Worldwide Guide to Women in Leadership

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities

1900-18 Regent Maharani Girraj Kaur of Bharatpur (India)
Acted for regent for her son, Shri Maharaja Sirurijendra Sawaikishnan Singh (1898-1900-29), after her husband was deposed and exiled after the murder of one of his personal servants. Her grandson was Maharaja Brijendra (1918-28-95). She (d. 1922).

Around 1900 Uleebalang and General Pocut Baren Biheue in Aceh Barat (Indonesia)
During the early war against the Dutch she had one of her legs amputed. She was cured by the Dutch who reinstated her as an Autonomous Ruler, Uleebalang. Lieutenant H. Scheurleer later reported that she tried to create orderliness, security and prosperity under Dutch authority. She lived (1880-1933).

1900-13 Ratu Petronella da Costa of Lidak (Indonesia)
Succeeded father, Alexander da Costa, and abdicated in favour of her brother, Raja Josef da Costa (also named Jozef da Costa or Siriman), who had succeeded their mother Ratu Petronella da Costa as ruler of Djeniloe. Two other brothers were also rajas: adopted Raja of Naitimoe and Raja of Fialarang. From 1913 the Dutch merged the small principalities together, because they thought that fewer and bigger political entities would make it for them to rule the area. So in 1914 Naitimoe, Lidak and Djeniloe officially became the new federation Kakoelak Mesak, with Raja Josef da Costa as Raja, and the following year he became ruler of the Federation of the Northern Part of Belu.

After 1900 Temporary Ina Latu Mie Pattiradjawane of Makariki (Indonesia)
A member of the Wattimena family, she succeeded Opu Latu Weinand Wattimena, who ruled in 1900. She later married Raja S.F. Pattiradjawane of Kariu at Island of Haruku.

Early 1900s Reiging Okinka Juliana of the Island of Kanabak (Roxa) (Guinea Bissau)
The rules of succession on the islands of Bubak, Rubane, Orango and Kanabak (Roxa) provide for it being assumed on a temporary basis by a woman. In some recorded cases women, whether the eldest daughters of an Olono who left no male siblings, or widows, assumed their role as “queens” by succession or election. If no suitable male successor could be found from within the ruling matrilineage after the death of an olono, an “okinka” or priestess already charged with the protection of the ancestral spirits of the ruling matriclan could function as regent.

Jahan Begum
1901-26 H.H. Sikander Saulat, Iftikhar ul-Mulk, Nawab Sultan Kaikhusrau Jahan Begum Sahiba, Nawab Begum of Bhopal (India)
1901-02 Chief Minister of Bhopal
Also known as Sarkar Amman or Shah Jahan, she succeeded her mother, Sikander Begum. She was a forceful ruler, and reformed the administration of state. She attended the coronation of George V in 1911 dressed in a burqa with her awards worn on the outside. During the trip, she visited Paris, a spa in Bad Nauenheim in Germany, spent a week in Génève and travelled by the Orient Express to Istanbul, where she met the sultan-emperor, Mehmet Reshad. She also visited Hungary, Italy and Egypt where she embarked on her return journey to a Bhopal struck by plague. Later that year she attended the Imperial Dunbar in Delhi. She introduced free compulsory primary education in 1918. Established an Executive and Legislative Council 1922. A great reformer, like her mother and grandmother, she reformed taxation, the army, police, the judiciary and jails, expanded agriculture, and constructed extensive irrigation and public works. She established an appointed state council and legislative assembly, and instigated elections for municipalities. However, her main legacy is public health, by pioneering widespread inoculation and vaccination programmes, improving sanitation, hygiene and the water supply. In 1926 she returned to London to settle the rules of succession in a British court. She abdicated in favour of son while still in London, and after some further legal conundrum, her granddaughter, Abida, was declared heir apparent. Sultan Jahan argued in favour of the rights of the firstborn, regardless of gender. The peaceful rule of Begums led to the rise of a unique mixed culture in Bhopal. The Hindus were given important administrative positions in the state. This led to communal peace and a cosmopolitan culture took its roots. After her abdication, she became an advocate of women’s rights, and in 1928 she discarded purdah, and lived (1858-1930).

Setu Lakschimi Bayi
1901-85 Senior Rani H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini, Vanchi Dharma Vardhini, Raja Rajeshwari, Rani Setu Lakshmi Bai Maharaja of Attingal, The Senior Maharani of Travancore (India)
1924-31 Regent of Travancore
Adopted into the Royal House of Travancore by her maternal grandaunt in 1900. In 1924, she became Regent for her infant nephew and was granted the style of Highness and title of Maharani. She abolished animal sacrifice, replaced the matrilineal system of inheritance with the patrilineal one, and was known for making Travancore a progressive state. Married to M.R.Ry. Rama Varma Avargal, Valia Koil Tampuran, and was mother of 2 daughters.She lived (1895-1985)

The Junior and Senior Maharani of Travancore in the 1930s
1901-83 Junior Rani H.H. Maharani Setu Parvati Bal of Attingal, The Junior Maharani of Travancore (India)
Sister of Rani Setu Lakshmi Bai and granted the personal title of Maharani in 1924 with the style of Her Highness, from 1933. She was Pro-Chancellor of. Travancore University and married to M.R.Ry. Ravi Varma Avargal, Kochu Koil Tampuran. Mother of 4 sons and 1 daughter, and lived (1896-1983).

1901-05 Possible Member of the Council of Regency H.H. Sri Pundrikganeshpuri MaharaniHabans Kaur Sahiba of Dholpur (India)
When her husband, Maharajadhiraja Sri Sawai Maharaj Rana Nihal Singh, died a council of regency took over the reigns for her minor son,  Maharajadhiraja Sri Sawai Maharaj Rana Sir Ram Singh Lokendra Bahadur (1901-11), possibly with her as a member.

After 1903 Chief Muyelaansime of Nkokolo (Tanzania)
RUled in succession to her brother, Mutitimia, who died 1903, and some time later succeeded by his daughter, Chiefess Ng’endo.

1903-16 Head of the Sovereign Family Titular Queen Laure-Therese I of Araucania and Patagonia (Chile-Argentina)
4th sovereign of the Kingdom founded in 1860 by the Mapuche Indians in territory now occupied by Chile and Argentina. The family was deported from Chile to France in 1863 where it has lived since. On 6 Nov 1903, the Council of Regency met and chose Georges Sénéchal de la Grange to be the new "king," but he declined. From that date on, everything that has been written about the succession is essentially a fabrication by Philippe Paul Alexandre Henri Boiry (b. 1927), who currently claims to be Philippe I. His account runs as follows: the sole heir, and hence successor, of Antoine II was his daughter, Laure Thérèse Cros, veuve Bernard, who "was" Queen Laure-Thérèse I from 6 Nov 1903 to her death 12 Mar 1916. There is no documentation of her acting as Queen. Prince Philippe has no children. Laure Therese lived (1856-1916).

1905-15 Makole I Raja of Tojo (Indonesia)
The Dutch named her RoE, and she was also known as Indo di Salaso.

1905-08 Princess I Njilitimo Aru Baranti of Rapang (Indonesia)
Became ruler after the abdication of her younger brother, La Sadapotto (1904-05), who was also ruler of Sidenreng. She abdicated in favour of a relative, Princess Tanri.I Tanri.

1906-10 De-facto Regent Itegé Taytu Betul of Ethiopia
Crowned Queen of Shewa in 1883 and became Itegé (Empress-Consort) of her husband, emperor Menilek II. She acted as regent during his illness. She was very powerful, but still obtained her husband's authorization for her decisions. She was removed by a coup d’etat in 1910, but remained influential. Born as Walata Mikáel, she lived (1853-1918).

1906-17 Aru I Samatana of Malusetasi (Indonesia)
Succeeded by the male Aru I Makung. The state is also known as Nepo.

Until 1906-15 Regent-Ratu/Magau Yahasia of Biromaru (Indonesia)
1907-15 Magau of Sigi
Her daughter, I Tondai, followed her as ruler of the state.

1906-15 Regent-Ratu/Magau I Tondai of Biromaru (Indonesia)
1907-15 Magau of Sigi
Successor of her father, Daeng Masiri of Sigi, the year after she had followed her mother Yahasia as Regent-Ratu/Magau of Biromaru. I Tondai abdicated in 1915 and the states of Biromaru and Sigi-Dolo merged. She was succeeded by Magu Lamakarate, Datu Pamusu, the son of her sister, Yolekodi, who was married to Magau Jayalangkara van Tawaeli. Her successor was already ruler of Dolo.

1907-11 Rani Imbichi Adi-Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)  
Also known as Imbicchi Ali-Adi Raja Bibi, she succeeded brother, Mohamed Ali-Adi Raja as head of the Arakkal dynasty. She was daughter of Rani Hayashabe Adi Raja Bibi who reigned 1838-52 in succession to her mother, Rani Mariambe Adi Raja Bibi, who reigned (1819-38). In 1905 her brother, under the heavy burden of debts to the Empire, agreed to surrender sovereignty and control over Minicoy in the Maldive Islands. He died before the formal transfer. And after an attempt to back track, she finally signed over Minicoy to the Emperor Edward VII on 9 February 1909, backdated to 1 July 1905. Following this, Minicoy was annexed to the District of Malabar.  By she lost the city of Kannur and the Cannanore Cantonment. By 1911 there was further decline with loss of chenkol and udaval.

