Super Cyclone in Orissa 1999,


Super cyclonic storm (IMD)
Category 5 tropical cyclone (SSHS)
05B making landfall
Formed October 25, 1999
Dissipated November 3, 1999
Highest winds 3-minute sustained:
260 km/h (160 mph)
1-minute sustained:
260 km/h (160 mph)
Lowest pressure < 912 mbar (hPa); 26.93 inHg
Fatalities ~15,000 direct
Damage $4.5 billion (1999 USD)
Areas affected India, Myanmar
Part of the 1999 North Indian Ocean cyclone season


Storm path
India
The 1999 Orissa cyclone, also known as Cyclone 05B, and Paradip cyclone, was the deadliest tropical cyclone in the Indian Ocean since the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone, and deadliest Indian storm since 1971. The Category Five storm made landfall just weeks after a category 4 storm hit the same general area.
A tropical depression formed over the Malay Peninsula on October 25. It moved to the northwest and became a tropical storm on October 26. It continued to strengthen into a cyclone on October 27. On October 28, it became a severe cyclone with a peak of 160 mph (260 km/h) winds. It hit India the next day as a 155 mph (250 km/h) cyclone. It caused the deaths of 15,000 people, and heavy to extreme damage in its path of destruction.

 The storm passed to the south of Myanmar and continued to strengthen, and intensified to a cyclone on the 27th in the open Bay of Bengal. On October 28, the cyclone rapidly intensified to a peak of 160 mph (260 km/h) winds, the equivalent of a Category 5 hurricane. The system was the first storm to be given the new meteorological label "super cyclonic storm" by the IMD

 he cyclone dumped heavy torrential rain over southeast India, causing record breaking flooding in the low-lying areas.The storm surge was 26 feet (8 meters). struck the coast of Orissa, traveling up to 20 km inland. 17,110 km² (6,600 mi²) of crops were destroyed,and an additional 90 million trees were either uprooted or had snapped. Approximately 275,000 homes were destroyed, leaving 1.67 million people homeless.Another 19.5 million people were affected by the supercyclone to some degree. A total of 9,803 people officially died from the storm, with 40 others still missing, though it is believed that 15,000 people died. 8,119 of those fatalities were from the Jagatsinghpur district. Another 3,312 people were injured. 2,043 out of 5,700, or 36% of the residents of Padmapur perished. The number of domestic animals fatalities was around 2.5 million,though the number of livestock that perished in the cyclone amounted to only 406,000.The high number of domestic animal deaths may have possibly had to do with around 5 million farmers losing their livelihood. The damage across fourteen districts in Indiaresulted from the storm was approximately $4.5 billion (1999 USD, $5.1 billion 2005 USD



Indian Red Cross Society (IRCS) immediately responded with emergency relief,[4] as did BAPS Care International (BAPSCI).[7] The Orissa state branch extended the emergency relief phase to a three-month relief operation and a six-month rehabilitation program with the help of the Federation. The overall humanitarian response spanned well into the late 2000. The Orissa State Branch (OSB) immediately shipped emergency buffer stocks from the Indian Red Cross headquarters in New Delhi.[4] BAPSCI dispatched about 2,340 volunteers to 84 villages greatly affected by the storm. BAPSCI also cremated 700 bodies and buried 3,500 cattle carcasses because many people were superstitious about touching the dead bodies of those they did not know. Three villages were "adopted" by BAPSCI in January 2000 to rebuild, Chakulia, Banipat, and Potak, all in Jagatsinghpur. A total of 200 concrete homes were constructed, as well as two concrete schools and two village tube-wells. The project was finally completed in May 2002, two and a half years after the cyclone hit.[7] As of October 30, 1999, 50,000 people were evacuated from low-lying flooded areas on the coast of the Ganjam and Jagatsinghpur districts. More people on the coast of Paradeep were evacuated by the Orissa Government.
The Federation withdrew 200,000 CHF from its Disaster Relief Emergency Fund to send to India, but the Indian Government refused the money, saying the cyclone was not a national disaster.
 Many people died of starvation and diseases after the storm, since rescue workers could not reach everyone in time

HISTORICAL SEVERE CYCLONE STORM EVENTS PASSING ORISSA COAST
Date Type Wind
Velocity(Kmph)
9thNov. 1973 VSCS 209
30th Oct. 1971 VSCS 187
31st Oct.1912 VSCS 185
9th Nov.1995 VSCS Nr
22nd Sept. 1972 VSCS 185
10th Sept. 1972 VSCS 176
12th May 1979 VSCS 170
16th Nov 1942 VSCS 168
17th Oct.
1999(Gopal pur)
VSCS 185
29th
Oct.1999(Paradeep)260




