night travel before arrival of electricity and electric torch light,

Light arrangements were made at night by carrying torches of maroti oil
and punna (calophyllum) oil.

also dry coconut palm fronds were tied into a bundle ,and then lighted at the tip were used

In river lights were provided, when needed by, floating pseudo-stems of the plantains ,to which were fitted maroti shells with oil and wicks. The panorama acts like floating beacons
TerTeran Flame Wars Ritual Fight
Lighted coconut frond bundle were kept waving ,from front to back direction ,to keep the fire burning bright,as there were plenty of snakes on the road.A long stick used to be kept in hand as a weapon to hit at dangerous animals and to remove snakes from Roads.
For travel in forests, where there were wild elephants ,in addition to the torches ,many loud exploding crackers used to be exploded on the way to scare it away .

Slow Match[ fire on tip of cord made of coir]

Recall that in the last post, we said that soldiers would carry a slow burning rope tied around the waist, so that they could light their crude firearms quickly at any time. This special rope or cord is called a slow match or match cord.[in Travancore/Cochi/Malabar areas coir rope was used in Beedi/cigarette shops on the road side; for lighting Beedis ]

The origin of this term has to do with the Greek word mixa (the word for "lamp wick"), which was adopted by the Romans and became mica, which in turn was borrowed by the French and became meche, which became the English word match. In the late middle ages, match cord was the only way to carry around a quickly available source of fire. In fact, when matchsticks were invented, the term "match stick" itself originated from the fact that it was a replacement for "match cord".


from slow match(cord) to real match box with sticks:-
(1853 - 1856), cigarette smoking became more and more fashionable
When, after the Crimean War (1853 - 1856), cigarette smoking became more and more fashionable (previously tobacco was only chewed, snuffed and smoked in pipes or cigars), the silver manufacturers began to switch their production from snuff boxes to cigarette cases. They had to insert into their new designs a space for the safety match, the invention patented in 1852 by Swedish engineer John Edvard Lundström and highly appreciated by its users.

What could be simpler than making a cigarette case with a storage for matches and, of course, a striker plate?
But then, what purpose had the drill hole going from one end to the other end of the case?

In this hole a tinder cord was inserted, a device well known from the first, simple lighters. The tinder cord had a tiny hook, a little chain and an end or lid in the form of a ball, pearl, semi precious stone etc. to close the opening after use.

At that time the new, fantastic, useful matches were very expensive. To save matches (and money) the usual procedure was as follows: one pulled a certain length of the tinder cord on the ball or lid out of the hole, took a match, ignited it and made the tinder glow. Now you could lighte as many cigarettes as you wanted. After use the tinder cord was simply drawn back, the ball or lid sealed the opening and the flame was extinguished by lack of oxygen (see ENDNOTE on bottom page).

Not only were the cigarette cases made in this form. Also the separate match holders were constructed in the same way.

The production of this form of cigarette cases ceased in the 1910s, after the invention of the gasoline lighter.
A generic, disposable lighter.
  how burning cord was slowly converted into use of match box
A. Albrecht, St. Petersburg 1874 I.Sazikov
A. Albrecht, St. Petersburg 1874
S. Kasakov, Moskow 1889 A.Kordes, St. Petersburg 1874
S. Kasakov, Moscow 1889
A.Kordes, St. Petersburg 1874
K.Werlin T. Njugren
T. Njugren
H. Bobir
H. Bobir
In a cigarette case with a tinder cord there was a hollow tube running through it on one side. After the tinder cord was threaded through this tube, one end was hooked to the ball (see below) so it could not fall out. The extra cord hanging out at the bottom of the cigarette case was wound up or knotted to serve as a continuing replacement.
Step by step this was the procedure usually followed:
1: The tinder cord (or the lid with a ring) was pulled up about 4 cm above the case.
2: A match was struck and held to the exposed end of the tinder cord until it began to glow.
3: The cigarette case with the glowing tinder cord was handed to others to light their cigarettes.
4: After lighting every cigarette, the cigarette case was returned (hopefully). The knotted end of the tinder cord was pulled until the glowing end disappeared into the tube, which was sealed by the ball or other lid. The cord end was extinguished by a lack of oxygen.