1907-1923/24 Pa Ariki Tetianui (Cook Islands)
Adopted by Pa Ariki Upoko Takau (Mere Pa), she succeeded her adopted brother. She was married to Daniela Makea Vakatini. Since she had no children, she was succeeded by a representative of another line, that of the current Pa Ariki. She lived (1867-1923/24)

1907-08 Interim Conservator and Consular Agent Elisabeth Morilleau of the French Possessions in Saint Helena
After the death of her husband, Lucien Morilleau, who was in office 1889-1907, she took over as head of the two sites that the Britis had ceeded in 1858 related to the stay of ex-Emperor Napoléon I on the Island - his recidence Longwood House and the Valley of the Tomb.

Queen Victoria of Sweden
1907-30 Politically Influential Queen Victoria von Baden of Sweden
Involved in the affairs of state during reign of husband, King Gustaf V of Sweden (1858-1950), particularly 1911-14 when she acted as liaison between the king and Premier Karl Staaff who did not speak to each other. She was also the "Head" of the former reigning Holstein-Gottorp-Vasa-family, mother of three sons, and lived (1862-1930).  
Qiu Jin
1907 Rebellion Leader Qiu Jin in China
Also known as Ch’iu Chin, she was one of the pioneers in the fight against the monarchy. She was in exile in Japan until 1906, when she returned to China and worked as a teacher and head mistress at a school, and was busy building up her own army and was supposed to have become leader of the uprising in Shanghai. But the uprising in the other provinces failed, the Imperial Police caught up with her, she was caught, tortured and executed as the first woman, and already in her own time she was seen as a martyr. She lived (ca. 1875-1907).

1908-12 De-facto Co-Regent, H.I.H. Dowager Empress Xiao Ding Jing LongYu Huagtaihou of China (13.11-06.12)
1911-12 Empress-Regent (6.12-12.2)
Dowager Empress Cixi entrusted a vaguely specified Imperial authority to her and she became the holder of the Imperial Seal and exercised the Imperial authority. In 1911 the regent and father of Emperor Puyi (1906-1908-12-67), Prince Zaifeng, resigned. At 6.12.12 she presided over the final cabinet meeting of the Qing Dynasty and was forced to sign the imperial abdication decree, which abolished the monarchy. Long Yu was niece of Empress Cixi and the childless widow of Emperor Zaitian. She lived (1868-1913).

1908 Lieutenant-Representant H.R.H Grande Duchesse Maria-Anna da Bragança of Luxembourg (19.03-18.11)
1908-1912 Grande Duchesse Regent (18.11-14.06)
Regent during the illness of her husband, Gand Duke Guillaume (19.3.08-25.12.), and the minority of her daughter Grand-Duchess Marie-Adelheide (25.2-14.6). She was born as Infanta of Portugal and Princess of Bragança, mother of six daughters, and lived (1861-1942).

Queen Ririkumutima
1908-15 President of the Council of Regency Mugabekazi Nidi Ririkumutima of Burundi (Belgian Colony, Later Independent)
1915-17 Member of the Council of Regency
As Queen Mother (Mugabekazi) she was regent for her stepson, Mutaga IV Mbikije (1903-08-15), and his son Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng (1912-15-66-77). Her full name was, Nidi Ririkumutima Bizama hitanzimiza Mwezi, and she was probably murdered in 1917. Since 1972 the Head of the Sovereign Family has been Crown Princess Rose Paula Iribagiza of Burundi. 

Madam Hamonya and maids
1908-18 Paramount Chiefess Madam Humonya of Nongowa and Panguma (Sierra Leone)
Elected as the successor of her mother, Madam Matolo, but her rule was despotic ad therefore she was not re-elected as Paramount Chiefess in 1918. Perhaps chief of Kenema as well. 10 of Sierra Leone's 146 paramount chiefs were women in the period 1914-70.

1908-42 Princess I We Tanri of Rapang (Indonesia)
1940-42 Adatuwang Regnant of Sawito
Succeeded upon the abdication of her relative, Princess I Njilitimo Aru Baranti, and was married to Prince Andi Madakelleng of Wajo. In Sawito she succeeded her mother, I Ba Eda. She abdicated.

1908-ca. 23 Possible Head of the Sovereign Family Mary Laguna de Perlas of Mosquitos (Nicaragua)
Also Known as Princess Mary Clarence, she was daughter of the last king of the Mosquito Indians, Robert Henry Clarence. The area was in independent kingdom 1661-1861 when it became a Nicaraguan reservation and in 1894 it was incorporated in Nicaragua, and her father abdicated he was Hereditary Chief of Mosquito (1873-91-94-1908), who was deposed twice in 1894. He was son of Princess Victoria, Sister of Inez Ana Frederic and Henry Clarence, a Miskito Indian. In the same period another relative, her father's cousin, Robert Frederick also seems to have been the Heir Apparent to the Headship of the house. Mother of a son with an unknown husband, Morton Laguna de Perlas, perhaps the same as Norton Cuthbert Clarence, who was mentioned as head of the house in 1977.

1908-09 and 1911-13 Politically Influential First Lady Nellie Herron Taft, United State of America
Already influential during her husband's tenure as Commissioner and Governor General to the Philippines 1899-1904. 1904 her husband became Secretary of War and in 1908 he was elected President. Because she strived so diligently in the role of First Lady, she took on too many projects at the same time. In mid-May 1909, she suffered a major stroke while on the presidential yacht, paralyzing her left side and leaving her unable to speak, and her daughter and sisters took over her duties. By 1911 she was back in control. She was very versed in politics, often sitting in on important political discussions and accompanying William on political trips and golf outings. Her husband was Chief Justice from 1921 until his death in 1930, and she spend the rest of her life travelling in Europe, and lived (1861-1943)

Queen Shahzadi of Persia 
1909-25 Politically Active Queen Shahzadi Maleka Jahan Khanum of Persia 
Her name meant "Queen of the World". She was married to her cousin Mohammad Ali Shah who reigned 1907-09 until he was deposed. She was a strong presence, and she was about to reclaim the throne of Persia for her son Soltan Ahmad Shah, (1898-1909-25-30), after he was deposed, but events had conspired against her. Went with her family into exile in Rome, and lived (1875-?).

Until before 1909 Aru Kabe af Alla (or Tobango) (Indonesia)
Head of a Buginese principality Sulawesi. She was the daughter of a brother of two previous male rulers: Aru Patta Mataelo and his successor Aru Mangke. She was succeeded by the son of her sister, Aru I Lorong, who was already ruling for sure in 1909 and died in 1913.

Around 1909 High Chiefess Te-ha'apapa III of Huahine (Tahiti in French Polynesia)
Daughter of Te-ha'apapa II, and proclaimed High Chiefess after the death of her brother, Marama Teri'i-fa'atau.

Ca. 1910-30 Reiging Okinka Pampa Kanyimpa of the Island of Orango Grande (Guinea Bissau)
Also known as Kanjimpa, she succeeded her father Bankajapa, abolished slavery, extended women’s rights, and brought reunification to the Orango Grande islands. She was greatly loved by the Bijagos and respected by the Portuguese colonisers during the war of pacification to subjugate the native tribes. It was she who reached a peace agreement. (d. 1930).

1910-1926 Datuk I Pancaitana Aru Pancana of Tanette (Indonesia)  
Successor of another woman, Datuk We Tan-ri-Olle, who ascended to the throne in 1855. I Pancaitana was followed by yet another woman, I Pateka Tana, who was ruler for one year. 

1910s-1940s Politically Influential Queen Mother Seingwaeng of BaKgatla (Botswana)
She surfaces repeatedly in both oral and archival sources as a key participant at the centre of major events in the chiefdom. She stood by her son, Chief Molefi of the Kgafela in spite of his troubles with the colonial administrators and frivolous behaviour (drunkenness and womanising). None the less he treated her badly and hated her newfound religion – the Zion Christian Church (ZCC) – for its strict lifestyle code and condemnation of ‘sinful’ living, and he had her and the other members publicly flogged at the kgotla and then driven off from the chiefdom. She lived (1883-1967).

1910 General Cut Nyak Meutia in North Aceh
Also known as Cut Meutia she joined her second husband, Cut Muhammad or Teuku Cik Tunong, in the fight against the Dutch, he was made District Chief until he was imprisoned and shot in 1905 and after his successor was killed in the battle in 1910, she became the new commander with only 45 men 13 guns left, but was shot herself soon after. She lived (1870-1910).

1911-ca. 18 Regent H.H. Svasti Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Sriman Maharajadhiraja Patta Rajninam Bada Maharani Revati Raman Rajya Lakshmi Devi Shahamam Sada Sabhajnabtinam of Nepal
Also known as Ratna Divyeshwari Devi, she became regent after the death of her husband, Prithivi Bir Bikram Shah Deva (1875-81-1911), for her stepson, Tibhubana (1906-11-55). At the time, however, the position of monarch was mainly titular, with real power in the country residing in the powerful, conservative Rana family, which supplied the country with its hereditary prime minister. And tensions between the royal family and the Ranas came to a head during World War I. The Ranas wanted to join the war in support of Britain, which controlled India to the south. She, however, supported the army, which wanted to remain neutral. To win the military's support, the prime minister, Chandra Shumshere Rana, blackmailed the young king into ordering the troops to go to war by holding a gun to his mother's head and threatening to kill her if he did not follow his orders. Over the following years, the king was kept a prisoner in the palace and blackmailed into following the Rana's whims, which included suppressing any attempts at modernization and democratization. She was born as Princess from Rajputana or Kangra.  Born as a Rajput princess from Kangra in Punjab, and lived (1878-1926).