There were scenes of appalling devastation following the cyclone

















1999: Super-cyclone wreaks havoc in India
A massive cyclone has swept through the state of Orissa in eastern India, killing an unknown number of people and leaving thousands more homeless. The extent of the damage is difficult to determine. The area is almost impossible to reach, as the cyclone has torn down bridges and


made roads and railways impassable.
All communications have been cut, and the rescue effort is being hampered by the continuing bad weather.
Officials in the state capital, Bhubaneshwar, say nine deaths have been confirmed, but that number is expected to rise rapidly.
Many towns and villages have not been able to report casualty figures or damage assessments because telephone lines have been brought down.
Tidal wave
The winds are believed to have reached over 160 mph (250 km/h) - some of the highest ever recorded in the region.
A devastating tidal wave has also driven in across the low-lying plains along the coast, wiping out entire villages.
Unconfirmed reports say the flooding stretches as much as nine miles inland.
Army helicopters have begun dropping food parcels to survivors, and have reported thousands of people stranded on the roofs of their houses or huddled together in pockets of high ground.
The government is to deploy soldiers to help the rescue effort, and emergency specialists are also making their way to the region.
Disease warning
There is serious concern, however, that the scale of the disaster and the remoteness of some of the communities affected will make it extremely difficult to get supplies through to the worst-hit areas.
The longer relief is delayed, the higher the likelihood of water-borne diseases and starvation setting in.
There has already been a call from some politicians in Delhi for the government to call on the international community for help.
It is the second cyclone to hit the area in two weeks.
The first, with winds of about 135 mph (217 km/h), hit a little further down the coast in mid-October.
It killed more than 150 people and affected nearly 500,000 others.
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Super Cyclone in Orissa


