RAIN defeated JAPAN -1944 and TIPPU -1790


Battle of Kohima-Imphal, 1944

William Slim versus Renya Mutaguchi: A Japanese army under Mutaguchi tries to cut off and destroy a British army under Slim. Can Slim defend and supply the beleaguered twin cities long enough to mount an offensive? Also known as Operation U-Go. Click on images below to view; first image opens video presentation and second image opens PowerPoint presentation. | Legend | 

The Burma Campaign itself is often seen as comparatively unimportant even though more Japanese were defeated by Slim than any other commander. Indirectly though, the Burma Campaign was vital; had Slim failed to reopen the Burma Road, the Japanese Ichi-Go Offensive to knock China out of the war may have succeeded. This would have made the Pacific War much more costly and difficult, considering that the three million Japanese troops committed in China could have been diverted.
Slim won this battle the way the Allies won the war: he lured Mutaguchi into a battle of attrition in which an overwhelming superiority of material and logistics prevailed. Mutaguchi’s plan was rigid and inflexible which meant the British supply base at Dimapur was not taken despite being undefended. Slim had a plan but adjustments were made during the battle to overcome new obstacles such as the unexpected attack against Kohima.
I was fascinated with this battle for a long time. Battles of annihilation, in which a commander’s goal is to annihilate the enemy force rather than just to defeat it, are always intriguing and showcase the epitome of skill. Think back to Cannae, Mohi Heath and Blenheim; Kohima-Imphal is on the same level as these, only lesser known.

World War Two: Burma Campaign


History of Travancore: From the Earliest Times By P. Shungoonny Menon


(Roman Numerals)
Equivalent to number 1792 

The relics of the entrance of travancore lines[nedunkotta]

Relics of Cranganore Fort

Second Travancore-Mysore War - Metapedia

Mar 12, 2011 - Defeat of Tipu. By the time Tipu Sultan launched his second attack in May 1790, heavy monsoon rains caused the rivers in Travancore to flood ...

Defeat of Tipu

By the time Tipu Sultan launched his second attack in May 1790, heavy monsoon rains caused the rivers in Travancore to flood most of the countryside. When the Mysore army launched its assault and Nedumkotta was penetrated, the temporary bund which was constructed earlier was breached in the midst of heavy fighting, causing an unexpected flood which killed a large number of Mysore soldiers and rendered the gunpowder wet and useless. This resulted in panic and confusion within the Mysore army. The morally charged Nair forces of Travancore inflicted heavy casualties on the Mysore army. Some of the top commanders of the Travancore Army, including Kalikutty Nair were killed during the fighting.

Map of south India, showing Malabar under East India Company


History of Travancore: From the Earliest Times - P. Shungoonny


After this, the lawless force was let loose in the villages, chap. 
They committed various atrocities and the country was In ' 
laid waste with fire and sword. Some of the inhabitants 
fled for shelter to the wild hills of Kunnathnaud, 
while many were taken captives. Hindu temples and 
Christian churches were equally desecrated by the 
followers of Mahomet. Towers of pagodas, the houses 
of the rich, and the huts of the poor, all were burnt 
to ashes, and the scenes throughout the districts 
of Alangaud and Paravoor were heart-rending. The 
ruins which may be seen up to the present day testify 
to the ferocity of the invaders. Kecords of anti- 
quity, secured in the archives of pagodas, palaces, 
churches and the houses of the nobles were all com- 
mitted to the flames. 

All these cruelties and atrocities were perpetrated 
with the express sanction of the Sultan, who, with his 
main army marched southward, and reached Alwaye, 
the celebrated watering place where, a few years ago, 
the Maha Rajah had performed the vedic sacrifice 
(Yagam) at a considerable expenditure as mentioned 
in page 211. 

Fortunately for the country, the south-west monsoon 
broke out with unusual severity and the beautiful 
Alwaye river, a stream which usually rises after a 
few showers, filled and overflowed its banks causing 
Tippoo's army great inconvenience and rendering their 
march almost impossible. The current, during the 
freshes in this river is so strong, that even the perma- 
nent residents of the adjacent villages find difficulty 
in crossing it at this time. As the country around is 
mostly intersected by numerous rivers and streams, 
and intermixed with large paddy fields submerged 
under water at this season, Tippoo and his army were 
surprised at a scene which they had seldom witnessed 
before, and were bewildered by their critical situation. 

Tippoo was certainly in a very awkward predica- 
ment and one for which he was not prepared. He had 
no idea of what a Malabar monsoon was. His army 



had no shelter ; no dry place for parade ; all their ammu- 
nition, accoutrements, &c., got wet. Even the very 
necessaries of life were washed away by the impetuous 
current of the flooded river. These untoward events 
exercised a depressing influence in the mind of Tippoo. 
If he had ever repented of his cruel actions in his 
life, it was at this moment. He repented his 
having reduced to ashes large pagodas, churches and 
other edifices which could have now afforded him and 
his army shelter and protection from the severity of the 
rains. Cholera, small-pox and other epidemics broke 
out. Provisions became scanty, and the scarcity was 
followed almost by famine. Numbers began to perish 
by disease and hunger. The lawless people took 
advantage of the time and commenced plundering every 
thing that they could get hold of, and in fine, the state 
of the country had become so desolate, that even the 
pen of Sir Walter Scott, the great Novelist, would 
find it difficult to give an adequate description of it. 
The Governor of Madras addressed 
the Maha Rajah, assuring His Highness that prepara- 
tions were in progress for punishing the Sultan for his 
wanton violation of the treaty, and at the same time 
requesting the Maha Rajah to prevail on the Malabar 
princes and chiefs who had taken refuge in Travancore 
to join the English, in bringing about the humiliation 
of the tyrant of Mysore. While Tippoo was in his 
uncomfortable encampment at Alwaye, as has been 
already described, intelligence of the commencement of 
hostilities and the assembling of a large English force at 
Trichinopoly reached him. Harassed on all sides, the 
Sultan was under the necessity of beating a precipitate 
retreat. But he was in a position full of danger and 
anxiety* The rivers were all full. The country was 
under water. The Cranganore bar rose high with a 
swift current seawards. Except boats, no other 
means of communication could be used in that part of 
the country at that time. There was no time to be 
lost. He divided his army into two portions and 
ordered one portion to march vi& Annamanaday and 
Chalakudy to Trichoor and thence to Falghaut, and 
the other via Cranganore and Chowghaut to Falghaut. 
This hasty retreat was attended with the loss of the 
great portion of the army and bore some resemblance 
to the disastrous retreat of the great Napoleon from 
Moscow. This calamity was accelerated by the Tra- 
vancore army under Dewan Kasava Pillay following 
in close pursuit. 

The Travancore force joined the British army at 
Falghautcherry, Coimbatore and Dindigul, and fought 
under the command of British officers, such as Colonel 
Stuart, Lieutenant Chalm