the poverty of India 1947 after British looting of India

















  • India had 30crore (300mn) population, with an average longivity of 32 years (with between 17.5 to 19.0% infantile mortality)
  • There were just 360,000 income-tax payers in 1947
  • Only13% of Indians were literate (literacy rate among women was 9%)
  • 83% of Indians lived in villages, and 70% depended on agriculture... 28% were landless labours (this, as one would notice, has not changed much)
  • 70% of cultivated land was owned by a handful of zamindars and money-lenders.
  •  We were producing 52 million tonnes in 1950-51 and are today producing 257 million tonnesFrom a food importing country we are now exporting, though it is also a fact that a large number of population is not fed, whereas godowns are full.
  • Only 3% of India's workforce (less than 9mn) was employed in manufacturing sector.
  • Jute and cotton industry accounted for 30% of the total industrial employment (and about 55% of value-added to manufacturing)
  • Indian farmers owned 0.9mn iron plough, and 31.3mn wooden plough.
  • Across the total population, even in 1950-51, there were just about 168,000 telephones.
  • Only 27% of cultivated land was irrigated.
  • In 1951, there were just 37,000 towns and villages (out of around 5,000 cities and 500,000 villages) with electricity
  • There were 9 agricultural colleges with around 3,000 students.
  • There were just 10 medical colleges that turned out about 700 doctors every years. In 1951 census, India had about 18,000 doctors... We also had 1,900 hospitals and 6,500 dispensaries, accounting for around 1.2lac (.12mn beds) - for a population of 300mn.
  • There were a total of 7 engineering colleges, with around 2,200 students.
  • In 1950, India produced 7 locomotives, 1mn tons of steel, 99,000 bicycles, 33mn tons of coal, 2.7mn tons of cement, 33,000 sewing machines,
  • India had a total number of 27 universities/colleges in 1950.
  • The total number of enrollment of students from primary to pre-degree education, in 1950-51, was less than 25mn.
  • There were around 6,500 newspapers and periodicals (nationals and vernacular) and 26 radio centers.
  • Even as late as 1955, India had just about 790,000 engineering degree/diploma holders.
  • There were a total of 1125 companies listed on the stock exchange (there were only two of them - Bombay and Calcutta)


  •  India hardly had any large-scale industry in 1947, which could process the raw-material into finished usable goods. There were a few industries in the cotton, jute, sugar, matches, and steel sectors, etc. - but they were too few to really service the country's needs. About 65-70% of India's less-than-Rs.600cr export consisted of raw material (cotton, oilseeds, minerals and ores, tobacco, etc.); around the same proportion of its imports were finished goods (ranging from biscuits, sewing needles, cloth etc., to dress-material, medicines to machines-tools). In fact, even in 1950, India was importing 90% of its requirement of machine tools.


     
     Local enterprise was confined largely to trade and commerce, mainly in and around port cities like Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.

    A few industrial centres grew around these cities through private entrepreneurship.
    There had been an adverse impact on the artisan sector under British rule.
    The old crafts were left to languish and decay - ill prepared to modernise.
    Large factories, few in number, produced mainly consumer goods, like textiles

     Intermediates like steel, cement and jute machinery were mostly imported.
    The extremely narrow base of industrialisation remained confined to a very few cities and states and was the monopoly of a few privileged families.


    The export strategy was not conducive to the country's interests.
    Exports were seen as a mechanism to transfer raw materials cheaply to the metropolitan cities in the United Kingdom, which, in turn, processed them into final goods for exporting back to the colonies.
    India's industrial output was 25% of worlds industrial output in 1770 AD. When British left after 200 years of various form of rule  India had 0.1% of worlds industrial output 2) Literacy was left at 13% and 3) Average life expectancy of Indians was brought to measly 37 years

    MANY PRESENT DAY RULERS ARE BLAMING NEHRU FOR SLOW GROWTH //HINDU RATE OF GROWTH OF 3% PER YEAR
    I WHO SAW IT ALL CONGRATULATE NEHRU FOR PULLING THROUGH FROM 1947 TO 1965 WHEN HE DIED
    THIS WAS INDIA 1947
    maps1947
    www.columbia.edu
    A news bureau map from August 1947, pre-Partition, attempts to represent the complexities of the situation; *the original caption*



    INDIA OFFICIAL MAP
    Administrative Map of India

    IF NEHRU WAS NOT THERE INDIA COULD HAVE DISINTEGRATED INTO
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    Prime Ministers