On October 29 (Friday) 1999, a super cyclonic storm hit the coastal districts of Orissa like Kendrapara, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Bhadrak, some parts of Puri and Khurda and adjacent areas along the Bay of Bengal with a velocity of more than 300 kmph.
The cyclone was so severe that it took the lives of more than 50,000 people and 10 lakh domestic animals. The cyclone, as reported by the Meteorological Department at Bhubaneswar, Orissa, was the strongest ever to hit Orissa, more powerful than the any other storms of other years, even than the 1971 cyclone that hit Kendrapara taking the lives of about 10,000 people.
As the epicentre of the cyclone was 5 mms. Away from Para dip Port in the sea, the port town Para dip was worst affected by this cyclone. The sea water from Para dip Port rose to such an unbelievable height that it inundated a large area extending upto Erasmus - a distance of about 22 mms from it. The total area was under sea water about 20-30 feet height and thousands and thousands people were drowned, hundreds and hundreds houses were perished and lakhs of domestic animals were washed away.
The worst affected were the fishermen who had gone deep sea for fishing and their family members remaining at the hutments at the beach that day. Nobody was expecting that severity of the storm would reach such an alarming alacrity.
Neither the fishermen nor their family members were able to take a safe shelter. Within some hours all were perished by the tidal wave that rose unto six to seven meters height. Large areas were inundated in the coastal regions. There was no road link and no electricity and other means of communications were disrupted for days together. Ten coastal districts from Puri to Belabored were cut off completely for several days from rest of the country.
In the capital city Bhubaneswar itself, which is about 60 mms from the Puri coast helpless people became mute spectators to this ferocious and devastating agony of the nature. Within a short span of time lakhs of trees were uprooted, electricity and telephone poles were flattened down and kootchar houses of slum dwellers were blown away like puff balls.
There was no light, no water supply, no means of communication and no supply of day-to-day commodities. The roads were blocked by uprooted trees and electricity and telephone poles. A total standstill situation prevailed in the capital city that continued for a week. Nights became calm and quiet without electricity amid deep den of darkness.
The devastating cyclone though continued twenty two hours at a stretch and its ferocity subsided next day morning, but the effects of devastation remained as a scar even for next twenty two months to recover to normalcy.
Adding to the cyclone the river waters of Belabored, Mayurbhanj and Bhadrak districts rose to certain heights that the flood situation made the condition worst. Nearly ten million people or one-fourth of the population of Orissa spread across eleven districts had been severely affected and around 2.5 lakh houses had been perished.
The worst affected were the domestic animals. An estimated 3 lakh cattle were dead and 3 crore trees had been uprooted making the whole area a burial ground after the cyclone and bumper standing crops of a lakh hectares of land .spreading across the area were completely mingled to the soil.
The post effects of the cycle were much severe than the effect during cyclone itself. There were carcasses scattering here and there of human, cattle and other animals. Roads were blocked by uprooted trees and electric and telephone poles.
The ponds, wells and tanks were filled with garbage’s. Even, when the sea water arose and inundated a large area, the salinity of cultivated lands increased making these unfit for further cultivation and the increased salinity of water's of tanks, well and ponds made their water unbootable. A foul smell prevailed for long due to putrefaction of carcasses, leaves of uprooted trees and other materials.
There was no food, no light, not shelter and no water to drink. Even epidemic like cholera and diarrhea broke out in some areas by drinking dirty and foul water and by taking nonedible things. The situation was quite grim which could not be imagined by a normal man.
Relief operations though started almost immediately i.e. after 24 hours of the cyclone but the problem was that there were no means of communication by which the materials could be reached to the people. The roads were blocked and at some places these were washed away. Hence aerial droppings were started the army started Operation Sahayata and nearly 2000 army personnel were deployed.
The Army Medical teams of doctors, nurses and paramedical staff camped in the coastal regions and started extending the medical services. The soldiers began laying makeshift roads. The damage bridges were repaired. The carcasses were recovered and burnt down not to pollute environment.
Military helicopters and the Air Force started dropping food bags. The Navy Personnel were engaged in rescue operations. Many Volunteer Organizations like Ram Krishna Math, Anand Margi and others came forward with relief materials of food, clothes and medicines. Some organizations started distributing prepared food day and night to the affected people for so many days.
Some neighboring State governments even extended full support of all sorts to the affected areas without hesitation. The Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh Mr. Chandrababu Naidu immediately sent food, clothes, polythene-water packets and medicines and rescue party including doctors, engineers, electricians, paramedical teams and volunteers. Relief materials started reaching from other States also.
The West Bengal government donated Rs. 50 lakhs while the Bihar Chief Minister Mrs. Rabbi Devi gave Rs, 10 crores and the Kerala Government Rs. 50 lakhs as relief contributions. The Maharashtra government announced a Rs. 5 crore help while the M.P. Government sent in Rs. 50 lakhs in cash and food items. Relief materials poured' in form other States like Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and U.P. The Centre released Rs. 100 crores from the Prime Minister's Relief Fund describing the cycle as a national calamity. In addition, an advance support of Rs, 200 crores was arranged for the Orissa Government.
Reliefs from abroad also started to reach. Japan Govt. announced a $ 25,000 donation to the Prime Minister's National Relief Fund, while the US pledged an assistance of Rs. 10.07 crores. The British Government announced Rs. 2.3 crores as a grant to the victims of cyclone hit areas, while the German Government donated Rs. 3.2 crores. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Denmark, Norway, France and Russian governments also announced donations for the cyclone victims.
The Orissa cyclone - 1999 was so severe, so ferocious and so devastating that hardly anybody could believe by simple talking. Only a victim could realize what was that - a super cyclone' in reality.
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ORISSA'S SUPER-CYCLONE
HOLOCAUST OF GIGANTIC PROPORTIONS

Death, said a survivor, was bliss, compared to the living-hell for those managing to exist. The
trauma of having lost many of one's family is accompanied by the nightmare of survival and the humiliation of being totally dependent on relief handed down by rapacious wolves. The stench of death continues to envelop the living, with corpses and animal carcasses haunting the destitute population.
In fourteen of the thirty districts of Orissa, encompassing half the population of the state, 1.5 crore people face a grim future. With crops and houses destroyed, household belongings and grains washed away, drinking water polluted by dead animals, land turned infertile by saline water…….. survival itself has become a desperate struggle. And if to all this is added hunger and disease, together with exposure to the raw winter……. the tragedy has reached unbelievable proportions. While thousands have been bulldozed by earth-movers into vast faceless graves, the lakhs of survivors stare blankly into a bottomless pit of darkness.
And amidst this gigantic human tragedy, the political vultures prey not only on the dead but also on the living, minting fortunes from relief monies. While lakhs starve and wither away to a painful death of disease, the politicians in a maniacal scramble for power, seek only electoral capital from the devastation. Vampire-like, they crave for votes and power, utilising people's agony to oil their electoral machines.
The Orissa cyclone, though a natural calamity, has become a man-made disaster a holocaust of monstrous proportions.

