Chera-KERALA

Empire 300 BC TO 2012 A.D.













Part of a series on the













Chera dynasty














Kings













 · Uthiyan Cheralathan
 · Imayavaramban Nedun-Cheralatan
 · Cheran Senguttuvan
 · Tagadur Erinda Perumcheral
 · Yanaikat-sey Mantaran Cheral
 · Kulashekhara Alwar
 · Rajashekhara Varman
 · Rama Varma Kulashekhara














Capitals














Vanchi Muthur
Karur · Muchirippattanam 
Mahodayapuram ·Kulasekharapuram















After the Cheras














Kingdom of Calicut
Venad
Kolathunadu
Kingdom of Cochin

Sangam Age Chera Kings[430 B.C TO 400 AD]

  1. Perumchottu Uthiyan Cheralathan (Contemporary to Karikala Chola)
  2. Antuvancheral
  3. Imayavaramban Nedun-Cheralatan (Son of Uthiyan Cheralathan, contemporary to Perunarkilli)
  4. Cheran Chenkutuvan or Senguttuvan
  5. Palyanai Sel-Kelu Kuttuvan
  6. Poraiyan Kadungo
  7. Kalankai-Kanni Narmudi Cheral
  8. Vel-Kelu Kuttuvan
  9. Selvak-Kadungo
  10. Adukotpattu Cheralatan
  11. Kuttuvan Irumporai
  12. Tagadur Erinda Perumcheral
  13. Yanaikat-sey Mantaran Cheral
  14. Ilamcheral Irumporai
  15. Perumkadungo
  16. Ilamkadungo
  17. Kanaikal Irumporai




















Vanavan @ Vanavaramban [430-350 BC].
Kuttuvan Uthiyan Cheralathan [350-328 BC] ruled for 22 years.
Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan [328-270 BC] ruled for 58 years.
Palyaanai Chelkezhu Kuttuvan [270-245 BC] ruled for 25 years.
Kalangaikanni narmudicheral [245-220 BC] ruled for 25 years.
Perumcheralathan [220-200 BC] ruled for 20 years.
Kudakko Neduncheralathan [200-180 BC] ruled for 20 years.
Kadal Pirakottiya Velkezhu kuttuvan [180-125 BC] ruled 55 years.
Adukotpattuch Cheralathan [125-87 BC] ruled 38 years.
Selvak kadungo Vazhiyathan [87-62 BC] ruled 25 years.
Yanaikatchei Mantharanj Cheral Irumborai [62-42 BC] ruled 20 years.
Thagadoor Erintha Perum Cheral Irumborai [42-25 BC] ruled 17 years (unification of Upper and lower Kongu).
Ilancheral Irumborai [25-19 BC] ruled 16 years.
Karuvur Eriya Koperumcheral Irumborai [9-1 BC].
Vanji Mutrathu tunjiya Anthuvancheral [BC 20 – 10 AD].
Kanaikal Irumborai [20-30 AD].
Palai Padiya Perum kadungko [1-30 AD].
Kokothai Marban [30 –60 AD].
Cheran Chenguttuvan [60-140 AD].
Kottambalathu tunjiya Maakothai [140-150 AD].
Cheraman mudangi kidantha Nedumcheralathan [150-160 AD].
Cheraman Kanaikkal Irumborai [160-180 AD].
Cheraman Ilamkuttuvan [180-200 AD].
Thambi Kuttuvan [200-220 AD].
Poorikko [220-250 AD].
Cheraman Kuttuvan Kothai [250-270 AD].
Cheraman Vanjan [270-300 AD].