Khanum Dondogulam
1911-19 De facto-Ruler Khanum Dondogulam of Mongolia 
Influential during the reign of her husband the 8th living Buddha, Jabzandamba Hutagt Bogd Gegeen Ezen Haan (1869-1924), who declared independence from China in 1911. From 1911 real power lay in the hand of Baron Roman Fyodorovich von Ungern (1886-1921) on the one hand and the Chinese governor on the other. Her husband was in office 1911-20 and 1921-24 when the monarchy was abolished. He was the last Holy-King (Bogd Haan) or reincarnated lama ruler.

1911-31-? Politically Influential Queen Gagomakwe of the BaKwena (Botswana)
During times of intrigue and political instability she was the hand of stability during the reign of her husband Kgosi Sechele II (1875-1911-18). She was also the pillar of stability during the reign of her son, Kgosi Kgari I (1931-62) who came to the throne after his brother, Kgosi Sebele II (1918-31), was ousted  by the colonial administration and exiled to Ghazi in 1931.

1911-14 Rebellion Leader Me Katilili of the Giriama Tribe in Kenya
Leader of a rebellion against the British, and lived (1841-1920s).

1912-19 H.R.H. Marie-Adélheïde, By the Grace of God Grande Duchess of Luxembourg, Duchess of Nassau, Countess-Palatine and Electress of the Rhine, Countess of Sayn, Hadenburg, Königstein, Krazenborgen and Dietz,Burgravine of Hammerstein, Dame of Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg, Limburg and Eppstein (25.02-14.01)
Marie-Adelheide first reigned under the regency of her mother Anna Maria da Bragança, who had been in charge since 1908 during her father's illness. In 1914, German troops invaded, in the face of protests from the Grand Duchess and her government. However, the occupation had little effect on the day-to-day government. She saw the death of the Prime Minister, Paul Eyschenin in 1915 as an opportunity to become more involved in the political affairs of the Grand Duchy. In the face of opposition, and in spite of accusations that she was acting outside the spirit of the constitution, she appointed a right-wing minority government. Her actions aroused hostility among the socialists, who had been advocating the abolition of the monarchy since 1907. On the day following the German armistice in 1918, the socialists accused the Grand Duchess of having had a pro-German stance, stemming from her reception of Emperor Wilhelm II in 1914. In January 1919, opposition to the Grand Duchess lead to revolutionary protests, and she was persuaded that she would have to abdicate in order to preserve the monarchy. Her abdication took place on 9 January 1919 and she was succeeded by her sister, Princess Charlotte. Marie-Adelaide became a nun, joining the Carmelite Order in Modena, Italy. She lived (1894-1924).

Safiya Fahmy Zaghlul, (Umm al-Misriyyin)
1912-37 Politically Influential Safiya Zaghlul in Egypt
One of the most powerful women of her period as the wife of the national leader Saad Zaghlul. During his exiles, she took his mantle of leadership and she was his confidant and counsellor. Her father Mustafa Fahmy appointed him Minister of Education in 1906 in 1910 he became Minister of Justice, but two years later he resigned to lead the opposition in the new Legislative Assembly and became its Vice-President. After he was exiled to Malta in 1919, she led a demonstration by more than 500 women, and opened her house for the Wafd Party, and thereby had the opportunity to play a greater role in the movement. During the unrest she became known as "Mother of the Egyptians" (Umm al-Misriyyin). After he was freed, she travelled with her husband to Paris to a conference about Egypt, but the international powers did not support the quest for Egypt’s independence, and in 1921 they returned home. The Wafd continued to organize resistance to the British and the British-backed government, and he was soon exiled again, this time in the Seychelles. She joined her husband in Gibraltar in 1922 and when they returned his party won the elections and he became Prime Minister. After his death in 1927, she continued to play an active role in Wafd politics, choosing a new party leader and guiding him. But after a split in the party in 1937, she retired from politics and resigned her post as head of the Women's Wafd. She was still a public figure but from then on she refrained from involvement in political affairs and refused to take sides in partisan disputes. She lived (1876-1946).

1913-24 Regent Dowager Rani Soubhagyavati Gajara Bai Raje Sahib Bhonsle of Savantwadi (India)
Known as Akka Sahib or Yamuna Bai, she assumed the regency for stepson after the death of her husband, H.H. Raja Shrimant Shriram Savant Bhonsle, Bahadur, Sir Desai of Savantwadi (1871-1913). She was born as H.H. Shrimant Akhand of Akalkot as daughter of Meherban Shrimant Shahaji III Raje Maloji II Raje [Baba Sahib] Bhonsle, Raja of Akalkot.(b. 1887-?).

Until 1913 Rebellion Leader Muhumusa in Uganda
A healer who lead the women-centered popular movement in the front of the resistance against European settlers who were attempting to overrule Africans. The so-called Nyabinghi movement. She organized armed resistance against German colonialists and was detained in Uganda in 1913 by the British. The movement was eventually subdued as women's powers were crushed by the authorities.

Viktoria Luise of Braunschweig und Lüneburg, Princess of Preussen
1914-1918 De Facto In-Charge of the Government Duchess Viktoria Luise von Preussen of Braunschweig und Lüneburg (Germany) (August-8.11)
Acting in place of her husband Ernst August (1887-1913-18-53), the son of the exiled king of Hannover, Ernst August, Duke of Cumberland and Thyra of Denmark. Her husband was given the title of duke of Braunschweig by her father, Emperor Wilhelm III.  After the death of her husband she feuded with her children, Ernst August, Queen Frederika of Greece and two others, over the inheritance and other financial matters and even took them to court. She lived (1892-1980).

Queen Marie of Romania
1914-27 Politically influential Queen Marie of Edinburgh of Romania
Unofficial adviser to her husband, king Ferdinand until his death in 1927. After the First World War he asked her undertake an unofficial mission to Paris and London in order to mend the damage done by Prime Minister Bratianu, who lost his temper during the post war negotiations and she took residence, with her two daughters ,in the Hotel Crillon, in Place de la Concorde. Her son, Carol II isolated her and she took little part in the public life from 1927 to her death. She was the daughter of Prince Alfred Duke of Edinburgh, Queen Victoria's second son and Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia, mother of 6 children, and lived (1875-1938).

1914-32 In charge of the Financial Affairs Maharani Parukutty Nethyar Amma of Cochin (India)
Her husband, Maharaja Rama Varma (Madrassil Theepetta Thampuran), who reigned from 1914-32, was a scholar and had other interests, and she therefore took over the finances of the state. Under her guidance salaries were quadrupled and the revenue earned a 17 gun salute. She was awarded the Kaiser-i-Hind medal by King George V in 1919 for public work. She was a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi and other Indian nationalists. As one British Intelligence report stated "The hill palace is the centre of nationalist activity and charkhas have been introduced to assist the weaving of khadi."

Until 1915 Princess Regnant Andi Pancaetana of Enrekang (Indonesia)
The first known ruler of the Bugis state was Takkebuku. Two other women rulers were Kota and her daughter, Bissu Tonang, but it is not known when they reigned.

Alexandra Fedorovna
1915-17 De-facto Regent Imperatitsa Alexandra Fedorovna of the Russian Empire
The Tsarina was de-facto in charge of the government business during her husband, Zar/Emperor Nicolai’s time as commander-in-chief during World War I, but she obtained his endorsement of her decisions. In 1918 the whole family - including the four daughters and son were executed during the revolution. She was born as Princess Alix von Hessen und beim Rhein, mother of 4 daughters and a son, and lived (1872-1918).

1915-16 Tinomana Ngataraiau Ariki Tinomana Ariki of the Pauaikura Tribe in Rarotonga(Cook Islands)
Succeeded her cousin Tinomana Pirangi. She was daughter of Tekao and grand-daughter of Papehia and Te Vaerua o te Rangi.

1916-30 Negiste Nagast Zawditu, Elect of God, Lion of the Tribe of Judah and Queen of Kings of Ethiopia
Also known as Zawditu. Her father, Menelik II, died in 1913 and was succeed by Lij Iyasu, the son of her half-sister Shewa Regga, and she was exiled to the countryside. When he was removed from power the Council of State and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church officially appointed her as his successor. After some years, her husband, Ras Gugsa Welle, was appointed governor of a remote province to limit the influence of her stepmother - and his aunt - Dowager Empress Taytu. And Lij Iyasu, who had escaped captivity, attempted to regain the throne by force, but was not successful. She was conservative, believing in the preservation of Ethiopian tradition, and had the strong backing of the church in this belief. Slowly, however, she began to withdraw from active politics, leaving more and more power to Ras Tafari Makonnen, who was a modernizer. Under his direction, Ethiopia entered the League of Nations, and abolished slavery. She busied herself with religious activities, such as the construction of a number of significant churches. After an uprising against his reforms in 1928, she granted him the title of Regent and the additional title of Negus. In 1930, her husband led a rebellion against Negist Tafari, but was killed in battle. Shortly after she died and was succeeded by Tafari, who took the name Haile Selassie I. She was originally named Askala Mariam, and had by her second husband she had a daughter who lived (1891-95) and by her third another who died at birth in 1906. Married 4 times, she died of diabetes after having lived (1876-1930).