THE CYCLONES
On October 17th '99, the first cyclone struck Ganjam district with a wind speed of 180 kms per hour. This first cyclone, which lasted 6 hours, devastated large parts of Ganjam and Gajapati districts and affected a few mandals in Andhra Pradesh.
The super-cyclone struck on October 29th with wind-speeds of 300 kms per hour and tidal waves rising 12 metres (30 to 40 feet) high. The area around Paradeep Port, bore the full brunt of the storm. Twelve districts were affected, the worst being Jagatsinghpur and Kendrapada. Unlike most cyclones, which pass within 8 hours, this cyclone continued for 34 hours wrecking havoc in 40% of Orissa. By November 30th the entire region, including the state capital, Bhubaneshwar, was cut off from the rest of the world.
The destruction can be imagined from the fact that even the state capital, which was 150 kms away from the centre of the storm was not able to restore power to all parts of the city even 11 days after the calamity. Twenty-four lakh hectares were inundated with water……. both from the storm and tidal waves. And it was only a fortnight later, when the water began to recede, did the full impact of the holocaust begin to emerge……. displaying lakhs of animal carcasses and thousands of bloated human bodies. Death, disease and destruction were all around. Wild dogs attacked the carcasses; politicians and bureaucrats, the relief money and goods.
While the Paradeep port authority, with access to the high-tech warning systems, took all precautions well in advance, the masses were left stranded to face the full fury of the cyclone.
The super-cyclone had given enough indication of its savage fury long before it struck. For four days the cyclone circulation lay in the Bay of Bengal acquiring monstrous proportions. The Indian Meteorological Department (I.M.D.), which has a separate division for cyclone warning, had sent out a warning to Orissa and West Bengal on the super-cyclone, 4 days in advance. The Doordarshan, though it broadcast warnings, it was in such technical language, that it could not be understood by the common people. Besides, the reports were conflicting. In fact on the very morning of October 29th, TV reports, quoting I.M.D. officials in Bhubaneshwar said “the latest reports say that the cyclone, centred just 180 kms from south-east of Paradeep, has changed its path slightly and is heading for the West Bengal coast". Yet, within hours of this broadcast the cyclone struck Paradeep.

1991 Bangladesh cyclone (1991)
1991 Bangladesh cyclone
1991
HIGH-TECH: LOW PREPARATIONS
After the Kandla cyclone in 1998, the Government commissioned a report for disaster preparedness which emphasized satellite phones, high-resolution satellite imagery, expensive cranes, etc. But all this became redundant, as far as the people were concerned, as there was no backup in the form of communications and disaster management.
Regarding a communication system, the Space Research Organization has strung 250 storm-warning receivers all along the Indian coast. At the time of crisis, the satellite is supposed to switch on the receivers which broadcast a siren and puts out a warning in the local language. The Orissa coastline has 34 of such hooters. But, at the time of the cyclone the bulk of these were not functioning.
Besides, unless there is an efficient disaster management system, little can be salvaged. No such system exists. On the contrary, successive governments have facilitated the havoc by allowing ecological degradation of the forest cover... particularly the mangrove forests. Since 1981 the area under forests in Orissa has been reduced by 50%. And the illegal shrimp-farms on the coast, which continue to operate in spite of a 1996 Supreme Court order for their closure, has destroyed much of the coastal mangroves of the region.
Also, the Central Govt., with its high profile National Disaster Management Division (a full-fledged cell of the Ministry of Agriculture) turned out to be an even more pathetic failure. It first proved totally clueless, then panicked, and later became totally silent. Its control room staled: all lines are down, there are no satellite pictures owing to heavy cloud cover, there is no power, we are helpless.... Even the army, which was in readiness since October 25th after receiving the I.M.D. reports, was only given their movement orders on Oct 29th after the cyclone had struck.
So, the high-tech I.M.D. only benefited the big companies and institutions like the Paradeep Port which have their own structures for disaster management. The masses in no way benefited from such sophisticated technology as it never reached them. Besides, together with all this high-tech talk, the Chief Minister Gamang, (as is the habit with most leaders) opted to consult select astrologers who predicted that the storm would not hit Orissa.