                         South India after the Kalabhras



The Second dynasty

Main article: Kulasekhara dynasty (Second Cheras)
The Chera dynasty was revived in 800 CE with the rise of the Kulasekharas who ruled from Kodungallur. Little is known about the Cheras between third century A.D. and the eighth century AD. An obscure dynasty, the Kalabhras, invaded the Tamil country, displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled for around three centuries. They were displaced by the Pallavasand the Pandyas in the sixth century AD. A PandyaRuler, Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman (c.730 – 765 AD), mentioned in a number of Pandya copper-plate inscriptions, was a prominent ruler during this period. He claims to have defeated a prominent Chera King.
The name of the Chera King is not known, however from the details of the battles between the Pandyaand the Chera, the Chera territory ceded seems to have included the entire Malabar and Travancore(Kudanadu and Venadu) and the Southern Pandyacountry from Kanyakumari to Thirunelveli, the seat of the Cheras being in Karur Kongu Nadu. The Chera kings took the title of Perumal during this period and patronised the Vaishnavite sect. Kulasekara Alwarwho ruled in the 8th century became a devotionalVaishnavite poet. Pallavas also mention in their inscriptions their battles with the Cheras. Pulakesin II, in his Aihole inscription mentioned " Pulikesin II, driving the Pallava behind the forts of Kanchi, reached as far south as the Kaveri river, and there caused prosperity to the CholaChera and Pandya".[18]
During the reign of Pandya Parantaka Nedumjadaiyan (765 – 790), the Cheras were still in Karurand were a close ally of the PallavasPallavamalla Nadivarman defeated the Pandya Varagunawith the help of a Chera king. Cultural contacts between the Pallava court and the Chera country were common.[19] The Chera Kings Rajashekhara Varman and Kulashekhara Varmanspearheaded Hindu religious movements in their roles as celebrated Saivite and Vaishnavitesaints. Kulasekhara became one of the celebrated Alvars and his poems came to be called thePerumal thirumozhi.
Kulashekhara Varman ruled around the eighth and the ninth centuries AD. He called himselfKongar Kon (the king of the Kongu people) hailing from Kollinagar (Karur). Though Kongar were defeated by Cheran Senguttuvan in the second century AD, the Kongu region had been occupied by the Kongars of Karnataka Western Ganga Dynasty around 470 AD. The title 'Kongar Kon' indicates Kulasekhara had regained control of Kongu from the Western Ganga Dynasty around 800 AD. Other titles of Kulasekhara mentioned in the Perumal thirumozhi are Villavar Kon, Malayar Kon, Kollikkavalan, Koikkon and Koodal Nayagan.[20] Adi Shankara was his contemporary.Kongumandala Satakam also says that Rajashekhara Varman went to Kayilai with Sundarar fromKongu Nadu.



Chera kingdom under Rama Varman
The kingdom perished in 1102 CE soon after the Chola King ransacked the Chera Capital atKodungallur. As a result, the last of the Cheraman PerumalRama Varma Kulashekhara moved toKollam and ruled from there. He finally succeeded in driving away the Cholas but could not regain power due to the enmity he earned from the Brahmins. His kingdom was confined to the South ofKerala and was called Venad. The Travancore dynasty originated from the remnants of the Second Chera Dynasy.
Rama Varma Kulashekhara (1090- 1102 AD) was the last king of the Chera Dynasty that ruledKerala from 800- 1102 AD. After significant military success over the Chola dynasty he abdicated the throne.Rama Varma Kulashekhara ascended the throne during a period of severe crisis.Kulothunga Chola I had occupied Nanjanad and south Kerala and was proceeding towards Kollam, the capital of the Venad kings in 1096 AD. Rama Varma resolved to beat back the Cholas and rallied all his patriotic forces. A large body of Chera army transformed into suicide squads (Chavers).
The capital city of Mahodayapuram (present Kodungallur) and surrounding places were devastated in the long war and the king, without even a palace of his own, is known to have stayed at alternative frugal accommodations. Towards the end of the war he shifted the capital fromMahodayapuram to Kollam and led a large army to stem the Cholas in the south. Kulothunga Chola I was defeated and withdrew towards Kottar. The Cholapuram records (1100 AD) that record the achievements of Kulothunga Chola refer to this. The Cholas could not regain their influence beyond Nanjanad after this defeat. The move from Mahodayapuram to Kollam however marked the end of the Kulashekhara Empire. Venad attaine

 d the status of an independent kingdom, of which Rama Varma Kulashekhara is regarded as the founder.