Isabelle Vahine-tuavira Shaw
1916-18 Chieftainess and President of the Council Isabelle Vahine-tua-vira Shaw of Arue (French Polynesia)
Also known as Princesse Joinville, she was daughter of Chiefess Teri'itere Ito-Orai of the Grand Clan Teva, which was the most important in the Kingdom, and the English Jew Salmon Shaw, a well-known mariner of the South Pacific. She was married to Prince H.R.H. Prince Joinville Teri'i-tuariva, Chief of Hita'a, the youngest son of Queen Pomare IV. Mother of Prince Teri'i Hinoi-a-tua Pomare (1869-1916) She (d. 1918).

1917-44 11th Asantehemaa Kwaadu Yaadom II of Asante (Ghana)
Elected Queen Mother after the death of her mother, Yaa Akyaa. In the period 1900-35 there was no Asantehene or king of the Asante. From 1926-35 the kingdom was ruled by chiefs with the title of Kumasehene. The last of those, Otumfuo Nana Osei Agyeman Prempeh II, began his reign in 1931, became Asantehene in 1935, and ruled until 1970. Konadu Yaadom II was followed on the post by her cousin, Nana Ama Sewas Nyaako, who was in office until 1977.

1917-18 Head of the Government Evheniya Bohdanivna Bosch, Ukraine (17.12-09.03)
Евгения Богдановна Бош, Yevgeniya Bogdanovna Bosh, or Yevheniya Bohdanivna Bosh was People's Commissioner of, and it was regulated by a number of documents that the holder of this office was the Acting Head of the Executive Power. She had been a socialist activist from 1890's, Head of the Kyiv Committee of the Russian Social Democratic Worker’s Party (RSDRP) 1911-12 until she was imprisoned and a deprived of civil rights and exiled to Siberia for life. After the revolution she became Secretary of Regional Committee of RSDRP(B). She resigned from the government in protest to the Brest-Litovsk Peace, according to which Soviet Russia occupied Ukraine. Afterwards she worked on different party and Soviet posts outside Ukraine. When the pain of her disease became unbearable, she committed suicide. She was of German-Jewish origin, and she originally named Gotlibovna Maysh, and lived (1879-1925).

1917 Chairperson of The Congress of Peasants' Soviets Maria Alexandrovna Spiridonova, Russia
The congress was held in Petrograd on the initiative of the Moscow Co-operative Congress as a meeting of representatives from various peasant organisations and the Soviets of Peasants' Deputies. Though it was not fully recognised by the Bohshevik government, the Congress was attended by delegates from 27 gubernias, from the army and from the Central and Petrograd Regional Committees of the Peasant Union and devoted itself to making preparations of the upcoming All-Russian Congress of Peasants' Deputies. She was one of the most prominent leaders of the Russian revolution. A member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, she was a charismatic speaker who spent the summer months in 1917 propagandizing among crowds in both cities and the countryside. She was in the forefront in advocating power to the Soviets - the councils of workers, soldiers and peasants. When the SR Party split, she became the leader of the New Left Socialist Revolutionary Party. She occupied leadership positions in the important revolutionary bodies and was involved in their decision-making processes among others as Mayor of Chita in 1917 and as Leader of the New Left Socialist Revolutionary Party 1917-20. She had been involved in terrorism in 1906 and 1918. In 1918 she was candidate for the post of Chairman of The Constituent Assembly, which was abolished after one day in session. 1919 she was arrested after having lead and anti-Bohshevik rising and spent the rest of her life in Sibiria, where she was shot. She lived (1885-1941).

1917-? Head of the Royal House Princess Ranavalona IV of Madagascar
May possibly have been Head of the Royal House after the death of Queen Ranavalona III. She was daughter of the Queen's older sister, Princess Rasendranoro (1853-1901) who accompanied her into exile together with her daughter Princess Razafinandriamanitra, "Enfant du Bon Dieu", also known as Crown Princess Marie Louise, who lived (1897-1948). Some sources describe her as daughter of Henri Razafinkarefo, who was probably Rasendranoro's son and married to Jennie Marie Waller, daughter of the American consul.

1918-65 H.M. Kuini Sālote Mafile'o Pilolevu Veiongo Tupou III, By the Grace of God Queen of Tonga
Generally known as Queen Salote Tupou III, she was absolute ruler and President of the Privy Council, the 21. Tu’i Kano’kupolu and 1923-65 Head of the Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga, the National (Methodist) Church. Her husband, Prince Viliami Tupoulahi Tungī Mailefihi, was a member of the nobility and a sideline of the royal family, and held the office of Premier from 1923, until his death in 1941. She then appointed her son, the crown prince, as Premier. He succeeded her as Tauf’ahau Toupu IV (1918-1965-). She brought Tonga to international attention when she attended the 1953 coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in London, endearing herself to the British people by riding through the streets in an open carriage, smiling and waving, in the pouring rain. She was a keen writer and author of countless dance songs and love poems (hiva kakala) as well as majestic lakalaka. She served as Chairman of the Tonga Traditions Committee 1954–1965, patronised the Tonga Red Cross Society. She died 16 December 1965 at Aotea Hospital, Auckland, after a long illness. She was 191 centimetres tall and mother of 3 sons, and lived  (1900-65).

Surma Khanum
1918-27 Joint Regent Lady Surma d'Mar Shimun of the Assyrian Nation (Iraq)
Also known as Surma Khanum, she practically became regent after herbrother, the Catholics Patriarch of the Church of the East and leader of the Assyrians Mar Benyamin (Benajmin) Shimun, was assassinated by a Kurdish rebel and succeeded by her younger brother, Mar Paulus Shimun XXII. In 1918 she was invited by British authorities to present the Assyrian question in London and she also attended the Treaty of Versaille negotiations. The descendants of the Assyrian Empire had lived as a semi-independent nation in the Kurdish mountains, but they were massacred and driven out by the Ottomans in 1915. In return they were promised an independent homeland by Britain, France, and Russia in 1918 in Northern Iraq  - the Mosul district - but this promise was not fulfilled. Her brother died of tuberculosis 1920 and was succeeded by his 12 years old nephew, Mar Ishaia Shimun XXIII, (1908-75) (also assassinated). When he went to school in England until 1927, she assisted the Metropolitans Mar Yosip Khnanishoo of Rustaqa in Church affairs and was in charge of the secular affairs together with her brother, General David d'Mar Shimun, and father of the Patriarch. Throughout her nephew's life she continued to act as a consultant, given her temporal and secular expertise. 1928 she hesitantly accepted an O.E.B. from the British authorities. At the time of the disturbances in 1933 in Iraq, the Patriarchal family were taken to Cyprus, where they remained until 1949 when they moved to USA. Because of the Patriarchal succession from uncle to nephew for more then 650 years, she was the niece, great niece, etc. to numerous Patriarchs. (d. 1975).

Edith Bolling Galt Wilson
1918-21 Politically Influential First Lady Edith Bolling Galt Wilson, USA (25.9-20.1)
In 1915 she married President Wodrow Wilson, whose first wife was Ellen Louise Axon (1860-1914). She was a close confidant in all his decisions, and took part in the cabinet-meetings. In 1918 her husband suffered a stroke and was secluded from the public, and she became the de-facto ruler, though she always insisted she was only acting on his orders. President Wilson was in office (1912-21) and lived (1856-1924). She lived (1872-1961).

1919-64 HRH. Charlotte, By the Grace of God Grande Duchesse of Luxembourg, Duchess of Nassau, Countess-Palatine and Electress of the Rhine, Countess of Sayn, Hadenburg, Königstein, Krazenborgen and Dietz,Burgravine of Hammerstein, Dame of Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg, Limburg and Eppstein 
1940-44 Leader of the Government-in-Exile from London (10.05-10.09)
When her sister, Marie-Adelaide, abdicated, support for the monarchy was at an all-time low and it was made clear that, if the monarchy were to survive at all, she would have to remain above political affairs. The Constitution was amended, limiting the monarch's formal powers. These acts restored the reputation of the monarchy, and in a referendum on 28.09 1919, 77.8% voted in favour of the monarchy. On 10.05 1940 the German Army invaded, and she went into exile with her family, determined to avoid capture by the Germans, and eventually settled in London, where the exile-government was already operating. She maintained contact with her people through regular radio broadcasts on the BBC. The years following the war were marked by a period of reconstruction, during which the Grand Duchess symbolised the solidarity of the Luxembourg people. She made numerous official visits abroad, promoting her small nation's position on the international stage. During the 1950s, she sold off many of the family's properties in Germany, including Biebrich Palace in Wiesbaden and Hohenburg Castle in Bavaria, reinforcing Luxembourg's position as the permanent home of the grand-ducal family. In 1961 her son, Jean, was appointed regent and in 1964 she abdicated in his favour. Married to Prince Felix de Bourbon-Parma (1893-1970), and mother of six children. She lived (1896-1985).