THE GRAVITY OF' THE HOLOCAUST
While the government has trivialized the gravity of the cyclone; the media has downplayed the horrendous impact on the lives of the people. As a result, many do not realize the enormity of the disaster and its impact on future generations of the people of Orissa. Though the magnitude of suffering worsens each day, the issue is now totally ignored.
Consider the facts: an estimated 70,000 people killed; 3.7 lakh cattle destroyed; 9 crore trees uprooted; 15.7 lakh hectares of paddy crop and 33,000 hectares of other crops washed away; 12.5 lakh houses damaged or destroyed; and 1.5 crore people affected. 10 lakh people have been afflicted with diarrhoea and an unknown number have died of cholera. All wells are unsafe except the 3,500 deep bore wells.
Eighty percent of the tree cover has been washed away. The entire coconut and betel-wine crop in the coastal region has been damaged and is expected to take over a decade to recover. The business loss on just betel leaf plantations amounts to Rs 25 lakhs per day in only the two districts of Bhubaneshwar and Cuttack. Besides, the 9 crore trees on the coastline, one Iakh trees of the protected forests and 480 kms of casuarina trees have been destroyed. Tribals, living on forest produce, now have no source of income.
Saline inundation has damaged vegetation and it would be three years before the land could be revived. Paddy fields that have been salt encrusted would take at least five years before normal harvests could be obtained. The total crop loss is estimated to be at Rs. 1,750 crores affecting 24 lakh hectares of farm land.
The state's rich dairy sector has also suffered heavy losses. Over 500 milk cooperatives have been badly affected with daily collection of milk dropping from one lakh litres to 10,000 litres. More than 1,000 poultry farms have been destroyed, affecting the livelihood of 1500 families engaged in this sector. Lakhs more cattle face starvation and disease through drinking contaminated water.
About 300 fishermen were killed and 60% of the 11,000 country boats destroyed. Also, 2,500 mechanized boats and 400 trawlers sank. About 500 trawlers sank at Paradeep port.
Though some big industrial units have been hit, the major damage is to small and medium industries. About 700 small or medium scale units, employing 80,000 people have been devastated in Bhubaneshwar and Cuttack alone. 13,840 primary schools in the 13 affected districts have been totally destroyed.
Such then is the magnitude of the havoc, which has been systematically downplayed. But, the most scandalous disinformation has been on the death toll. While the official figure given out is around 10,000; local journalists put the figure at a minimum of 70,000. The absurdity of the government's figures can well be imagined from the fact that its figures rose by just 500 after the water began to recede. It was then that the bulk of the bodies were, in fact, discovered and bulldozed into mass graves. Yet, the death-toll figure barely rose.
Some facts indicate the real figure: When the official toll had reached 9,000, senior government officials admitted that only 5% of the death toll was being reported. In Ersama block alone, 37 villages had been washed away, and the local MLA put the death figure of the block at 20,000. In neighbouring Balikuda block unofficial reports say the deaths were at least 5,000. Also, unofficial reports put the toll at Paradeep Port at 15,000.
In fact the PM's Office has itself, in a secret report, admitted to 25,000 deaths. Obviously there is a conscious attempt at disinformation to downplay the extent of the tragedy in order 10 minimize relief expenditures. That generations to come will suffer its impact, is of little concern to these blood-suckers.

CRIMINAL NEGLIGENCE & POLITICS OF RELIEF
It took almost a week before the state and Centre could swing into action to provide rudimentary rescue and relief measures. The first relief train reached the area only 4 days after the tragedy. The food packets air-dropped gave only token relief and served more as publicity for the air force and government. The government, after all, could not be seen to be doing nothing during that most crucial first week. For all their sophisticated gadgetry, relief operations could be started only 72 hours after the cyclone, due to the bad weather.
In the very capital city, Bhubaneshwar, even after a fortnight, 25,000 slum-dweller families, whose houses were destroyed, had received no relief. Vast areas of Jajpur district were made accessible by road only 10 days after the cyclone, and virtually no relief reached the people till then. Ersama could not be reached even two weeks after the tragedy — the army turned back as the road from Paradeep was tittered with human corpses. Several villages under the two blocks of Ersama and Balikuda were still not accessible by road 17 days after the cyclone. In fact, three weeks after the cyclone George Fernandes himself admitted that 5% (or 400) villages had still to be accessed.
For both the major political parties their prime focus was not relief, but gaining advantage for the March 2000 assembly elections. Crores of rupees were wasted in showpiece 'aerial surveys', when detailed pictures were available in Delhi through satellite imaging in clear T.V. pictures. But all the political bigwigs took their routine helicopter joy rides (Vajpayee went in a Boeing) to make a pretence of concern. Let us take a look at the reaction of the major political parties and the civil administration.