List of Second Chera or Kulasekhara kings

Following is the list of Cheraman Perumals who ruled Kerala during the Second Chera empire [21]-
  1. Kulashekhara Varman (800-820 AD)
  2. Rajashekhara Varman (820- 844 AD)
  3. Sthanu Ravi Varman (844- 885 AD)- contemporary of Aditya Chola
  4. Rama Varma Kulashekhara (885- 917 AD)
  5. Goda Ravi Varma (917- 944 AD)
  6. Indu Kotha Varma (944- 962 AD)
  7. Bhaskara Ravi Varman I (962- 1019 AD)
  8. Bhaskara Ravi Varman II (1019- 1021 AD)
  9. Vira Kerala (1021- 1028 AD)
  10. Chera kingdom under the Cholas

  11. Rajasimha (1028- 1043 AD)
  12. Bhaskara Ravi Varman III (1043-1082 AD)
  13. Rama Varma Kulashekhara (1090- 1102 AD)- also called Cheraman Perumal.---------

  14. Chera kingdom under Kulasekhara Varman

1102 – 1125      Raja Sri Kotha Varma Marthandam, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, son of Raja Sri Rama Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1102. He conquered Kottar and Nanjanad from the Pandyas. He d. 1125, having had issue, including four sons: 1) Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma I, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.2) Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.

Cheras under Pandya dominion
1125 – 1145      Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma I, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1125. A great religious benefactor, responsible for the rebuilding of Padmanabhaswamy Temple and the endowment of Suchindram Temples. He d. 1145.
1145 – 1150 Raja Sri Kodai Kerala Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad.
1161 – 1164 Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, second son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded ca 1161. He d. 1164.
1164 - 1167 Raja Vira Kerala Varma II, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, third son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 1164. He d. 1167.
1167 – 1173      Raja Vira Aditya Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, fourth son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. He d. 1173?
1173 – 1192      Raja Vira Udaya Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, youngest son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 1167. He established his seat at Kulikkod and allied himself to the Pandya Kings. He d. at Kolidaikuru, 1192, having had issue, a daughter:
1192 – 1195      Raja Sri Devadaram Vira Kerala Varma III, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Fl 1192. He d. December 1195. 1) Raja Sri Vira Manikantha Rama Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.1) Rani Madhavi. She had issue, a son:
1195 -               Raja Sri Vira Manikantha Rama Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. From Kilapperur Illam. Mentioned in the Vellayani inscriptions. Succeeded December 1195.
1209 – 1214    Raja Sri Vira Rama Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. He d. 1214, having had issue, a daughter:
1214 – 1240      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Mentioned in the Kandiyoor inscription in 1218, and the Manalikara inscription of 1236. m. Rani Unniachi, responsible for the Subramanyaswamy shrine, near Suchindram Temple.

Fl 1266-1267    Raja Sri Jayasimha Deva, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, from the Yadu family of the Lunar race. He became a powerful ruler, who succeeded in bringing the whole of Kerala under his control. He esrablished his seat at Quilon, the surrounding areas becoming known as Jayasimhanad or Desinganad. m. Rani Umma Devi, Rani of Venad, of the Kupaka family, probably joint ruler with her husband. He d. at Quilon, leaving several sons who quarrelled with his nephews over the succession, causing a long and disruptive civil war. He had issue:1) Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Sangramadhiran Trikshatra Chudamani, Raja of Venad – see below.

1299 – 1313      Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Sangramadhiran Trikshatra Chudamani, Raja of Venad. b. 1266, son of Raja Sri Jayasimha Deva, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, by his wife, Rani Umma Devi, Rani of Venad, educ. privately. Adopted by the childless Rani Aavani Amma Thampuran of Attingal. Succeeded to the throne of Kerala, at Kolambapuram (Quilon) 1299 (in his 33rd year). He asserted his independence in 1310 and claimed the Pandyan throne after marrying a Pandyan princess, ultimately defeating Jatavarman Vira Pandya, the illegitimate son of Maravarman Kulasekhara I, twice and assuming control of his realm. The garrisons established in the Tamil country by the Muslim invader, Malik Kafur, were expelled by him. He established his rule over most of the southern countries between Kanyakumari and Madras, and as far north as Nellore. Crowned at Madurai, 1312 (in his 46th year). He then defeated the Cholas and was crowned as Chakravathi on the banks of the Vegavati River, at Coonjevaram (Kanchipuram), 1314. During his reign, Quilon rose to great prominance as a centre of trade and international commerce. Author of “Pradyumnabhudayam”. m. before 1310, a daughter of the Pandya ruler Maravarman Kulasekhara. He d. at Quilon, 1313.