Queen Soraya Shah
1919-29 Politically Influential H.M. Queen Soraya Shah of Afghanistan
Influenced her husband, King Amanulluh Shah, who was one of the most liberal rulers of the country. He abolished slavery, liberalized the family code, child marriage was limited; women got right to choose their own husband, etc. In 1928 Soraya and her daughters appeared unveiled. Conservative forces forced her husband to abdicate in 1929, and they went into exile first in India and then in Rome. She was his third husband, he married two more times, and lived (1892-1960) She was the daughter of Mahmud Beg Tarzi, sometime Minister for Foreign Affairs, and lived (1897-1968).

Princess Te Kirihaehae Te Puea Hērangi
192..-1952 Maori Leader Princess Te Kirihaehae Te Puea Hērangi in New Zealand
After the devastating influenza epidemic of 1918, she gathered up 100 orphaned children and founded the community at Ngàruawahia now known as Tùrangawaewae. King Koroki V was a reluctant leader, and she provided the strength that drove the tribe forward. Raising money to buy back confiscated land she rebuilt Turangawaewae marae as a central bastion at Ngaruawahia. She ensured that every member marae held their poukai gatherings each year to maintain the solidarity needed to keep the fires of hope burning that one day justice would return the Raupatu lands. She had no offspring with her husband, Rewi Tumoko Katipa, but she adopted many children, and she groomed her grandniece, the Maori Queen Te Ata from 1966-2006. The daughter of Tahuna Herangi and Princess Tiahuia, and grand-daughter of King Tawhiao, she  was made a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 1937, and lived (1884 - 1952).

1920 Regent H.M. Dowager Queen Olga of Greece (18.11-11.12)
Born HIH Grand Duchess Olga Konstantinovna Romanova of Russia, she wasacting head of state after her grandson Alexander I (1917-20) had died after a monkey bite, until her son, Contantinos I, returned to take over the throne a second time - he reigned (1913-17) and (1920-22). She lived (1851-1926).

Early 1900s Reiging Okinka Idiana Ibop of the Island of Kanabak (Roxa) (Guinea Bissau)
Elected queen in succession to her husband and tenaciously fought the Portuguese until the mid 1920s.

1920-21 Joint Proprietor Ann Eliza Jennings Carruthers of Swain Island (American Samoa)
Managing owner together with her brother, Alexander Hutchinson Jennings from 1891, and was married to the Britton, Irving H. Carruthers, who had been named executor and trustee, and they lived in American Samoa. The 3.25 square kilometre ring of land surrounding a brackish lagoon never recognized by the international community, that behaved as an independent state until 1925, when annexed by the USA. Culturally and geographically it belongs to the Tokelau Islands, but today it is part of American Samoa, and is still owned by the Jennings family. She lived (1897-1923). 

1920-28 Regent-in-absentia H.R.H. Infanta Adelgundes de Bragança of Portugal
Handled the affairs of her nephew and Miguelist claimant to the Portuguese throne, Duarte Nuno, Duke of Braganza (1907-76) after her brother, Miguel, renounced his claim to the throne. At the beginning of her regency in 1920, she was created 7th Duchess of Guimarães. The following year she authored a manifesto outlining the House of Braganza's goals for the restoration of the Portuguese monarchy and 1922 she signed an accord with her relative, ex-King Manoel II of Portugal in Paris. She was the second wife of Enrico de Parma, Comte de Bondi (1851-1905) who had no children, and lived (1858-1946).  

1921-23 Regent-in-absentia Dowager Queen Milena Vukotić of Montenegro (Yugoslavia)
Her husband, King Nikola Petrović-Njegos (1860-1921), was forced into exile after the Serbian occupation in 1918. After his death their son, Danilo, proclaimed himself king, but he abdicated after one week in favour of his nephew, and she took over the regency for grandson King Michael (1908-86) also after the Serbian annexation. Mother of 12 children, she lived (1847-1923).

1921-31 Rani Ayisha Adi-Raja Bibi of Cannanore (India)
Succeeded the Maharaja Ahmad Adi-Raja and was succeeded by Abdul-Rahman Ali Adi-Raja II.

1921-? Regent Dowager Rani Saida of Badalpur (India)
Reigned in the name of her grandson who studied in United Kingdom. 

1921-1939 Al-Sitt Nazira Jumblatt of the Druze of Lebanon
Her husband, Fouad Jumblatt was murdered by Shakib Wahab, a member of the Arslan clan. Her son Kamal Jumblatt was four years old, and grew up in an atmosphere of tight security and fear due to his mother Nazira's continued support of the Lebanese state and its French patrons. When the Druze in Syria revolted against the French in 1925, Nazira played a key role in keeping the Shouf mostly out of war and worked tirelessly to find common ground among the French authorities, the Maronites and the Druze. Her son studied in France until 1939, and later became one of the chief acteurs in the civil war from the 1970s onward until his assassination.

1921-? Te Ora Aitu (Cook Islands)
Her father, Eturoa Taopua, died and his rangatira title and his land-rights passed to her. He had succeeded through the rights of his mother Te Upoko and her mother Teioata, but her female ancestors did not hold the title.

From 1921 Pirate Commander Honcho Lo, China
Supporter of the Chinese revolution and took over command on husband's death in 1921. She united her 64 junks with the 50 ship fleet of another female pirate leader, Wong.

Gertrude Bell
1921-23 Politically Influential Gertrude Bell in Mesopotamia (Iraq)
Travelled all her life after her first trip to Persia in 1888. She visited Switzerland, Turkey, Mesopotamia, and rode side-saddle across the Arabian Desert. She learned Persian and Arabic and how to ride camels, but despite her love of adventure she was politically conservative and joined the Anti Suffrage League. She was the only woman drafted as an intelligence agent and became Oriental Secretary to the High Commission in Basra. When Winston Churchill became Colonial Secretary in 1921 she was among the 40 experts assembled in Egypt in a conference to determine the future of Mesopotamia. She was asked to draw up the borders of the new nation of Iraq and helped choose its first ruler, Prince Faisal. For years she was one of Churchill's closest personal and political advisers, a position that earned her the title of "Uncrowned Queen of Iraq". As her political role in Iraq declined with the new regime in power, she returned to her first love - archaeology. In 1923 she became Honorary Director of Antiquities in Iraq and established the Baghdad Museum. She lived (1868-1926).

1921-24 (†) Politically Influential First Lady Florence Kling Harding in United States of America
Unlike other of the early First Ladies, her own career helped to establish her husband, Warren Harding (1865-1923)'s success as a politician. She became the driving force behind the growth and establishment of his newspaper, The Marion Star, as one of the leading papers in Ohio. Despite convention, her husband always stressed the influential role his wife had in his career and his deep respect due to her guidance. Due to her influence over appointments, the Veterans Bureau was born under the direction of Charles Forbes. Forbes eventually showed himself to be a criminal, convicted for collusion and profiteering. They visited Alaska and Canada, when her husband died on 2 August 1923 on the way back to Washington. She lived (1860-1924).

Maharani Siniti Devi
1922-32 (†) Regent and President of the State Council Dowager Maharani Siniti Devi of Cooch Behar (India)
Eldest daughter of Babu Keshab Chandra Sen and to Colonel H.H. Maharaja Shri Sir Nripendra Narayan Bhup Bahadur, Maharaja of Cooch-Behar (1862-63-1911), she was regent for grandson, Jagaddipendra Narayan (1915-22-47-70). She lived (1864-1932).

Majarani Indra Devi Sahiba
1922-32 Member of the State Council
1932-36 Regent and President of the State Council Dowager Maharani Indira Devi Sahiba of Cooch Behar (India)
After her husband's death, the Viceroy Lord Reading consulted the British-Indian government of Bengal and the state government of Cooch Behar to appoint a regent and a council for the minority of her son, Maharaja Jagaddipendra Narayan  (1915-22-47-70) and he asked her to serve as regent. Her administrative skills were deemed by observers very middling indeed, but she was socially active and spend long time in England after her son came of age. Born as a Princess of Baroda, she had broken off her engagement to the Maharaja of Gwalior to marry Jitendra, the younger brother of the Maharaja of Cooch Behar, who succeeded to the throne just after their marriage. She was daughter of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III of Baroda (1863-1939) and Maharani Chimnabai II (1871-1958), an advocate of women's rights. The mother of 5 children, she lived (1892-1968).

1922-36 Rani Profulla Kumari Devi of Bastar (India) 
Succeeded Rudra Pratab Deo, who had been raja for about a year, and was succeeded by Dravir Chandra Deo, who got the title of Maharaja. She lived (1910-36).

1922-33 Regent H.H. Nawab Kulsum Begum Sahiba of Janjira (India) 
Also known as Lady Kulsum Sidi Ahmadkhan, she was regent for her son, Nawab Sidi Muhammad Khan Sidi Ahmad Khan (1914-22-72), who was the ruler of the Sunni dynasty of Abyssinian origin, who had moved to the Island of Janjira (Jhuzira or Zizera), where they were appointed Captains and later Governors of the Island. The form of government was a sort of aristocratic republic, with an established order of succession until Emperor Aurangzeb conferred the title of Nawab to the ruler in 1671. They were notorious pirates for many years until 1733. Born as Kulsum Bibi Sahiba and lived (1897-1959).

1922-40 Adatuwang I Ba Eda of Sawito (Indonesia)
Also known as, La Baeda, she succeeded her father, Andi Tamma, and was married to Adatuang La Sadapotto of Sidenreng (1904-05). Her sister was Arung La Bode of Alitta, and she was succeeded by daughter, Andi Tenri.