THE BJP COMBINE:
The political manipulations began with the Oct.17th cyclone itself. After Vajpayee's first aerial survey, he released double the funds to the A.P. government (a political ally), though the damage there was a small fraction of that in Orissa. In A.P. there were no deaths and under one lakh people of four mandals were affected; while in Ganjam district of Orissa 200 people were killed 21 lakh affected and over Rs. 1,000 crore property destroyed. Yet the Centre gave Rs. 100 crore to A.P. and a mere Rs.50 crore to Orissa. Later, the Naidu government was portrayed as the most efficient in helping the cyclone-affected in Orissa, conveniently forgetting the vast sums made available to it.
Besides, after the super-cyclone struck, it took the central government over ten days before it appointed a Central Task Force (CTF) headed by George Fernandes, to oversee relief. Till today it is not clear what exactly this CTF did, except to utilise its status for a propaganda campaign against the ruling Congress(I). In fact, in his first press conference ten days after taking over as head of the Task Force, Fernandes said he had no idea of the enormity of the task.
In spite of such a major calamity the Vajpayee government refused to declare the cyclone as a national calamity. Such a declaration would have entailed additional funds from the Centre and have facilitate aid from international bodies. In order not to declare it a National Calamity, Vajpayee and his ilk resorted to lies, deceit and subterfuge, saying that there are no statutory grounds for such a declaration. In fact the 10th Finance Commission has clearly stated that, "once a calamity is deemed to be of rare severity it really ought to be dealt with as a national calamity, requiring assistance and support beyond what is envisaged in the CRF (Calamity Relief Fund) scheme". Obviously the Centre was averse to granting relief for the affected. It finally gave a mere Rs.300 crores to the state, while the balance given was a loan, to be set off against future allocations. The local BJD did little, except to criticise the government and gain political mileage for the Corning assembly elections. The RSS, during the crucial period, was more pre-occupied in the campaign against the Pope's visit and in the mobilisation for its yatra. Even in Orissa, it was more concerned with creating obstacles for the Christian NGOs' relief work, than assisting the affected people.

CONGRESS (I):
If the BIP-led Centre displayed criminal apathy, the local state government and Congress(I) came out as greedy vultures, preying on the death and destruction wrought by the cyclone. This was reflected in the rabid dog-fights within the Congress(I) for the spoils of office……. with each contender for the CM's post eyeing the vast relief funds due to flow into the state. While lakhs of people lay dying of starvation and disease, relief work was stalled by the factional fights; with all the MLAs camping at Bhubaneshwar, pre-occupied in the scramble for power.
Even otherwise, the bulk of the MLAs and officials were conspicuous by their absence. A victim, in fact, said: "Where are the district authorities and government representatives? They fled like rats to safer places when the cyclone hit. They have not even visited the place since". The CM actually went on record to say that his government has run away, so he could do nothing in the affected areas. He added that his civil servants were being lynched by the people. Gamang himself spent most of his time shuttling between Bhubaneshwar and Delhi, begging for funds and playing internal power politics. In a bid to corner all the benefits, the CM asked for exclusive rights to supervise operations.

THE BUREAUCRACY:
The Orissa Govt. is one of the eleven states already indicted in a CAG (Comptroller and Auditor General) report of having misused Relief funds. Even on this occasion, with the Govt.'s coffers empty, when the centre released Rs.500 crores, Rs.100 crores was diverted to pay salaries of the staff. This aside, the callousness of the officialdom, amounted to criminal negligence.
In the very midst of the crisis (on Nov 9th), the Orissa Chief Secretary, S.B. Mishra, flew to the U.S.A. to visit his ailing daughter. The Pun District Collector had 'disappeared' and the Govt. had to rush another Collector (on Oct 29th) to replace him. The District Collector of Bhadrak left his post and had to be replaced on Nov 6th. The District Collector of Kendrapada refused to move out, while the Collector of Jaipur was transferred for doing nothing. The three District magistrates of the worst affected districts of Kendrapada, Bhadrak and Jajpur were transferred for negligence.
In a severely affected coastal district, just 100 kms. from the capital: its collector was transferred four days after the disaster struck; the Additional Magistrates post lay vacant; the Superintendent of Police was on leave, only to be replaced by a tainted officer; and the MP of the area was safely lodged in Delhi, after the routine aerial survey, while the MLA made an appearance only four days after the event.
Not surprisingly, due to this inertia, even three weeks after the cyclone, 40% of the grain was yet to be distributed; one-third of the cloth had not yet reached the people; much of the cooked material (like lemon-rice) sent from other states rotted in Bhubaneshwar; and relief material piled up in the capital city as distribution was not properly organized.
But, the most detestable of all, were reports of high level corruption in the purchase and distribution of relief materials. In fact, the polythene sheets scandal, involving a fraud of Rs.100 crores, led to the suspension of the very chief in charge of relief. D.N. padhi, the Special Relief Commissioner of Orissa was suspended for irregularities in the procurement of polythene sheets.

