CHERA KINGS FROM 430 BC TO 2011 AD&TRAVANCORE--The Rajas of Venad--1000A.D. to 1947 A.D. [The Kulasekhara Dynasty-from internet]









                                 Queen Kumaradevi and KingChandragupta I, depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta, 335–380 CE.

                               





                                       CHERA KINGS OF Karur:-350BC TO 380 AD












"The rulers of Travancore trace their descent from the great dynasty of Chera kings whose exploits are recorded in the old literary monuments of India, the Ithihasas and thePuranas and the works of the Sangam period of ancient Tamil literature. They have a long and continuous history beginning from a period earlier than the commencement of the Christian era. Kulasekhara Alwar, one of the early kings of the Vanchi used the significant title, Keralachudamani The Chera descent of the Maharajas of Travancore is warranted by the indisputable evidence of inscriptions discovered in various parts of south India. A later inscription, one of the Paranthaka Pandya, (12th century A.D) discovered at Cape Comorin makes specific mention of the Chera king of Travancore"


Karur (கரூர்)




The names of the early Chera kings who ruled from Karur, have been
 
found in the rock inscriptions in Aaru Nattar 
 
Epigraphical, numismatic, archaeological and literary evidence have proved beyond doubt that Karur was the capital of early Chera kings of Sangam age. It was called Karuvoor or Vanji during Sangam days. There has been a plethora of rare findings during the archaeological excavations undertaken in Karur. These include mat-designed pottery, bricks, mud-toys, Roman coins, Chera Coins, Pallava Coins, RomanAmphorae, Rasset coated ware, rare rings, etc. Karur may have been the center for old jewellery-making and gem setting (with the gold imported mainly from Rome), as seen from various excavations. In 150 Greek scholar Ptolemy mentioned “Korevora” (Karur) as a very famous inland trading center in Tamil Nadu.
Karuvoor Thevar born in Karur, is one among the nine devotees who sung the divine Music Thiruvichaippa, which is the ninth Thirumurai. He is the single largest composer among the nine authors of Thiruvichaippa. He lived during the reign of the great Raja Raja Chola I. In addition to the famous Siva temple, there is a Vishnu temple at Thiruvithuvakkodu suburb of Karur, sung by famous Kulasekaraazhvaar [7-8th century AD]. The same temple is presumably mentioned in epic Silappadikaram as Adaha maadam Ranganathar whose blessings CheranSenguttuvan sought before his north Indian expedition

Rulers


Karur was ruled by different Chera kings. Kongu Cheras (capital:Karur (Vanji), ruling nearly the whole of old Kongu - lineage unclear- Cheran kootam

Kongu Chera Coins
Kongu Chera Coins


Vanavan @ Vanavaramban [430-350 BC].
Kuttuvan Uthiyan Cheralathan [350-328 BC] ruled for 22 years.
Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan [328-270 BC] ruled for 58 years.
Palyaanai Chelkezhu Kuttuvan [270-245 BC] ruled for 25 years.
Kalangaikanni narmudicheral [245-220 BC] ruled for 25 years.
Perumcheralathan [220-200 BC] ruled for 20 years.
Kudakko Neduncheralathan [200-180 BC] ruled for 20 years.
Kadal Pirakottiya Velkezhu kuttuvan [180-125 BC] ruled 55 years.
Adukotpattuch Cheralathan [125-87 BC] ruled 38 years.
Selvak kadungo Vazhiyathan [87-62 BC] ruled 25 years.
Yanaikatchei Mantharanj Cheral Irumborai [62-42 BC] ruled 20 years.
Thagadoor Erintha Perum Cheral Irumborai [42-25 BC] ruled 17 years (unification of Upper and lower Kongu).
Ilancheral Irumborai [25-19 BC] ruled 16 years.
Karuvur Eriya Koperumcheral Irumborai [9-1 BC].
Vanji Mutrathu tunjiya Anthuvancheral [BC 20 – 10 AD].
Kanaikal Irumborai [20-30 AD].
Palai Padiya Perum kadungko [1-30 AD].
Kokothai Marban [30 –60 AD].
Cheran Chenguttuvan [60-140 AD].
Kottambalathu tunjiya Maakothai [140-150 AD].
Cheraman mudangi kidantha Nedumcheralathan [150-160 AD].
Cheraman Kanaikkal Irumborai [160-180 AD].
Cheraman Ilamkuttuvan [180-200 AD].
Thambi Kuttuvan [200-220 AD].
Poorikko [220-250 AD].
Cheraman Kuttuvan Kothai [250-270 AD].
Cheraman Vanjan [270-300 AD].
Mantharanj Cheral [330-380 AD] found in Allahabad inscriptions of Samudragupta.

The archaeological excavations undertaken in Karur

These include mat-designed pottery, bricks, mud-toys, Roman coins, Chera Coins, Pallava Coins, RomanAmphorae, Rasset coated ware, rare rings, etc. Karur may have been the center for old jewellery-making and gem setting (with the gold imported mainly from Rome), as seen from various excavations. In 150 Greek scholar Ptolemy mentioned “Korevora” (Karur) as a very famous inland trading center in Tamil Nadu.










here is a Vishnu temple at Thiruvithuvakkodu suburb of Karur, sung by famous Kulasekaraazhvaar [7-8th century AD]. The same temple is presumably mentioned in epic Silappadikaram as Adaha maadam Ranganathar whose blessings Cheran Senguttuvan sought before his north Indian expedition





South India in AD 300
Pandiya mean old country.Chera means hill country and
Chola means new country,
in Sangam Tamil lexicon.