Until 1922 Chiefess Mukunde of Wikangulu (Tanzania)
Head of the senior Nyisamba chiefdom.

Chief Alice Brown Davis
1922-35 Chiefess Alice Brown Davis of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma (USA)
Prominent in tribal affairs for much of her life. In 1922 she was appointed principal chief by President Warren G. Harding in order to facilitate the closing of the tribal land affairs. Although she was not the first woman to be chief of an Indian tribe, she was the first woman to head the Seminole Nation. There was some controversy over the appointment, but eventually she was accepted by both her own people and outsiders. Although she was appointed, and not elected in the Seminole tradition, she was well thought of and well respected and the people were happy with having her as Chief. The tribal land affairs, which she had been appointed to resolve, became a source of contention between Alice and the government. A survey conducted in 1910 had shifted the old boundaries between the Creek and Seminole Nations, and the new boundaries transferred several important parcels of land to the Creeks, and she refused to sign the deeds transferring them to the Creek Nation or the federal government, on the grounds that it was morally wrong for her to pass a most valuable tract of land out of the hands of the destitute Seminole people. Alice continued to serve the Seminoles as chief until her death on June 21, 1935. She received many posthumous awards recognizing her achievements. She lived (1852-1935).  

Zita de Bourbon Parma
1922-30/33 Acting Head-in-exile of the Sovereign Family Dowager Empress Zita de Bourbon Parma of Austria-Hungary
Her husband, Emperor Karl was Austrian head of state 1916-18 and nominal head of State in Hungary till his death in 1922. She acted as head of the family as regent for her son, Archduke Otto (b. 1912-), the oldest of 8 children. Otto has later relinquished all claims of the Austrian-Hungarian throne and was Member of the European Parliament for Germany as Dr. Otto Habsburg. Zita was the 17th of 24 children of Duke Carlos III of Parma-Piacenza. Her younger brother, Felix (1893-1970), was married to Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg. Zita lived (1892-1989).  

1923-36 Regent Dowager H.H Rani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Tara Bai Raje Sahib Bhonsle of Akalot (India)
After her husband, Captain Meherban Shrimant Fatehsingh III Shahaji Raje Sahib Bhonsle, Raja of Akalkot (1894-96-1923), was killed by accidental poisoning at the Sassoon Hospital; she took over the regency for their son Meherban Shrimant Vijayasinhrao Fatehsinhrao Raje Sahib Bhonsle, Raja of Akalkot (1915-23-47-52)who signed the instrument of accession to the Dominion of India in August 1947. He was succeeded by his younger brother. She was second daughter of Meherban Shrimant Rajamanya Rajashri Sir Pirajirao Bapu Sahib Ghatge, Chief of Kagal, and was also known as Lakshmi Bai or Akka Sahib, and lived (1899-1942).

Pa Ariki, Lady Davis
1923-90 Pa Ariki Pa Tepaeru Terito Ariki, Lady Davies, 47th Pa Ariki of the Takitumu Tribe (Cook Islands)
Terito Succeeded her mother as Pa Ariki, one of the two titles of the Takitumu Tribe. In her first marriage she had 3 sons and 6 daughters. After she divorced her husband, she married Sir Tom Davis (1917-2007) in 1979, the Premier of the Cook Islands, (1978-83, 1983-87) but refused to act as "first lady", was was President of the House of Arikis 1980-90 and openly critizised his politcal decisions. She was a prominent member of the Baha'i Faith, was succeeded by her oldest daughter, Marie Peyroux, and lived (1923-90).

From 1923 Ratu Donna Maria da Costa of Djeniloe (Indonesia)
Daughter of Petronella da Costa, who ruled (1879-99) and after her brother, Raja Josef da Costa, died, she started to behave as ruler of the territory even though it had been merged into a larger federation ruled by Raja Josef, and although the Dutch already appointed a Fettor Bone Rea, a sub-raja). Twice she was asked to leave, although as real ruling ruler she had not much influence, but her presence in Djeniloe as nominal-Ratu was a bit a disturbance. The first time she refused totally to go. Later she would be more indulgent. She and her sister and brothers were of the then very rare Dasi Raan nobility  - only children from children of children from royal blooded people along the line.

1923-45 Patih Elisabeth Mahulete-Patty of Alang at Ambon (Indonesia)
Succeeded her father and married Dr. Mahulete, who died in 1937

1923-24 Acting Paramount Chief Kgosigadi Mohamagodi Gaogangwe a Sechele of the baNgwaketse (Botswana)
After Kgosi Seepapitso I (1884-1916) was assassinated by his brother Moepitso. Known as the one-eyed queen, she was the double matriarch of BaNgwaketse and BaKgatla ba ga Mmanaana royal houses. The daughter of the BaKwena chief, Sechele I by his wife Mokgokong, she was first married Pilane, the BaKgatla chief until she eloped with Bathoen I and later married him. She took over power in 1924 to save the BaNgwaketse bogosi from disintegration and chaos caused by incompetence and early deaths of two of the regents of her grandson, Bathoen II (1908-16-69). She publicly denounced the the last regent of incompetence and financial mismanagement of the tribal treasury at a kgotla meeting, and she assumed power, as Bathoen II’s regent. Before she died of cancer she nominated her daughter, Ntebogang as regent and successor, and lived (1848-1924).

1924-28 Acting Paramount Chief  Queen-Sister Ntebogang a Bathoen of the baNgwaketse (British Protectorate, Botswana)
Ruled at various times during the minority of her nephew, Bathoen II. She has been described as one of the few female members of an elite group of progressive-minded Batswana royals. It is said that she feared no one and was determined to keep BaNgwaketse bogosi intact until its rightful heir was appointed. She brought stability to the tribe after years of political intrigue and incompetence of the other regents made worse by the death of her mother, Kgosigadi Gaogangwe. She installed discipline, respect for tradition and during her reign many projects such as the building of schools, dams and medical establishments were carried out successfully. As a convert to the Seventh-day Adventist Church and to the benefit of the people, she allowed the church to establish a hospital and a number of clinics in the chiefdom. Outside her chiefdom she was influential in other ways too. Later the first woman to sit in the Native Advisory Council and was according to records, one of its outspoken members. She lived (1882-1975).

1925-31 Regent H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharani Chinku Bai Raje Sahib Scindia of Gwalior (India)
Reigned in the name of her son Maharaja Georges Jivaye Rao Scindia (1916-25-61) after the death of her husband, Maharaja Sir Madho Rao Scindia Bahadur (1876-86-1925). Maharani Chinku was also Colonel-in-Chief 2nd 'Ali Jah' Gwalior Lancers. (d. 1931).

1925-46 Ranrang Toewa Andi Ninong of Wajo (Indonesia)
Married to Andi Malingkaang of Gowa, whose sister was I Batari Toja of Barru.  Andi Ninong. She was deposed by Dutch in 1946 and her husband was executed by Dutch forces after WW II. Her youngest daughter, Andi Muddariyah, was regarded in the modern time as Royal symbol in Wajo, or nominal-Queen, with the honorary name and title Petta (Princess) Ballasari because she was one of the two persons of purest royal Buginese blood. Probably dead sometime after 1986. Andi Ninong was (b. 1904-?).

1925-38 Joint Head of StateThe Ndlovukati Lomawa Nxumalo Ndwandwe, Swaziland
Ndlovukati means Queen Mother, The Great She-elephant. She was the mother of King Sobhuza II, and lived (1878-1938).

Paramount Chieftainess Woki Massaquoi of Gallinas Perri at the time of the visit of Queen Elizabeth II of Sierra Leone in 1961
1925-71 Paramount Chief Madam Woki Massaquoi of Gallinas Perri (Sierra Leone)
The center of the chiefdom was the town of Blama Massaquoi, Pujehun District, Southern Province. 1968 she was designated a Member of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II and she lived (ca. 1871-1971)

Maria Josepha Sophia de Iturbide
1925-1949 Head of the Sovereign Family Princess Maria Josepha Sophia de Iturbide of Mexico (Titular Empress)
Inherited the claim to the throne from her uncle, who was grandnephew of Don Augustin de Iturbide, Emperor of Mexico 1821-23, and was adopted by Emperor Maximillian, thereby inheriting the Habsburg claim on the throne. Maria Josepha was a very traditional Lady, and a devout Roman Catholic, and stayed as far away from politics as she could. After World War II the Princess and her husband were imprisoned in Romania by the invading communist government as "class enemies". The couple died shortly thereafter under mysterious circumstances. Upon her death, according to her will and the agreement of her two daughters, the leadership of the Mexican Imperial Family passed to her grandson, Count Maximiliano Gustav Albrecht Richard Agustin von Goetzen Iturbide, who had been born in Hungary in 1944.Maria Josepha lived (1872-1949).  

1926-31 Regent H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Maharani Lakshmi Devi Bai Sahiba of Dhar (India)
Superintendent, Court of Wards and Controller of the Household in 1912-1913 and later she acted as regent for her adopted son, her nephew. She was born as Hansa Bai Raje Sahiba of Savantwadi, was appointed Dame Commander of the British Empire, DBE, and lived (1890-1931).

1926-27 Regent Datuk I Pateka Tana of Tanette (Indonesia)
After the death of the female ruler, Datuk I Pancaitana, she was for one year until Andi Basso became regent. 