South India after the fall of the Kulasekharas
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1102 Raja Sri Rama Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Mentioned in the Rameswarathukoil Inscription as the founder of Venad as an independent state. He d. 1102, having had issue, a son:1) Raja Sri Kotha Varma Marthandam, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.1313 – 1333      Raja Sri Vira Udaya Martanda Varma, Vira Pandya Deva, Raja of Venad. Succeeded on the death of his cousin, 1313. Subjugated by King Ravi Varma Kulasekhara Perumal in 1316. He d. 1333, having adopted two daughters of the Kolathunad family, whom he installed as Attingal Mootha Tampuran (Senior Princess of Attingal) and Attingal Elaya Tampuran (Junior Princess of Attingal) in 1305 AD. The Senior Princess of Attingal being the ancestress of the branches of the ruling house settled at Quilon and Trivandrum. The younger princess being the ancestress of the Elayadathu Swarupam of Kottarakara and the Peraka Thavazhi branch of Nedumangad.

















1313 – 1333      Raja Sri Vira Udaya Martanda Varma, Vira Pandya Deva, Raja of Venad. Succeeded on 








CNTRL+  TO ENLARGE MAP








the death of his cousin, 1313. Subjugated by King Ravi Varma Kulasekhara Perumal in 1316. He d. 1333
, 
having adopted two daughters of the Kolathunad family, whom he installed as Attingal Mootha Tampuran

 (Senior Princess of Attingal) and Attingal Elaya Tampuran (Junior Princess of Attingal) in 1305 AD. The 

Senior Princess of Attingal being the ancestress of the branches of the ruling house settled at Quilon and 

Trivandrum. The younger princess being the ancestress of the Elayadathu Swarupam of Kottarakara and 

the Peraka Thavazhi branch of Nedumangad.




But till 1314 the Venad rulers practised Patriarchy and spoke only Tamil. After the invasion of Malik Kafur in 1310 all the Tamil dynasties of Kerala were replaced by Matriarchal dynasties. Kolathiri the Tulu Bunt ruler of Kannur send two princes called Attingal and Kunnumel Ranis to replace the last Tamil ruler Udayamarthanda Varma in 1314 AD

1333 – 1335      Raja Sri Aditya Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad.


1335 – 1342      Raja Sri Vira Rama Udaya Martanda Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad. b. 1307, eldest son of 


the Senior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately. Senior Tiruvadi of Chiravay. Succeeded 1335. Crowned, 


January 1336. He d. July 1342
.
1342 – 1363      Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad.


1363 – 1366      Raja Sri Vira Martanda Varma III, Raja of Venad. Ascended the gadi October 1363. He d


at Trivandrum Fort, September 1366 AD.


1366 – 1382      Raja Sri Vira Rama Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. b. 1338, eldest son of the Senior Rani 


of Attingal, educ. privately. Installed with full ruling powers, 1366. He d. at Trivandrum, 1382.


1383 – 1416      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi (Kilapperur)1416 – 


1417      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta Tiruva






1383                   Raja Sri Vira Kerala Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Vanad. b. 1366, 


elder twin son of the Junior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately. Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi (Kilapperur). 


Succeeded on the death of his maternal uncle, 1382. Reigned for three months before his death.


1383 – 1444      Raja Sri Chera Udaya Martanda Varma, Vira Padya Deva, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of 


Venad. b. 1366, younger twin son of the Junior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately.  Trippappur Mutta 


Tiruvadi. He enjoyed the longest reign in Travancore history. He d. at the Chera Mahadevi Palace, 1444,
 aged 78 years.