After the Sangam Cheras, Kongus (Gangas), a Chera related native clan ruled Karur. The history of modern Kongu Nadu dates back 
to the 8th century. The name Kongu Nadu originated from the term "Kongu", meaning nectar or honey. 
Kulasekhara known as Kongar Kon (the king of the Kongu people) ruled Kongu Nadu from Karur during this  
period.
The arch rivals Cholas conquered Karur and ruled it for forty years. The Kongus (Gangas) again conquered Karur as vassals of 
Hoysalas. Malik Kafur ended the Hoysalas & Vijayanagara empire absorbed Karur



chera kings 400 AD TO 8OO AD

UNKNOWN


The Kalabhras dynasty ruled over the entire ancient Tamil country between the 3rd and the 6th century in an era of South Indian history called theKalabhra interregnum

Kalabhras
The Dark Age of South India
Kalabhras Dynasty
 250–600 

 
Kalabhras Territories
CapitalKaveripattinam
Language(s)Tamil
ReligionBuddhism
Hinduism
Jainism
GovernmentMonarchy
Maharaja
 - 5th centuryAchchutavikranta
 - ?Tiraiyan of Pavattiri
 - ?Pulli of Vengadam orTirupati
Historical eraClassical India
 - Third Centurycirca 250
 - Sixth Centurycirca 600

Coins of the Kalabhras
KALABHRA COINS

Kaveripattinam
—  city  —


enter>

Kaveripattinam
Location of Kaveripattinam
in Tamil Nadu and India
Coordinates12°25′N 78°14′ECoordinates12°25′N 78°14′E
CountryIndia
StateTamil Nadu

. The Kalabhras displaced the kingdoms of the early Cholas, Pandayas and Chera dynasties. Little is known about the Cheras between the two dynasties. Mostly, they were the allies of the powerful Pallavas, against the Pandyas andAys.

South India in AD 700
The Kalabhras were defeated around the 6th century with the revival of Pallava and Pandya power. A Pandya ruler, Maravarman Rajasimha I (c. 730 – 765 AD), mentioned in a number of Pandya copper-plate inscriptions, was a prominent ruler during the early 8th century CE. He claims to have defeated a prominent Chera king. The name of the Chera king is not known, however from the details of the battles between the Pandya and the Chera, the Chera territory ceded seems to have included the entire Kerala and the Southern Pandya country from Kanyakumari to Thirunelveli, with capital at Karur.

 



Mahodayapuram Chera Kingdom or Kulasekhara kingdom
 800 CE–1102 CE 

 

 
Kulasekhara kingdom, an approximate representation
CapitalMahodayapuram(NearMuziris),Kulashekarapuram
Language(s)TamilMalayalam
ReligionHinduism
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraMiddle Ages
 - Coronation of Kulasekhara Varman800 CE
 - Chola attacks underKulothunga Chola I1102 CE

                                                             Map of Kerala just after the fall of the Later Chera kingdom

another Pandya monarch. Ayyan Atikal Tiruvatikal, who issued the famous Tharisapalli plates(Third Quilon copper plate, Tharissapalli Deed I or Kottayam plate) of 849 AD for the Later Chera king to Isodatta Virai for Tharissapalli (church) at Curakkeni Kollam, was the governor of Venad under Sthanu Ravi Varman.






800 to 1122 AD


VENAD CHERA COINS














List of Kulasekhara kings (Cheraman Perumals)

  1. Kulashekhara Varman (800-820 AD)
  2. Rajashekhara Varman (820- 844 AD)
  3. Sthanu Ravi Varman (844- 885 AD)
  4. Rama Varma Kulashekhara (885- 917 AD)
  5. Goda Ravi Varma (917- 944 AD)
  6. Indu Kotha Varma (944- 962 AD)
  7. Bhaskara Ravi Varman I (962- 1019 AD)
  8. Bhaskara Ravi Varman II (1019- 1021 AD)
  9. Vira Kerala (1021- 1028 AD)
  10. Rajasimha (1028- 1043 AD)
  11. Bhaskara Ravi Varman III (1043-1082 AD)
  12. Ravi Rama Varma (1082-90 AD)
  13. Rama Varma Kulashekhara (1090- 1102 AD, 1102-c. 1112 AD)


1102 Raja Sri Rama Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Mentioned in the Rameswarathukoil Inscription as the founder of Venad as an independent state. He d. 1102, having had issue, a son:1) Raja Sri Kotha Varma Marthandam, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad –
see below.

1102 – 1125      Raja Sri Kotha Varma Marthandam, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, son of Raja Sri Rama Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1102. He conquered Kottar and Nanjanad from the Pandyas. He d. 1125, having had issue, including four sons: 1) Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma I, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.2) Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.