The picture shows a Namibian Queen in the 1920s - but the sources does not agree fully on her identity
1926-41 and 1958-71 Queen Kanuni I of Uukwangali (Namibia)
Uukwangali is the name of a kingdom and of one of the tribes of Namibia. She was forced by the native commissioner in the Kavango, Eedes, into exile in Angola, and she was succeeded by king Sivute, who ruled until 1958 when she returned and ruled until 1971. (d 1978).                    

Around 1926 Chief Ng’endo of Nkokolo (Tanzania)
It is not known precisely when she succeeded her aunt, Muyelaansime, but she is known to have been ruling in 1926. She was succeeded by son, Kasivilo, who in 1934 was succeeded by her brother’s daughter, Sala.

1926-57 Titular Head of the Royal Family Princess Bamba Sophia Jingan (Maharani Duleep Singh) of Punjab (India)
Daughter of the last Maharajadhuraja Duleep Singh Bahadur (1843-93) and (self-proclaimed?) successor of her brother as titular head. Married to an Englishman and also known as Princess Bamba Sutherland. She lived (1869-1957).

Dame Sibyl Hathaway of Sark
1927-74 Dame Sibyl Mary Beaumont Hathaway of Sark (Channel Island)
Also known as La Dame du Serq, she succeeded her father William Collings as the 21st Seigneur of the Sark. Her second husband, Robert Hathaway (1888-1954) became Seigneur in the right of his wife in accordance with the ancient custom, but Sibyl remained firmly in charge. She was also President and member of a number of committees of the Chief Pleas. She appointed her youngest daughter Jehanne Bell as Deputy Seigneur 1946-68. She was knighted by Queen Elizabeth and granted the title Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Sibyl outlived all but two children and was succeeded by her grandson. She lived (1884-1974).

1927-69 Shrimant Sitabaisaheb Bhalchandrarao Patwardhan of Kurandvad (India)
Her principality was independent until 1947 when it became part of the Republic of India. A recipient of the Kaiser-I-Hind-order, she was known as "Mai Sahib", and lived (1901-69).

1927-30 Regent Princess Motshabi of bamaNgwato (Botswana)
Ruled after the death her brother, Sekgoma II.

Mariangela Bertoleoni
1927-29 Regent Princess Mariangela Bertoleoni of Tavolara (Italy)
Took up the government at the request of her nephew King Paolo during his absence from the Kingdom at the Island of Tavolara. At the time of her death it was reported that Italy was to take over, but her nephew returned and ruled until his death in 1962. She was daughter of king Paolo I and Queen Pasqua Favale, who was regent 1882-86, and lived (1841-1934).

1927-75 Partner in Power First Lady Soong Mayling in China and Taiwan
Known in the west as Madame Chiang Kai-shek, she became famous during the Chinese Nationalists' battle against the Japanese and the Chinese Communists. Madame Chiang took on the role of a diplomat and spokesperson for the Republic of China on Taiwan. In the 1930s, she headed the Chinese air force and made many campaigns to engage U.S. support for the Nationalists. Her husband, General Chiang Kai-shek, was President of mainland nationalist China 1927-49, and of Taiwan until his death in 1975. Mayling' sister Song Qingling, vice-premier and vice-President and acting head of state of Communist China. After her husband's death, Mayling moved to New York. She lived (1897-2003).

Princess Helena of Romania
1927-30 Guardian Queen-Mother Helena of Greece and Denmark of Romania
1940-47 Politically Influential
After her ex-husband, King Carol had abdicated, her brother-in-law Prince Nicolaus became regent for her minor son, King Michael, and she was given the title of Queen Mother. In 1930-40 Carol was king again, until Michael was reinstated as king, and she was his chief advisor until he was forced to abdicate by the communists in 1947 and went into exile in Switzerland. The mother of one son, she lived (1896-1982).

1928-29 and 1936 Counsellor of State HM Queen Mary of Teck of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
One of 6 Counselors of State appointed during the illness of her husband, King Georges V of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Emperor of India, Defender of Faith, at the 4th of December 1928. It is not clear for how long, but the king was ill until the summer of 1929, the soon experienced a backlash until sometime in the beginning of 1930. Mary was born as Princess of Teck and lived (1867-1953).

1928-43-? Chief Mali II of Khaha (South Africa)
Initially she was installed as chief after her father's death, but as she refused to give up her husband (as Mali I did), she resigned and instead acted as regent for minor brother.

1929-62 Chief Mugalula II of Kiwele (Tanzania)
Daughter of Msavila and succeeded brother. In 1962 the new government abolished the chiefly system.

1929-39 Pirate Commander Lai Choi San, China
Her name is also transcribed Lai Sho Sz'en. She commanded 12 junks in the South China Sea.

1930-40 Regent Dowager Maharani Kumari Shri Tejkunuerba of Barwani (India)
Reigned in the name of her son, Maharaja Shri Devi singhij Bahadur Rana of Barwani. Born as Princess of Idar. (b. 1922).

1930-? Reiging Okinka Imaguey of the Island of Orango Grande (Guinea Bissau)
A descendant of Pampa Kanyimpa, who reigned from 1910. Later on there were other queens, such as Eugenia Andanga, Carlhota Jaquen Guen and Julia Comenpe. It was always the Baloberras, the women who speaks with spirits, whose task it was to choose the queen.

1930-62 Politically Influential Menem Asfaw of Ethiopia
Married the regent Ras Tafari in 1911. Early in his reign an army revolt broke out and he was taken hostage. She commandeered a tank and drove it herself trough the garrison's gate to free her husband. In exile during the Italian occupation. After the restoration in 1941 she was Emperor Hailie Selassie III's closest advisor on all aspects. She lived (1869-1962). 

1930-40 Politically Influential Elena Lupescu in Romania
Dominated her weak lover, King Carol II, who returned from exile and pushed his son with his ex-wife, Princess Helene and his mother, Queen Mother Maria, aside. She was very conservative and anti-progressive. In 1940 Carol was forced to abdicate, in favour of his son, ex-king Michael. The couple got married in 1947, and he died 6 years later. She was created Princess von Hohenzollern, and lived (1902-77).

1931 Umugabekazi Nyiaranauugo III Kankazi of Burundi
Became Umugabekazi (Queen Mother) (12.11-16.11) after the death of her husband. Burundi was a Belgian colony at the time. 

1931-36 President of the Council of Regency H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati MaharaniGajra Bai Raje Sahib Scindia of Gwalior (India)
Took over as regent for stepson Maharaja Georges Jivaye Rao Scindia (1916-25-61) after the death of his mother, Maharani Chinku. (d. 1943).

1931-after 66 Owner Frances Highly Kroening of Takuu (Mortlock) Island (Papua New Guinea)
After her mother, Mrs. Highly Calder, died after a dynamite accident, she inherited her interests in the island group, approximately 250 Kilometres North East of Bougainville, which consists of a circular reef bearing 13 islets and three sand cays. Frances was married to a German medical officer, Dr. Bruno Kroening, and in 1931 she was living at Kieta in Bougainville. During World War II, the Japanese bombed the coconut groves on the Mortlocks for no apparent reason, but little damage was done and no one was injured. In 1966 Frances Kroening still had her interest in the property, and was now working the property in association with the islanders.

Frances Repetto
1932-19.. Head Woman Frances Repetto, Tristan da Cunha (Dependency of St. Helena (United Kingdom Dependency))
The Head Woman was Chairperson of the Women's Council, which was (concerned with the welfare of women and children. She was the mother of one of the Head Men of the Islands.

1932-43 Pa Tapaeru Ariki, 46th Pa Ariki of the Takitumu Tribe (Cook Islands)
Succeeded by her daughter, Pa Ariki Pa Tepaeru Terito Ariki.

1933-37 Proprietor Dagmar Rasmussen of Kap York Stationen Thule in Greenland (Danish External Territory)
Dagmar Theresia Rasmussen født Andersen was widow of the polar explorer and anthropologist Knud Rasmussen, who founded the trade station in 1910 and later his ownership of the area was conformed by the International Court in the Hague. She sold it to the Danish State in 1937. Mother of 3 children, she lived (1882-1965).

1933-45 Politically Influential First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, United State of America
In 1921 when a bout with polio left Franklin Roosevelt crippled, her steadfast encouragement enabled him to return to politics and win the governorship of New York (1929-1933). In the process she became his political surrogate, speaking in his behalf to the citizenry, relaying their feedback to him, and giving her input as well. As First Lady she was a driving force in the New Deal and other social reforms. During World War II, she channelled her energies into the war effort. She did this first by mustering up civilian volunteerism as assistant director of the Office of Civilian Defence, and by visiting U.S. troops abroad. After her husband's death she became a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly, specializing in humanitarian, social, and cultural issues. In 1948, she drafted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which affirmed life, liberty, and equality internationally for all people regardless of race, creed or colour. Additionally, she helped in the establishment of the state of Israel and attempted negotiations, albeit cautiously, with the Soviet Union. She was niece of former President Theodore Roosevelt, and lived (1884-1962).

Maria of Yugoslavia
1934-43 Guardian Dowager Queen Maria of Romania of Yugoslavia
After her husband, King Alexander, was assassinated in France, his cousin, Prince Paul was regent for King Peter until 1941 when the family was forced into exile. She lived (1900-61).