Roll over Large image to magnify, click Large image  to zoom

Vintage RONSON "Portia" silverplated table lighter with porcelain body with Trillium flowers, burgundy colored band along the top.1920

A description of how to light a fire by rubbing two sticks together using the bow drill method.

1899 the first electric torch light

Misell's Patent 617,592 line drawings show cross section of flashlight with three cells, reflector and lens

Three miniature bulbs: tubular bulb with screw base, globular bulb with screw base, and prefocus bulb with flange-mount base
Miniature incandescent bulbs for use in flashlights. The tungsten filament bulb was essential to turn the flashlight from a novelty

1879 Thomas Alva Edison invents and patents the carbon filament electric light
1884 303358 Charles Beck 6/12 for incandescent lamp
1886 The National Carbon Co. was founded by the then Brush Electric Co. executive W. H. Lawrence
1889 401417 Charles Wesley Fox and Thomas Eustace Van Dyke 4/16 for Electric Lantern
1890 429172 John Irwin 6/8 for Portable Electric Lamp. Filed 6/30/81
1891 Akiba Horowitz arrives in U.S. from Russia. Changes name to Conrad Hubert
1895 551394 David Missell 12/17 for Electric Light
1896 559143 David Missell 4/28 for Electric Light and Signaling Device
1896 572805 Louis A. Jackson 12/8 Electric Lamp. Assigned to Acme Electrical Lamp Co.
1896 First commercial battery for sale. Carbon-zinc battery by National Carbon Company
1898 National Carbon Company introduces the first D cell battery
1898 Conrad Hubert forms American Electrical Novelty & Mfg. Co. to market battery powered novelties
1898 603112 David Missell 4/26 for Electric Lamp. Assigned to American Electrical Novelty & Mfg. Co.
1998 614318 Owen T. Bugg Jr. 10/15
1899 617592 David Missell 1/10 for Electric Device. Assigned to American Electrical Novelty & Mfg. Co.
1899 618706 John Sloane Mead 1/31 for Electric Lamp (Large tubular shape)
1900 657020 Franklin Brooks 8/28 for Portable Electric Lamp
1901 669546 Morris Newgold 3/12 for Portable Electric Lamp (Large tubular shape)
1902 704113 William Rocke 7/8 for Circuit-Closer for Portable Electrical Apparatus
1902 Conrad Hubert files for patent on June 6, for Electric Circuit Closer
1903 737107 Conrad Hubert 8/26 for flashlight (Cylindrical casing containing lamp and batteries)
1903 741245 Conrad Hubert 10/13 for Electric Lamp or Candle
1904 774749 Edwin R. Gill 11/15 for Portable Electric Light. Assigned to Electric Contract Co. (Tubular)
1905 American Electrical Novelty & Mfg. Co renamed The American Ever Ready Company
1906 National Carbon Company buys half interest in The American Ever Ready Company
1910 William David Coolidge, at GE, invents an improved method of making tungsten filament light bulbs
1914 National Carbon Company buys all of The American Ever Ready Company
1914 1122424 Charles Sagebrecht 12/29 for Portable Electric Flash-Light
1917 National Carbon Company merged with Union Carbide to form The Union Carbide and Carbon Co
1947 interview with The New Yorker magazine, Joshua Lionel Cowan claims he invented the flashlight
1986 Ralston Purina, Co., buys Eveready Battery Company (holding company of Energizer brands)
2000 Energizer becomes an independent company

flashlight, flashlight, flash-light, electric hand torch, portable light, Conrad Hubert, Akiba Horowitz, David Misell, W H Lawrence, Joshua Lionel Cowan, Enigerizer, Eveready, American Electrical Novelty & Mfg. Co., National Carbon Company,  invention, history, inventor of, history of, who invente

Conrad Hubert
Conrad Herbert.jpg
Born Akiba Horowitz
15 April 1856
Minsk, Russia
Died 14 March 1928
Cannes, France
Residence New York City
Nationality Russian/American
Occupation inventor
Known for flashlight
Home town Minsk

The 1899 flashlight was a fiber tube with brass end caps and bulls-eye glass lens at one end.