1125 – 1145      Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma I, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1125. A great religious benefactor, responsible for the rebuilding of Padmanabhaswamy Temple and the endowment of Suchindram Temples. He d. 1145.
1145 – 1150 Raja Sri Kodai Kerala Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad.
1161 – 1164 Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, second son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded ca 1161. He d. 1164.
1164 - 1167 Raja Vira Kerala Varma II, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, third son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 1164. He d. 1167.
1167 – 1173      Raja Vira Aditya Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, fourth son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. He d. 1173?
1173 – 1192      Raja Vira Udaya Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, youngest son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 1167. He established his seat at Kulikkod and allied himself to the Pandya Kings. He d. at Kolidaikuru, 1192, having had issue, a daughter:
1192 – 1195      Raja Sri Devadaram Vira Kerala Varma III, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Fl 1192. He d. December 1195. 1) Raja Sri Vira Manikantha Rama Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.1) Rani Madhavi. She had issue, a son:
1195 -               Raja Sri Vira Manikantha Rama Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. From Kilapperur Illam. Mentioned in the Vellayani inscriptions. Succeeded December 1195.
1209 – 1214    Raja Sri Vira Rama Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. He d. 1214, having had issue, a daughter:
1214 – 1240      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Mentioned in the Kandiyoor inscription in 1218, and the Manalikara inscription of 1236. m. Rani Unniachi, responsible for the Subramanyaswamy shrine, near Suchindram Temple.
1240 – 1252      Raja Sri Vira Padmanabha Martanda Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. The Pandya kings asserted their dominance over Venad during his reign.
Fl 1266-1267    Raja Sri Jayasimha Deva, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, from the Yadu family of the Lunar race. He became a powerful ruler, who succeeded in bringing the whole of Kerala under his control. He esrablished his seat at Quilon, the surrounding areas becoming known as Jayasimhanad or Desinganad. m. Rani Umma Devi, Rani of Venad, of the Kupaka family, probably joint ruler with her husband. He d. at Quilon, leaving several sons who quarrelled with his nephews over the succession, causing a long and disruptive civil war. He had issue:1) Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Sangramadhiran Trikshatra Chudamani, Raja of Venad – see below.

1299 – 1313      Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Sangramadhiran Trikshatra Chudamani, Raja of Venad. b. 1266, son of Raja Sri Jayasimha Deva, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, by his wife, Rani Umma Devi, Rani of Venad, educ. privately. Adopted by the childless Rani Aavani Amma Thampuran of Attingal. Succeeded to the throne of Kerala, at Kolambapuram (Quilon) 1299 (in his 33rd year). He asserted his independence in 1310 and claimed the Pandyan throne after marrying a Pandyan princess, ultimately defeating Jatavarman Vira Pandya, the illegitimate son of Maravarman Kulasekhara I, twice and assuming control of his realm. The garrisons established in the Tamil country by the Muslim invader, Malik Kafur, were expelled by him. He established his rule over most of the southern countries between Kanyakumari and Madras, and as far north as Nellore. Crowned at Madurai, 1312 (in his 46th year). He then defeated the Cholas and was crowned as Chakravathi on the banks of the Vegavati River, at Coonjevaram (Kanchipuram), 1314. During his reign, Quilon rose to great prominance as a centre of trade and international commerce. Author of “Pradyumnabhudayam”. m. before 1310, a daughter of the Pandya ruler Maravarman Kulasekhara. He d. at Quilon, 1313.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers
File:Kerala in 15th century.jpg 

The reign of Ravi Varma Kulaśēkhara,1299 (FROM INTERNET)-CLICK AND READ:-http://pazhayathu.blogspot.com/2011/07/reign-of-ravi-varma-kulasekhara1299-ad.html


1313 – 1333      Raja Sri Vira Udaya Martanda Varma, Vira Pandya Deva, Raja of Venad. Succeeded on the death of his cousin, 1313. Subjugated by King Ravi Varma Kulasekhara Perumal in 1316. He d. 1333, having adopted two daughters of the Kolathunad family, whom he installed as Attingal Mootha Tampuran (Senior Princess of Attingal) and Attingal Elaya Tampuran (Junior Princess of Attingal) in 1305 AD. The Senior Princess of Attingal being the ancestress of the branches of the ruling house settled at Quilon and Trivandrum. The younger princess being the ancestress of the Elayadathu Swarupam of Kottarakara and the Peraka Thavazhi branch of Nedumangad.


But till 1314 the Venad rulers practised Patriarchy and spoke only Tamil. After the invasion of Malik Kafur in 1310 all the Tamil dynasties of Kerala were replaced by Matriarchal dynasties. Kolathiri the Tulu Bunt ruler of Kannur send two princes called Attingal and Kunnumel Ranis to replace the last Tamil ruler Udayamarthanda Varma in 1314 AD

1333 – 1335      Raja Sri Aditya Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad.
1335 – 1342      Raja Sri Vira Rama Udaya Martanda Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad. b. 1307, eldest son of the Senior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately. Senior Tiruvadi of Chiravay. Succeeded 1335. Crowned, January 1336. He d. July 1342.
1342 – 1363      Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad.
1363 – 1366      Raja Sri Vira Martanda Varma III, Raja of Venad. Ascended the gadi October 1363. He d. at Trivandrum Fort, September 1366 AD.
1366 – 1382      Raja Sri Vira Rama Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. b. 1338, eldest son of the Senior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately. Installed with full ruling powers, 1366. He d. at Trivandrum, 1382.
1383 – 1416      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi (Kilapperur)1416 – 1417      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta Tiruva
1383                   Raja Sri Vira Kerala Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Vanad. b. 1366, elder twin son of the Junior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately. Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi (Kilapperur). Succeeded on the death of his maternal uncle, 1382. Reigned for three months before his death.
1383 – 1444      Raja Sri Chera Udaya Martanda Varma, Vira Padya Deva, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. b. 1366, younger twin son of the Junior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately.  Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi. He enjoyed the longest reign in Travancore history. He d. at the Chera Mahadevi Palace, 1444, aged 78 years.
1444 – 1458      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad [“Venad Mootha Raja”=“the First Prince of Venad”)]. He d. 1458.
1458 – 1468      Raja Sankhara Sri Vira Rama Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad.  From the Trippappur princely house. Jayasimhanad Mutta Tiruvadi. Ruled until October 1468.
1468 – 1484      Raja Sri Vira Kodai Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. From Kilapperur. Jayasimhanad Mutta Tiruvadi and Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi. He established his capital at Kallidaikurichi. A religious minded and learned ruler who devoted his time to artistic pursuits, charitable and public works. He d. at Kallidaikurichi, 1484.
1484 – 1503      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi. Established his capital at Padmanabhapuram, ca. 1500. His rule witnessed a growing enmity with the rulers of Vijayanagar and the arrival of the Portuguese. He d. 1504.
1503 – 1504      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. He d. 1504.
1504 – 1528      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Kerala Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Succeeded as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi and as ruler of Venad 1504. He d. 1528.