Until 1934 Chief Musonga II of Ipito (Tanzania)
Succeeded father Ivata, she was deposed and succeeded by sister.

1934-62 Chief Ng’endo of Ipito (Tanzania)
Daughter of Ivata and succeeded sister Musonga II. In 1962 the new government abolished the chiefly system.

1934-62 Chief Sala of Nkokolo (Tanzania)
Successor of her cousin, the male chief Kasivilo.

1935-59 Mulena Mukwai Mulima of Nololo, Chief of the Southern Part of Bulozi and Regent Princess of Barotseland (Zambia)
Daughter of Yeta III, Litunga of the Lozi and Paramount Chief of Borotseland until his abdication 1945. She lived (1893-1964).

1935-49 Vice-President of the State Council and President of the CabinetPrincess Abida Sultan Begum of Bhopal (India)
1960-61 Titular Nawab Sahiba, Begum Sultan of Bhopal 
Her full name was Colonel Suraya Jah, Gauhar-i-Taj, Nawab Abida Sultan Begum Sahiba, but was normally known as Begum Abida Sultan. She was appointed as Heir Apparent to her father and recognized as such by the Indian government in 1928. In 1950 she moved to Pakistan. were she was a Delegate to UN in 1954, Ambassador to Brazil and Chile 1954-59. She was also an active politician and supporter of Miss Fatima Jinnah's candidacy for President of Pakistan. She Contested the succession after the death of her father, HH Sikander Savlat Ifrikar il-Mulk Haji Sir Muhammad Hamidullah Khan Badur, in February 1960, but the Indian government ruled against her in January 1961 in favour of her sister, H.H. Sikander Saulat Iftikhar ul-Mulk Haji Nawab Mehr Tai Sajida Sultan Begum Sahiba,  Nawab Begum of Bhopal(1960-95). Aida lived (1913-2002).

Possibly a photo of Aline Sitoe
Ca. 1936-43 Queen Aline Sitoé Diatta of the Diola Tribe in Casamance (Senegal)
The French deposed her because of her opposition to their rule. In 1943 the French attacked her capital, she surrendered, was arrested and sent into exile in Timbuktu, where she died the following year. She lived (ca. 1920-44).

1936-79 Orang Kaya Marie Maspaitella-Wattimena of Rutong at Ambon (Indonesia)
Appointed temporary ruler of the statelet after the death of her husband, Orang Kaya Pieter Maspaitella, but she remained in ofice for the next 33 years, and lived (19194-88).

1936 Pirate Commander P'en Ch'ih Ch'iko in China
Commanded 100 pirates.

1937-52 Counsellor of State HM Queen Elizabeth of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
1953-54 Senior Counsellor of State 
1954-2002 Counsellor of State
First appointed Counsellor of State during the visit abroad of her husband, King George VI (1895-1936-52) in 1943 and again acted in 1944, 1951, 1953, 1957, 1963 and at least once a year for the rest of her life, just up to a month before her death. She acted Senior Counsellor of State during her daughter, Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip's world tour. She later acted as Counsellor of State on many occasions since. Born as Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, she lived (1900-2002).

1937-57 Counsellor of State HRH The Princess Royal, Princess Mary of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Countess of Harewood
Acted as ruling Counsellor in 1939, 1943, 1944, 1947, 1951, 1951, 1956 and 1957. She was the daughter of George V and married to the 6th Earl of Harewood, Henry Lascelles. During the visit of King George VI, Queen Elizabeth, Princess Elizabeth and Princess Margaret to South Africa in 1947, she was appointed as one of the Counsellors of State - joint regents. She was mother of two sons, and lived (1897-1965).

1937-44 Counsellor of State HRH The Duchess of Fife, Princess Alexandra Duff of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Acted as ruling Counsellor in 1939, 1943, 1944 Alexandra Duff, daughter of Princess Louise, The Princess Royal and 1st. Duke of Fife, Earl MacDuff and Chief of the Clan of Fife, was created a Princess in 1905 together with her sister, Princess Maud. Alexandra was married to her cousin HRH The Duke of Connaught, Prince Arthur, former Governor-General of South Africa. He died in 1942, their son was killed in 1942 and she was succeeded by her sister's son. She lived (1891-1957). 

1937-47 H.H. Rani Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Parvati Bai Raje Sahib Bhonsle of Savantwadi (India)
After the death of her husband, H.H. Raja Shrimant Sir Khem Savant V Bhonsle Bahadur, she was regent for stepson H.H. Raja Shrimant Shivram Savant Bhonsle, Also known as Lakshmi Devi, she was born as Princess of Baroda, and lived (1907-61). 

The Maharani of Mudhol
1937-47 Regent Shrimant Sakal Soubhagyavati Parvatidevi Raje Sahib Ghorpade of Mudhol (India)
When her husband, Raja Shrimant Sir Malojirao IV Raje Ghorpade Bahadur (1884-1900-1937), abdicated she became regent for her son Raja Shrimant Bhairavsinhrao Raje Ghorpade Bahadur (1929-37-84). She handed over the government to him on 10 July 1947 and on 15 August he signed the instrument of accession to the Dominion of India and merged his state with Bombay the following year. He died in a car crash leaving an only daughter, Rajkumari Shrimant Menka Raje Ghorpade-Maurya, who is mother of a son, Vijaysinh Maurya, Director of The Mudhol Land Holdings Co. Pvt. Ltd.

1937-45 Regent....Nunumete-Patiwaai of Hative-Besar (Indonesia)
A small entity at the Maluku island of Ambon.

1937 Regent .... Loppies-Tuhurea of Tengah-Tengah and Paso (Indonesia)
Her original title as ruler of the two landscapes in the Mandar Region in the South Molukken was Orang Kaya. She was married to a ruler from the Simau-family.

1937 Joint Acting Chairperson of the Central Executive Committee Maryam Tugambayeva, Kyrgyzstan (16.09-0 4.10) 
As Vice-Chairperson 1932-37, she acted jointly as Head of State of the Soviet Socialist Republic together with Mikhail Ivanovich Us. Also known as Mariya Tuganbayeva, she lived (1907- 86).

1937-50's Pirate Commander Huang P'ei-mei, China
Leader of 50.000 pirates.

1938 Acting Chairperson of the Central Executive Committee Kalima Amankulova, Kyrgyzstan (15.05-18.07)
As Chairperson of the Central Executive Committee she was Head of the Soviet Socialist Republic.

1938 Chairperson of the Verkhovny Sovet Nadezhda Grigoryevna Grekova, Belarus
Another version of her name is Nadežda Grekova. As Chair of the Supreme Soviet she was in office as "Head of the Republic" 25.07-27.07 and was Chair of the Supreme Soviet until 1947,Member of the Central Audit Commission of the All-Union Communist Party 1939-52, 1943-46 Deputy chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and 1. Deputy Minister of Food Industry of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic 1949-52. She lived (1910-2001).

1938-57 Joint Head of State, The Ndlovukati Nukwase Nxumalo Ndwandwe, Swaziland
Married to one of king Sobhuza II's 12 uncles, Prince Malunge Dlamini (1877-1915) and took over the position of Queen Mother, since his mother and "step-mothers" had died. She lived (1880-1957). 

Makea Ariki
1939-47 Maka Nui Takau Margaret Ariki, 30th Makea Nui Ariki of the Teauotonga Tribe in Rarotonga (Cook Islands)
Makea Nui Ariki was the oldest daughter of Makea Nui Tinirau Teremoana Ariki, and married in 1928 Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Te Whiti Rongomai Love, a Maori from New Zealand, who became a hero in World War II. Mother of 4 children: Mokoroa, Inanui, Veia and Myra, and succeeded by sister, Makea Nui Teremoana Ariki. (d. 1947).  

1939 "Possible Throne Candidate" Elena of Montenegro of "The Kingdom of Croatia"
During World War II, two years before Germany invaded southern Yugoslavia and Greece (through Bulgaria) in April 1941, Italy was busy planning, once the war had been won, to restore Montenegro as an independent kingdom as well as to create a new kingdom of Croatia. Originally the idea was to make either Prince Michael or Prince Roman, both member s of the ruling Petrovitch family, into king but neither accepted, believing that eventually Italy and Germany would be defeated. Then it was proposed that Queen Elena, wife of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, who had been born a Montenegrin Princess, should be proclaimed Queen in her own right. This pleased her, but no one else; and eventually the appointment of one or more native-born 'Regents' was discussed. Born as Elena Petrovitch Niégoch, she lived (1873-1952).

1939-58 Politically Influential Sister Mary Pasqualina Lehnert in The Vatican
Served as Pope Pius XII's housekeeper and secretary from his period as Nuncio to Bavaria in 1917, and especially in the pope's final years, as his health deteriorated she seems to have in effect controlled the pope, by deciding who could see him, when they could see him, what documents he could read and advised him on decisions he should take. Enemies of called her La Popessa. Her intense dislike of him was credited by Curia members with causing Pope Pius XII to deny the position of Cardinal to Archbishop Giovanni Montini, the future Pope Paul VI, so excluding him from the 1958 papal conclave, where it was suspected that he would have been a leading candidate to be elected pope. This decision was overturned by the new pope, John XXIII, who chose Montini to be the first person he appointed to be a cardinal. Lehnert. She lived (1894-1983).

Last update 15.05.11