IMPERIALIST SCAVENGERS:
Foreign voluntary agencies like CARE used the occasion to make deep inroads into rural Orissa dispensing discards from the US.
But what particularly created revulsion amongst the people of Orissa was the attitude of the US MNC, AES Corporation, which currently holds 51% of the stock in the Central Electricity Supply Company (CESCO), which supplies power to coastal Orissa. Forget about helping in relief, the CEO of AES flew down from America demanding compensation for the Rs.300 crore damage suffered due to the cyclone. He demanded either payment from the Govt. or else an immediate three-fold hike in electricity charges.
And as for the world-bank, it took a full month before it sent a team of twenty just to visit the area. The aim, no doubt, was not relief, but how to gear reconstruction to serve imperialist interests. Already the Govt. announced reforestation plan, smacks of a typical World Bank scheme for developing eucalyptus and casuarina plantations.

PEOPLE'S REVOLT
That relief work was more geared towards propaganda and publicity rather than the actual needs of the situation, came out clearly through this crisis. Though an immediate task lay in the clearing of carcasses to prevent the spread of disease this was neglected as it was considered a too lowly task for the pampered army or the high profile NGOs. Even 20 days after the cyclone, barely one-third of the 3.7 lakh carcasses had been removed. In this caste ridden society, the task was finally given to the Dalits. In a abhorrent casteist scheme, hundreds of sweepers were mobilised from all over Orissa, and even 200 were brought from Delhi, for this 'lowly' task. Not surprisingly, the process was exceedingly slow leading to the spread of disease.
The callous approach of the officials in all relief related work resulted in riots throughout the affected areas. The desperate masses unleashed their anger at the politicians, officials and police. Even central ministers were not spared from the people's wrath.
This was reflected in the physical attack on two central ministers, George Fernandes and Navin Patnaik, when they visited Paradeep three days after the cyclone. A furious crowd attacked the helicopter that brought the two VIPs and their entourage. To save himself from the people's wrath the pilot took off without Fernandes. Patnaik, panic-stricken, escaped from the clutches of an angry crowd and scrambled into the helicopter as it took off. The helicopter had to make four landings before it could pick up Fernandes. The people were protesting against the total lack of relief supplies, drinking water and medicines in the Port city, even three days after the cyclone.