1528 – 15xx      Sri Vira Muttavar Sankaranarayana Venrumankonda Bhutalavira Udaya Martanda Varma Raja Jetunganadu Mutta Tiruvadi. Succeeded on the death of his maternal uncle as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi 1528. He conquered most of Tirunelvelly from the Pandyas and assumed the title of Venrumankonda Bhutalavira in commemoration of that victory. The Vijayanagar generalissimo, Salakaraja Chinna Tirumalayyadeva subsequently defeated him in battle near  Tamraparni 1535. Forced to surrender all the Pandya territories that he had previously won, and reduced to the position of a vassal of the Vijayanagar Empire. Fl 685 ME, 688 ME, 707 ME and 722 ME. m. Cholakulavalli, a princess from the Chola dynasty. He d. 1560.

15xx – 1544      Raja Sri Aditya Varman, Raja of Venad. He d. January 1544.
1544 – 1554      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. From the Chiravay princely . Succeeded as ruler of Venad and installed on the same day at Vilavur Madom, Attur, Kulkulam, 6th January 1544.
1554 – 1575      Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. From Vanchi. Ascended the gadi, at the Tiruvitancode Temple, Kulkulam, 9th March 1554. He d. at Keralapuram Palace, Attur, Kalkulam, 25th March 1575.
1575 – 1577      Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Succeeded and installed on the same day at Attur, 25th March 1575. Installed at the Tiruvattar Shrine, 3rd June 1575.  He d. at Keralapuram Palace, Attur, Kalkulam, 19th January 1577, having adopted a princess and a prince from the Attingal Royal Family into the Chiravay Swarupam 1575, including:1) Prince Cheriya Rama Varma, of Manalikkara, in Kalkulam, a nephew of the Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi.1) Princess ...

1577 – 1578      interregnum?
 
1578 – 1592      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. Assumed the headship of the Chiravay Swarupam as Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi 18th November 1578. Ascended the gadi as ruler of Venad, 19th November 1578. Assumed the headship of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi 1587 and formally installed as such at the Trippappur Mahadevar Temple, 26th October 1588. He d. June 1592, having adopted three princes into the Venad family.

1592 – 1609      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma [Kettai Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, son of Rani Umayammai. A prince of from the Kilapperur Illam of the Trippappur Swarupam. Succeeded as ruler of Venad and ascended the gadi, 19th June 1592. Assumed the headship of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi in 1605. He d. at Toniman Palace, Tiruvattar, 30th March 1609.

1609 – 1610      Raja Sri Rama Varma, Raja of Venad. From Iraniel (the traditional appanage of the Heir Apparent). Adopted into the Chiravay Swaruppam by Raja Sri Martanda Varma, at the Kulittura Palace, April 1579. Succeeded on the death of his adoptive brother, as ruler of Venad, 30th March 1609. He d. eleven months later, at the Karuppu Palace, Trivandrum, 28th February 1610.

1610                 Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. Adopted into the Chiravay Swaruppam by Raja Sri Martanda Varma, at the Kulittura Palace, April 1579. Succeeded on the death of his adoptive brother as ruler of Venad, 28th February 1610. He d. at the Pullikkottu Palace, Trivandrum, 13th May 1610.

1610                 Raja Sri Ilaya Rama Varma, Raja of Venad. From the Manalikkara branch of the family in Kalkulam. Succeeded 13th May 1610. He d. at the Tikkurichi Palace, Kalkulam, 6th September 1610. 








{The 35 Naads (Principalities) in Malabar were: Kottayam, KadathanadKurumbranad, Tamarasseri-Wynad, North Parappanad, South Parappanad, Valluvanad, Vadamalapuram, Tenmalapuram, Kolathunad (All ruled by Samanta Kshatriyas); Polanad, Payyanad, Ramanad, Cheranad, Nedunganad, Naduvattam, Kuttanad, Chavakkad, Chetwai, Eranad, Neeleswaram, Konad, Kodikkunninad, Vettattnad, Kakkad, Beypore, Talapilli, Chirakkal, Kumbala, Kollamkode, Punnathur (All ruled by Samanthan Nairs); Kavalapara, Kurangott, Kuthiravattath, Payyurmala & Pulavai (All ruled by Moopil Nayars).}