1444 – 1458      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad [“Venad Mootha Raja”=“the First Prince of 


Venad”)]. He d. 1458.


1458 – 1468      Raja Sankhara Sri Vira Rama Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad.

 From the Trippappur princely house. Jayasimhanad Mutta Tiruvadi. Ruled until October 1468.


1468 – 1484      Raja Sri Vira Kodai Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. From Kilapperur. Jayasimhanad 


Mutta Tiruvadi and Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi. He established his capital at Kallidaikurichi. A religious 


minded and learned ruler who devoted his time to artistic pursuits, charitable and public works. He d. at Kallidaikurichi, 1484.
1484 – 1503      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi. Established his 


capital at Padmanabhapuram, ca. 1500. His rule witnessed a growing enmity with the rulers of Vijayanagar 


and the arrival of the Portuguese. He d. 1504
.
1503 – 1504      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. He d. 1504.


1504 – 1528      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Kerala Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Succeeded as 


Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi and as ruler of Venad 1504. He d. 1528.

1528 – 15xx      Sri Vira Muttavar Sankaranarayana Venrumankonda Bhutalavira Udaya Martanda Varma 


Raja Jetunganadu Mutta Tiruvadi. Succeeded on the death of his maternal uncle as Trippappur Mutta 


Tiruvadi 1528. He conquered most of Tirunelvelly from the Pandyas and assumed the title of 


Venrumankonda Bhutalavira in commemoration of that victory. The Vijayanagar generalissimo, Salakaraja 


Chinna Tirumalayyadeva subsequently defeated him in battle near  Tamraparni 1535. Forced to surrender 


all the Pandya territories that he had previously won, and reduced to the position of a vassal of the

Vijayanagar Empire. Fl 685 ME, 688 ME, 707 ME and 722 ME. m. Cholakulavalli, a princess from the Chola dynasty. He d. 1560.

15xx – 1544      Raja Sri Aditya Varman, Raja of Venad. He d. January 1544.


1544 – 1554      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. From the Chiravay princely . Succeeded as ruler 


of Venad and installed on the same day at Vilavur Madom, Attur, Kulkulam, 6th January 1544.


1554 – 1575      Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. From Vanchi. Ascended the gadi, at the 


Tiruvitancode Temple, Kulkulam, 9th March 1554. He d. at Keralapuram Palace, Attur, Kalkulam, 25th 


March 1575.
1575 – 1577      Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Succeeded and installed on the same day at Attur, 25th March 1575. Installed at the Tiruvattar Shrine, 3rd June 1575.  He d. at 


Keralapuram Palace, Attur, Kalkulam, 19th January 1577, having adopted a princess and a prince from the 


Attingal Royal Family into the Chiravay Swarupam 1575, including:1) Prince Cheriya Rama Varma, of 


Manalikkara, in Kalkulam, a nephew of the Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi.1) Princess ...

1577 – 1578      interregnum?
 
1578 – 1592      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. Assumed the headship of the Chiravay 


Swarupam as Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi 18th November 1578. Ascended the gadi as ruler of Venad, 19th 


November 1578. Assumed the headship of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi 1587 


and formally installed as such at the Trippappur Mahadevar Temple, 26th October 1588. He d. June 1592, 


having adopted three princes into the Venad family.

1592 – 1609 

    Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma [Kettai Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, son of Rani 


Umayammai. A prince of from the Kilapperur Illam of the Trippappur Swarupam. Succeeded as ruler of Venad and ascended the gadi, 19th June 1592. Assumed the headship of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi in 1605. He d. at Toniman Palace, Tiruvattar, 30th March 1609.

1609 – 1610


      Raja Sri Rama Varma, Raja of Venad. From Iraniel (the traditional appanage of the Heir Apparent)


. Adopted into the Chiravay Swaruppam by Raja Sri Martanda Varma, at the Kulittura Palace, April 1579. Succeeded on the death of his adoptive brother, as ruler of Venad, 30th March 1609. He d. eleven months later, at the Karuppu Palace, Trivandrum, 28th February 1610.