CALAMITIES: NATURAL OR MAN-MADE?
Orissa, one of the richest states in the country, is the most poverty-stricken. It has rich mineral resources like bauxite, iron-ore, manganese-ore, limestone, nickel, coal and 95% of the country's chrome ore. Paradeep is one of the five busiest ports in the country. Yet, Orissa is infamous for its starvation deaths in Kalahandi and other districts. In fact, the affected coastal regions were the most prosperous parts of the state. Now, they too will join the ranks of a Kalahandi.
Today, throughout the world, it is poverty and backwardness that is a major cause for all devastation caused by 'natural' calamities. It is not surprising that such destruction occurs only in the third world and not in the developed countries. America, for example is continuously hit by cyclones, but few die. When Hurricane Elena hit the US in 1985, only 5 people died. But when a cyclone slammed Bangladesh in 1991, half a million people were killed. Besides, ruthless ecological destruction has made third world countries more prone to 'natural' calamities.
In the case of India, the magnitude of such devastation has increased roughly three to eight fold over the past three decades. Natural disasters affect over 56 million people on an average every year, and kill 5,063. Floods hit over 11.2% of India's total cultivable land; and 4 crore hectares is prone to floods. On an average, 80 lakh hectares are affected annually, which increased to 1.86 crore hectares in 1999. The average annual damage ranges from Rs.627 crores to Rs.4,059 crores a year. In addition, about 28% of the cultivable land is drought-prone.
Besides yearly floods and droughts, cyclones and earthquakes are increasing in frequency. The 1971 Orissa cyclone and the 1974 Andhra Pradesh cyclone killed 10,000 each. The 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake and the more devastating Latur earthquake killed thousands more.
Deforestation, big dams, and other ecological imbalances is a major reason for the increasing number of 'natural' calamities. And the lack of governmental concern is the reason for the extensive damage to life and property. The massacre of thousands in the Orissa cyclone; and the disease, starvation and death that follows, is the product of a system which thrives on profit, greed, and rapacious loot of the country's natural and human resources. High-tech purchases of the IMD may help protect businesses, ports and their properties, but only a comprehensive grass-roots disaster management system can save the people from death and destruction.
But such a structure is unthinkable within the existing framework. If the danger from natural calamities is to be reduced, there must be an immediate stop to the rape of the country's national resources, particularly its rich forest/mangrove cover and irrational water schemes. But such measures are only possible, when the people them selves seize power and assert control over their environment. As long as alien forces, dominated by the MNCs, comprador houses, contractors, etc, maintain control, and profit and plunder is their sole motive, there can be no hope for the affected masses. Conditions will only deteriorate; 'natural' calamities will recur with increasing frequency.
Also, havoc to life and property as a result of natural calamities can only be controlled by introducing people-oriented safety measures. But, with an approach, where: monetary returns are sought for every rupee invested, no socially meaningful schemes are possible. Cyclones will come and go; thousands may be killed and lakhs of peoples' future destroyed, but the rulers will remain unconcerned, seeking only profit amidst the devastation.
Any hope for a better future for the affected masses inconceivable without a radical change in the socio-economic system…….. through building a system, based not on profit and private gain, but one that is socially oriented — that keeps the interests of the masses as primary. It is only then that returns on investments will be measured, not in monetary terms, but in social and human gains.
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DAMAGE DETAILS
                                                              MAPS
Affected Districts (12)
(1) Balasore (2) Bhadrak (3) Jajpur (4) Kendrapara (5) Jagatsinghpur (6) Khurda (7) Puri (8) Cuttack (9) Nayagarh (10) Keonjhar (11) Mayurbhanj (12)Dhenkanal (partially)

         Extent of Damage
Population 129.22 lakh
Villages 14643
Blocks/ ULBs 97/28
Crop Area 18.42 lakh ha.
Houses 16.49 lakh
        Loss of Human Life
Jagatsinghpur 8119
Cuttack 471
Kendrapara 469
Puri 301
Jajpur  188
Bhadrak 98
Khurda 91
Dhenkanal 55
Balasore 51
Keonjhar 31
Mayurbhanj 10
Nayagarh 3
Total 9887
Persons Injured 2507
Missing 40
Live stock perished 4.44 lakh
Fishing boats lost 9085
Fishing nets lost 22143
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Cyclone 

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Officials lauded for relief efforts

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SRIKAKULAM: Eventhough Cyclone Phailin has been described by many as much fiercer than the 1999 cyclonethat flattened districts across Odisha and North AP and left nearly 10,000 dead, but the minimal loss of life and limb in this storm is being attributed to the prompt and proactive disaster management efforts of the authorities. Sources said a major tragedy was averted mainly due to the preparedness of the authorities who ensured that everything was in place at the cyclone warning shelter right from water, separate sleeping arrangements and health staff was available. NDRF members too were in place, who were able to evacuate many people on time to cyclone shelters, despite public resistance."We know we are safe. We have been fishing in these waters for generations and realise the magnitude of the danger posed," grumbled fisherman K Samudralu.

DPRO Srikakulam, L Ramesh, said, "We did not want a repeat of the 1999 situation when devastation spread across 175 villages and crop of 1,28,850 acres was destroyed. When we got the warning on October 9, an emergency meeting was immediately convened by the collector who said the focus should be on saving lives. Of course, we had conducted a mock drill three months ago as per the disaster management action planas the cyclone season was not too far away." By October 10, relief teams were in place, with special officers for every mandal and relief officers for every two villages. "Evacuations began on October 10 and under the collector's orders all the major reservoirs such as the Gotta Barrage, Thotapalli and Madduvalasa were totally emptied to ensure there would be no flooding in case of heavy rains," he added.