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1610 – 1662         Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma [Revati Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Succeeded on the death of his adoptive uncle as head of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi and as ruler of Venad, 6th September 1610 (relinquished 1620?). Assumed the headship of the Chiravay Swarupam as Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi 1628 (relinquished 1647). He went on pilgrimage to Rawamswaram in 1620. Faced with a contest for the throne throughout his reign. Adopted into the Pokam Tavazhi Senior branch by its Head Vira Kerala Varma Moolam Tirunal, at Pullikottu Palace, Trivandrum, January 1622. Adopted into Kunnummel Elayadam Swarupam (Kottarakkara) by Vira Kerala Varma Pooyam Tirunal, at Karuppu Palace, Trivandrum, July 1623. He d. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum, 11th August 1662 .
Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1662 – 1671      Raja Sri Rama Varma, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Princess Lakshmi Amma Pantarattil [Lakshmi Nambirattiyar Ammai], from the Vellarapalli Kovilakam of Cochin Royal Family. Adopted by the Senior Rani of Attingal, Pooram Tirunal, at the Attingal Palace,  June 1630. Succeeded 1651 or 827ME. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, 11th August 1662. Assumed the Headship of Jayatunganad (Quilon) 1667. He d. at the Kalkulam Fort Palace, 13th September 1671.
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1671 – 1677      Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Princess Lakshmi Amma Pantarattil [Lakshmi Nambirattiyar Ammai], from the Vellarapalli Kovilakam of Cochin Royal Family. Adopted by the Senior Rani of Attingal, Pooram Tirunal, at the Attingal Palace, June 1630. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 13th September 1671. Opposed by the pillamar, who conspired to burn the palace and cause him to flee the capital. He was k. (poisoned by the Yogakkars) at the Darbhakkulangara Palace, Kalkulam, between 28th January/25th February 1677.
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1677 – 1678      Raja Sri Ramaraja Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad (first time) – see below.
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1678 – 1681      Raja Sri Kerala Varma, Raja of Venad, elder son of the Princess of Nedumangadu, of the Perakat Tavazhi, educ. privately. Succeeded as Prince of Nedumangadu on the death of his uncle. Adopted into the Kyamkulam branch of the Cheraway Swarupam, 1677. He claimed that his mother had been adopted into the Trippappur Swarupam of the Venad Royal House, at the same time as his uncle, by Raja Ravi Varma in 1621. Consequently, declared the adoption of 1671 as invalid and claimed the throne for himself. He then joined forces with the discontented pillamars, defeated Rani Ummayamma Aswathi Tirunal in late 1677 and opened negotiations with her mother. The old Rani Makayiram Tirunal having expired before the negotiations were complete, he seized the Royal regalia and proclaimed himself ruler in 1678. Defeated and expelled from Trivandrum in 1681 by Prince Kerala Varma, the Second Tampuran of Iranyal. He subsequently made peace with Rani Ummayamma but failed to secure recognition as Second Tampuran of Venad. He d. 1693.
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1704 – 1705      H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad (first time) – see below.

1705 – 1707      H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Unni Kerala Varma III, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, younger son of the Princess of Nedumangadu, of the Perakat Tavazhi, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother as Prince of Nedumangadu and Kayamkulam, 1693. Proclaimed as ruler of Venad by the pillamar in February 1705, after they ignored the rights of Prince Aditya Varma following the death of his brother in 1704. He was k. in battle with his nephew, the Prince of Kayamkulam, December 1707.

1707 – 1711      H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja ..., Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, son of the Princess of Nedumangadul, educ. privately. He succeeded his maternal uncle as Prince of Nedumangudu in December 1707, thereby becoming the senior muppu of all three swarupam and thus proclaimed himself as Kulasekhara Perumal. Supported by the ruler of Madurai and the larger portion of the pillamarConcluded peace with Aditya Varma in January 1711, when he received recognition as ruler with Aditya Varma as Heir Apparent. He d. at Trivandrum, 24th May 1711.

1704-1705 & 1711–1721 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad, second son of of Ittammar Raja of Beypore Thattarikovilakam, of the Kolathundu Royal House, by his wife, a princess of from the Kolathunad Royal House, educ. privately. Adopted by the Rani Regent Umayamma of Attingal, 1696. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 1704. Ignored by the pillamar, who recognised the Prince of Nedumangadu ruler in his stead in February 1705. Allied himself with the Rani of Karungappali and set about recovering his throne. Settled at Kalkulam, from whence he opposed the prince of Nedumangadu by making alliances with the Dutch and the exiled princes of the Laccadives, Mammali Kitavus and Kunju Koyamu. He then fell-out with the latter and concluded a truce with the pillamarwho abandoned the Nedumangadul prince in his favour in December 1708. Fled to Quilon in March 1709. Concluded peace with the Nedumangadul prince in January 1711, wherin the latter received full recognition as ruler and Aditya Varma became his Heir Apparent or Elaya Raja. Succeeded as ruler on his death, 24th May 1711. He d(poisoned by the eight Nair lords?) at he Darpakulangara Palace Padmanabhapuram, Thukalai, early February 1721 (succ. by his full brother), having had issue, a daughter:

1) Srimathi Kalyanipilla Kochamma. m. Ravi Varma, of Kayamkulam.