    Name
    (birth–death); constituency
    Portrait Party
    (Alliance)
    Term of office[2] Elections
    (Lok Sabha)
    Council of
    Ministers
    Appointed by
    1 Jawaharlal Nehru
    (1889–1964)
    MP for Phulpur
    Jnehru.jpg Indian National Congress 15 August
    1947
    27 May
    1964[†]
    16 years, 286 days Nehru I Lord Mountbatten
    1952 (1st) Nehru II Rajendra Prasad
    1957 (2nd) Nehru III
    1962 (3rd) Nehru IV
    Gulzarilal Nanda
    (1898–1998)
    MP for Sabarkantha
    No image.png Indian National Congress 27 May
    1964
    9 June
    1964
    13 days  – (3rd) (acting) Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
    2 Lal Bahadur Shastri
    (1904–1966)
    MP for Allahabad
    Lal Bahadur Shastri (cropped).jpg Indian National Congress 9 June
    1964
    11 January
    1966[†]
    1 year, 216 days  – (3rd) Shastri
    Gulzarilal Nanda
    (1898–1998)
    MP for Sabarkantha
    No image.png Indian National Congress 11 January
    1966
    24 January
    1966
    13 days  – (3rd) (acting)
    3 Indira Gandhi
    (1917–1984)
    MP for Rae Bareli
    Indira Gandhi 1977.jpg Indian National Congress 24 January
    1966
    24 March
    1977
    11 years, 59 days  – (3rd) I. Gandhi I
    1967 (4th)
    1971 (5th) I. Gandhi II V. V. Giri
    4 Morarji Desai
    (1896–1995)
    MP for Surat
    Morarji Desai (portrait).png Janata Party 24 March
    1977
    28 July
    1979[RES]
    2 years, 126 days 1977 (6th) Desai B. D. Jatti
    5 Charan Singh
    (1902–1987)
    MP for Baghpat
    Charan Singh (cropped).jpg Janata Party (Secular)
    with INC
    28 July
    1979
    14 January
    1980[RES]
    170 days  – (6th) C. Singh Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
    (3) Indira Gandhi
    (1917–1984)
    MP for Medak
    Indira Gandhi 1977.jpg Indian National Congress (I) 14 January
    1980[§]
    31 October
    1984[†]
    4 years, 291 days 1980 (7th) I. Gandhi III
    6 Rajiv Gandhi
    (1944–1991)
    MP for Amethi
    Rajiv Gandhi (1987).jpg Indian National Congress (I) 31 October
    1984
    2 December
    1989
    5 years, 32 days  – (7th) R. Gandhi Zail Singh
    1984 (8th)
    7 V. P. Singh
    (1931–2008)
    MP for Fatehpur
    V. P. Singh (cropped).jpg Janata Dal
    (National Front)
    2 December
    1989
    10 November
    1990[NC]
    343 days 1989 (9th) V. P. Singh R. Venkataraman
    8 Chandra Shekhar
    (1927–2007)
    MP for Ballia
    Chandra Shekhar (cropped).jpg Samajwadi Janata Party
    with INC
    10 November
    1990
    21 June
    1991
    223 days  – (9th) Chandra Shekhar
    9 P. V. Narasimha Rao
    (1921–2004)
    MP for Nandyal
    P V Narasimha Rao.png Indian National Congress (I) 21 June
    1991
    16 May
    1996
    4 years, 330 days 1991 (10th) Rao
    10 Atal Bihari Vajpayee
    (born 1924)
    MP for Lucknow
    Atal Bihari Vajpayee (cropped).jpg Bharatiya Janata Party 16 May
    1996
    1 June
    1996[RES]
    16 days 1996 (11th) Vajpayee I Shankar Dayal Sharma
    11 H. D. Deve Gowda
    (born 1933)
    MP (Rajya Sabha) for Karnataka
    Deve Gowda BNC.jpg Janata Dal
    (United Front)
    1 June
    1996
    21 April
    1997[RES]
    324 days – (11th) Deve Gowda
    12 Inder Kumar Gujral
    (1919–2012)
    MP (Rajya Sabha) for Bihar
    Inder Kumar Gujral 071.jpg Janata Dal
    (United Front)
    21 April
    1997
    19 March
    1998
    332 days  – (11th) Gujral
    (10) Atal Bihari Vajpayee
    (born 1924)
    MP for Lucknow
    Atal Bihari Vajpayee (cropped).jpg Bharatiya Janata Party
    (NDA)
    19 March
    1998[§]
    22 May
    2004
    6 years, 64 days 1998 (12th) Vajpayee II K. R. Narayanan
    1999 (13th) Vajpayee III
    13 Manmohan Singh
    (born 1932)
    MP (Rajya Sabha) for Assam
    Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in WEF ,2009 (cropped).jpg Indian National Congress
    (UPA)
    22 May
    2004
    26 May
    2014
    10 years, 4 days 2004 (14th) M. Singh I A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
    2009 (15th) M. Singh II Pratibha Patil
    14 Narendra Modi
    (born 1950)
    MP for Varanasi
    PM Modi Portrait(cropped).jpg Bharatiya Janata Party
    (NDA)
    26 May
    2014[3]
    Incumbent 2 years, 85 days 2014 (16th) Modi Pranab Mukherjee


    ONLY BECAUSE OF NEHRU AND SARDAR PATEL INDIA SURVIVED as  one nation
    some people still try to belittle NEHRU'S CONTRIBUTION TO INDIA 
    =================================================

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     blog:-
    [HOW INDIA PROGRESSED FROM ONE AMONG THE POOREST 10 NATIONS TO ONE AMONG THE RICHEST 10 NATIONS IN 50 YEARS TIME]
    ================================================================================ 
    THOSE WHO THINK JUST INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRESS WILL PULL INDIA OUT OF POVERTY ARE WRONG


    SMART CITY AND BULLET TRAIN,ETC ETC WILL ONLY PULL OUT A MAXIMUM OF 60 % INDIANS OUT OF POVERTY 


    THOSE WHO GAIN MOST WILL BE CONTRACTORS WHO DO INFRASTRUCTURE WORK FOR GOVERNMENT


    LET HISTORY OF INDIA DECIDE AFTER 50 YEARS;[2066]WHETHER INFRASTRUCTURE BROUHAHA WAS CORRECT OR WRONG