1610                 Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. Adopted into the Chiravay Swaruppam by Raja Sri 


Martanda Varma, at the Kulittura Palace, April 1579. Succeeded on the death of his adoptive brother as 


ruler of Venad, 28th February 1610. He d. at the Pullikkottu Palace, Trivandrum, 13th May 1610.

1610                 Raja Sri Ilaya Rama Varma, Raja of Venad. From the Manalikkara branch of the family in Kalkulam. Succeeded 13th May 1610. He d. at the Tikkurichi Palace, Kalkulam, 6th September 1610. 



1610 – 1662         Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma [Revati Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. 


Succeeded on the death of his adoptive uncle as head of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta 


Tiruvadi and as ruler of Venad, 6th September 1610 (relinquished 1620?). Assumed the headship of the 


Chiravay Swarupam as Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi 1628 (relinquished 1647). He went on pilgrimage to 


Rawamswaram in 1620. Faced with a contest for the throne throughout his reign. Adopted into the Pokam 


Tavazhi Senior branch by its Head Vira Kerala Varma Moolam Tirunal, at Pullikottu Palace, Trivandrum, 


January 1622. Adopted into Kunnummel Elayadam Swarupam (Kottarakkara) by Vira Kerala Varma 


Pooyam Tirunal, at Karuppu Palace, Trivandrum, July 1623. He d. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum, 


11th August 1662 .

1662 – 1671      Raja Sri Rama Varma, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Princess Lakshmi Amma Pantarattil 


[Lakshmi Nambirattiyar Ammai], from the Vellarapalli Kovilakam of Cochin Royal Family. Adopted by the 


Senior Rani of Attingal, Pooram Tirunal, at the Attingal Palace,  June 1630. Succeeded 1651 or 827ME. 


Succeeded on the death of his uncle, 11th August 1662. Assumed the Headship of Jayatunganad (Quilon) 


1667. He d. at the Kalkulam Fort Palace, 13th September 1671.


1671 – 1677      Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Princess Lakshmi Amma Pantarattil 


[Lakshmi Nambirattiyar Ammai], from the Vellarapalli Kovilakam of Cochin Royal Family. Adopted by the 


Senior Rani of Attingal, Pooram Tirunal, at the Attingal Palace, June 1630. Succeeded on the death of his 


elder brother, 13th September 1671. Opposed by the pillamar, who conspired to burn the palace and cause 


him to flee the capital. He was k. (poisoned by the Yogakkars) at the Darbhakkulangara Palace, Kalkulam, 


between 28th January/25th February 1677.




Map of Kerala just after the fall of the Later Chera kingdom



1677 – 1678      Raja Sri Ramaraja Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad (first time) – see below.

1678 – 1681      Raja Sri Kerala Varma, Raja of Venad, elder son of the Princess of Nedumangadu, of the

 Perakat Tavazhi, educ. privately. Succeeded as Prince of Nedumangadu on the death of his uncle. Adopted 

into the Kyamkulam branch of the Cheraway Swarupam, 1677. He claimed that his mother had been 

adopted into the Trippappur Swarupam of the Venad Royal House, at the same time as his uncle, by Raja

 Ravi Varma in 1621. Consequently, declared the adoption of 1671 as invalid and claimed the throne for 

himself. He then joined forces with the discontented pillamars, defeated Rani Ummayamma Aswathi
Tirunal in late 1677 and opened negotiations with her mother. The old Rani Makayiram Tirunal having 

expired before the negotiations were complete, he seized the Royal regalia and proclaimed himself ruler in 

1678. Defeated and expelled from Trivandrum in 1681 by Prince Kerala Varma, the Second Tampuran of 

Iranyal. He subsequently made peace with Rani Ummayamma but failed to secure recognition as Second 

Tampuran of Venad. He d. 1693.


Travancore Kings
Marthanda Varma1729–1758
Dharma Raja1758–1798
Balarama Varma1798–1810
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi1810–1815
Gowri Parvati Bayi1815–1829




present maharaja Uthradom Thirunal Marthanda Varma
 (born 22 March 1922