1721 – 1729      H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Rama Varma, Raja of Venad, third son of Ittammar Raja of Beypore Thattarikovilakam, of the Kolathundu Royal House, by his wife, a princess of from the Kolathunad Royal House, educ. privately. Appointed as Heir Apparent and invested with the title of Elaya Raja, March 1713. Succeeded to Venad on the death of his elder brother in early February 1721. Assumed the headship of Trippappur Swarupam at Tiruvattar Palace, 1st Panguny 896 ME. Although he continued the struggle against the collateral houses and the pillamar, he secured a signal victory against the Madurai ruler at Chiwandaram, 26th March 1723. Concluded a Treaty of Alliance with the HEIC(east india company) on 15th August 1723, in which he gave them rights to avenge the Attingal massacre and their help in hiring Maravar cavalry from the Coromandel coast. He d. from smallpox, at Trivandrum, 27th January (or 9th February) 1729

1729                 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Rama Varma, Raja of Venad, elder son of Rani Kartika Tirunal, Senior Rani of Attingal, and a Koil Tampuran of Kilimanur educ. privately. Adopted into the Karunagappali branch of the Cheraway Swarupum in 1715, when he succeeded to the headship of that house and was styled Prince of Neyyatinkara. Installed as Heir Apparent with the title of Elaya Raja, by his uncle, January 1722. Voluntarily accepted demotion to third prince, following the adoption of the Tellicherri prince later that same year. Succeeded as ruler following that prince’s sudden death on 28th February 1729. m. at Nagercoil, Kittinathal Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Abiramapilla Kochamma, née Abhirami, a former devadasi or temple dancer ennobled just prior to her marriage, daughter of Krishnan Kochu Kumara Pillai, a Bengali or Tamil gentleman from outside Travancore. He d. from smallpox, at Kalkulam, 30th August 1729, having had issue, two sons and a daughter*:

These children were thought to be the children of Rama Varma (r 1721-1729) but a note from their uncle Martanda Varma to Paliyath Achan dated 23 March 1742; ARA, VOC 2564, fol. 2688vo reads “Since the deaths of my predecessors Aditya and Rama Varma and our brother, the Desingadu, the Tambi, son of our deceased brother, the Muthaliyar and the madumbimar united against me and committed several hostilities. See Mark de Lannoy, The Kulasekhara Perumals of Travancore: History and State Formation in Travancore from 1671 to 1758. Research School CNWS, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1997, p45. 

1729 - 1758  H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Valia Martanda Varma I [Anizham Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Travancore. b. at Iranyal, 1705, as Prince Vira Bala Martanda Varma, younger son of Rani Kartika Tirunal, Senior Rani of Attingal, and a Koil Tampuran of Kilimanur educ. privately. Appointed as Third Prince of Venad by his uncle, January 1722. Voluntarily accepted demotion to third prince, following the adoption of the Tellicherri prince later that same year. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi of the Trippapur Swarupam and Kilapperur Illam and ruler of Travancore, 30th August 1729. Ascended the gadi, at the Padmanabhapuram Palace, Thukalai, 1st October 1729. Opposed by the sons of his uncle, who conspired with eight Nair chiefs in an attempt to oust him from the throne, forcing him from the capital. A great warrior and astute politician, he formed a new army, defeated his cousins and began the unification of the principalities and expansion of the kingdom. He achieved a spectacular victory against the Dutch in 1741, then appointed Eustace De Lennoy, the defeated Dutch naval captain 


Dutch commander De Lannoy surrenders to Marthanda Varma at the


 Battle of Colachel. Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace

as commander of his modern army of Christian and Muslim soldiers.


 Driving all his enemies before him, he annexed one principality after another until his forces advanced up to the borders of Cochin in 1746. He permanently removed his capital to Trivandrum in 1745, where he restored and beautified the ancient temples. Surrendered his kingdom to the family deity Sri Anantha Padmanabhan on 3rd January 1750, thenceforward adopted the title of Sri Padmnabha Dasa Vanchipala. Revered as the founder of modern Travancore (Thiruvithamkor). 




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 


Kingdom of Travancore
Flag of Travancore
Marthanda Varma
1729-1758
1758-1798
1798-1810
1810-1815
1815-1829
1829-1846
1846-1860
1860-1880
1880-1885
1885-1924
1924-1931
1931-1949
‡ Regent Queens
Capitals
1729-1795
1795-1949
Palaces
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1758 - 1798 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa  Vanchipala Rama Varma II [Kartika Tirunal] Dharmaraja, Kulasekhara Perumal, Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. b. 1724, as Prince Vanchi Bala Martanda Rama Varma, elder son of Rani Parbathi Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband, M.R.Ry. Sri Kerala Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Kilimanur, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his uncle as adhinam of the Trippappur Swarupam and as ruler of Travancore, 7th July 1758. Attacked by Tipu Sultan in 1790, the Raja withstood the invasion for six months, defeated Tipu twice then appealed to the British for assistance. Signed a Treaty of friendship and protection with the HEIC, 17th November 1795. Granted the hereditary titles of Manney Sultan, Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Bahadur, and Shamsher Jang, in reward for his services against Tippu Sultan. 

                                           Tippu Sultan, 1792


Removed his capital from Padmanabhapuram to Tiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) in 1795. He made the pilgrimage to Rameswaram in 1784, to which he had already made considerable donations, improved the roads leading to it from Travancore and policing the jungles through which they passed. A distinguished patron of the arts and literature, who mastered Sanskrit, Persian, Hindustani, Tamil, Portuguese, and Dutch. He was also responsible for the restoration of the Sri Padmabha Swami Temple. Musician and composer of Kritis and Kathakali plays. Author of "Abhinaya Darpana" and "Balarama Bharatha". m. (first) a lady from the Arumana House. m. (second) Vadasseri Ammachi Panapilla Srimathi Kali Amma Nagamani Amma. m. (third) a lady from the Nagercoil House. m. (fourth) a lady from the Thiruvattar House. He d. at the Puttan Malika, Trivandrum Fort, 17th February 1798, having had issue, including a daughter by his fourth wife:








1798 - 1810 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Bala Rama Varma II [Avitam Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. b. at Quilon, 1782, only surviving son of Rani Attham [Chadayam Tirunal], of Attingal, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, 17th February 1798. He d. at Trivandrum Fort, 7th November 1810.
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1810 - 1813 H.H. Sri Padmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bayi [Ayilyam Tirunal], Senior Rani of Attingal and Rani Regent of Travancore. b. 1791, elder daughter of Rani Parvati Bayi [Attam Tirunal], by her husband, a Koil Tampuran of Changanasseri from the Parappanad Royal House, educ. privately. Installed on the death of her brother as Rani Regent and interim ruler of Travancore 7th November 1810 (pending the birth of a son and heir). Ceased to enjoy that position on the birth of her eldest son, 16th April 1813. Continued as Regent until her death. She was one of the most distinguished rulers of Travancore, instituting many reforms and advances in administration, education, and welfare. m. M.R.Ry. Sri Raja Raja Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Changanasseri (d. December 1845), eldest son of Princess Injanji Amma Tampuratti of Changannasseri, youngest daughter of Princess Kunjikutti Tampuratti of the Parappanad Royal House, who fled to Travancore with her three sons and five daughters when Hyder Ali invaded Malabar. She d. at Kanni, 18th August 1815, having had issue, two sons and two daughters:



1) H.H. Rani Gouri Parvathi Bayi [Uttirattadi Tirunal], Senior Rani of Attingal. b. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 1802, educ. privately. She d. young.2) H.H. Rani Gouri Rukmini Bayi [Ayilyam Tirunal], Senior Rani of Attingal. b. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 1809, educ. privately. Succeeded her sister as Senior Rani of Attingal. A gifted musician who composer of over 150 krittis (devotional songs) in praise of Padmanabha. m. at Trivandrum, 25th May 1819, M.R.Ry. Sri Rama Varma [Punartham Tirunal], Koil Tampuran of Tiruvalla. She d. June 1837, having had issue, eight children, including five sons and two daughters:
1813 - 1846  H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Rama Varma III [Swati Tirunal],





Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. b. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 16th April 1813, elder son of H.H. Sri Padmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband M.R.Ry. Sri Raja Raja Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Changanasseri, from the Parappanad Royal House, educ. privately. Succeeded at birth and formally installed on the gadi, 29th July 1813. Reigned under the regencies of his mother and his aunt until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers, 21st April 1829. A learned man fluent in six languages and a famous composer of Indian classical music, lyricist and scholar. Encouraged the learning of English with the establishment of the first English school in 1834. He also founded a charity hospital and observatory, two yeers later. m. (first) a lady who died young. m. (second) at Trivandrum Fort, 1829, Thiruvattar Ammachi Panapilla Amma Srimathi Narayanipilla Kochamma, a commoner adopted from the Aaikutty family of Kollam into the Thiruvattar Ammaveedu shortly before her marriage. m. (third) at Trivandrum Fort, 1843, Thanjavoor Ammachi Panapilla Amma Srimathi Sundaralakshmi Kochamma (d. 1856), née Suganda Parvathi Bayi [Sugandhavalli], a Bharatanatyam dancer who came to his court with the famous Guru Vadivelu, adopted into the Vadasseri Ammaveedu in 1843 and raised to the status of a consort or Ammachi in 1845 when the new house of Thanjavoor Ammaveedu was created for her, daughter of a mudaliyar from Tanjore. He d. at the Puttan Malika Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 27th December 1846 (succ. by his younger brother), having had issue, a son:1) Chempakaraman Sri Thiruvattar Ananda Padmanabhan Tampi [Chitra Nal] (s/o Narayani).
Swathi Thirunal:-[PHOTOS OF KING SWATHI]-http://www.swathithirunal.in/photogallry.htm


Swathi Thirunal:http://www.swathithirunal.in/life.htm


Swathi Thirunal:-[MUSIC BY KING SWATHI]http://www.swathithirunal.in/compositions_ind.htm




1846 - 1860  H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Martandra Varma II [Uthram Tirunal], Kulasekhara Bhageodaya Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. b. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 26th September 1814, younger son of H.H. Sri Padmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband M.R.Ry. Sri Raja Raja Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Changanasseri, from the Parappanad Royal House, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 27th December 1846. Installed at Trivandrum Fort, 26th February 1847. m. Thiruvattar Ammachi Panapilla Amma Srimathi Madhavipilla Kochamma (d. at Trivandrum in 1860, on the night of a special durbar held in honor of a gift of a jewelled belt sent by Queen Victoria), younger sister of the second wife of his predecessor, a commoner adopted from the Aaikutty family of Kollam into the Thiruvattar Ammaveedu in 1829. He d. at the Puttan Malika Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 18th August 1860 (succ. by his nephew), having had issue, a daughter:1) Thiruvattar Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmipilla Kochamma. m. at Trivandrum, 1854, as his first wife, H.H. Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Bala Rama Varma IV [Ayilyam Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore, GCSI, CIE (b. at Trivandrum Fort, 14th March 1832; d. at Trivandrum Fort, 30th May 1880), eldest surviving son of H.H. Rani Gouri Rukmini Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband, M.R.Ry. Sri Rama Varma [Punartham Tirunal], Koil Tampuran of Tiruvalla. She d. before 18th August 1860 – see below.
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1860 - 1880  H.H. Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Bala Rama Varma IV [Ayilyam Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore, GCSI (12.2.1866), CIE (1.1.1878). b. at Trivandrum Fort, 14th March 1832, eldest surviving son of H.H. Rani Gouri Rukmini Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband, M.R.Ry. Sri Rama Varma [Punartham Tirunal], Koil Tampuran of Tiruvalla, educ. privately. Invested as Heir Apparent with the title of Eliya Raja at Trivandrum Fort, 26th February 1847. Succeeded on the death of his maternal uncle, 18th August and ascended the gadi, 7th September 1860. Installed at a Public Durbar, at Trivandrum Fort, 19th October 1860. Received a sanad of adoption, 11th March 1862. Granted the hereditary title of Maharaja, 6th August 1866. A distinguished musician, reformer and administrator. He expanded education by building several English, Tamil and Malayalam schools, and the first university college in 1873. He also opened a modern hospital, a lying-in hospital and lunatic asylum. Rcvd: the Serangapatam gold medal (31.12.1866), Prince of Wales's gold medal (1875), and KIH gold medal (1877). m. (first) at Trivandrum, 1854, Thiruvattar Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmipilla Kochamma (d. before 18th August 1860), a daughter of his maternal uncle, H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Martandra Varma II [Uthram Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore, by his wife, Thiruvattar Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Madhavipilla Kochamma.  m. (second) at Trivandrum, 1862, Nagercoil Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmipilla Kalyanikuttypilla Kochamma (b. at Mukundapuram, near Thrissur, Cochin, 1839; d. at Trivandrum, 1909), educ. privately by the Church of England Zenana Missionary Soc, poetess and author of “Rasakrida”, “Ambarishacharitram”, “Pativratya Panchakam” and “Satya Panchakam”, adopted in 1865 into the Nagercoil Ammaveedu from the Mathiripally (or Mathripillil) family of Cheranallur, daughter of Sri Nadavarambath Kunju Krishna Menon, Valia Sarvadhikariakar of Cochin state, by his wife, Srimathi Lakshmi Amma. He d.s.p. at Trivandrum Fort, 30th May 1880 (succ. by his younger brother), having adopted the daughter of a cousin of his second wife, Srimathi Kunjulakshmi Amma, of the Mathiripally (or Mathripillil) family of Cheranallur:
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1880 - 1885  H.H. Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Patmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Rama Varma V [Visakham Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore, GCSI (23.5.1882). b. at Trivandrum Fort, 19th May 1837, youngest son of H.H. Rani Gouri Rukmini Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband, M.R.Ry. Rama Varma [Punartham Tirunal], Koil Tampuran of Tiruvalla, educ. privately. Invested as Heir Apparent with the title of Eliya Raja at Trivandrum Fort, 19th October 1860. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 30th May 1880. Installed at a public Durbar, at Trivandrum Fort, June 1880. A great scholar, science writer and journalist, who translated a number of important works from English and other European languages into Malayalam. Patron of agriculture, education and the arts. Founder and Patron of H.H. The Maharaja's School of Arts  in 1881 (now the College of Fine Arts Trivandrum). Fellow of the Royal Geographical Soc (FRGS), Linnean Soc, Statistical Soc (London), and Madras Univ (FMU). Mbr Royal Asiatic Soc (MRAS) (London), and Soc etude colonial a maritime (Paris). Patron Poona Gayan Samaj Music Soc, etc. Rcvd: the Prince of Wales's silver medal (1875), and KIH silver medal (1877), Officer of the Order of Public Instruction of France. m. at Trivandrum, 1859, Arumana Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmipilla Kochamma (b. at at Trivandrum, 1850; d. there, 1885), educ. privately by the Church of England Zenana Missionary Soc, daughter of Arumana Ammachi Srimathi Bharathipilla Kochamma, and a descendant of H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Bala Rama Varma I [Avitam Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. He d. at the Ananthavilasam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 



4th August 1885 (succ. by his maternal nephew), having had issue, one son and three daughters:2) Arumana Ammaveetil Shrimathi Rukminipilla Kochamma. b. at Arumana Ammaveedu, Trivandrum, 1876. m. M.R.Ry. Sri Kerala Varma Thirumulpad. She d. 1938, having had issue, six sons and two daughters:a) Sri Arumana Padmanabhan Tampi [Madhavan]. b. at Trivandrum, 1891. He had issue, a daughter:c) Sri Arumana Velayudhan Tampi [Raghavan]. b. at Trivandrum, 1896. m. (first) Shrimathi Madhavi Thankachi [Rajamma] (d. 1925). m. (second) Shrimathi Lakshmipilla Thankachi (d. 1958). He had issue, a daughter by his first, and two sons and two daughters by his second wife:i) Sri V. Surendran Tampi. b. at Trivandrum, 1933 (s/o Lakshmipilla). m. Shrimathi Ratnam. He had issue, one son and one daughter:3) Arumana Ammaveetil Shrimathi Bhageerathipilla Kochamma. b. at Arumana Ammaveedu, Trivandrum, 1877. m. M.R.Ry. Sri Rama Varma Avargal, Raja of Poonjar. She d. 1940, having had issue, three sons and three daughters, including the elde






1924 - [1991] Major-General H.H. Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Patmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Bala Rama Varma III [Sri Chithira Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore, GCSI (1.1.1946), GCIE (3.6.1935). b. at Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum, 7th November 1912, eldest son of H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Maharani Setu Parvati Bayi, Junior Maharani of Travancore, by her husband M.R.Ry. Ravi Varma Avargal, Kochu Koil Tampuran of Kilimanur, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, 7th August 1924. Installed on the gadi, at the Durbar Hall of the Puthenkacheri, Trivandrum, 17th September 1924. Reigned under the Regency of his aunt until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers, 6th November 1931. Removed all restrictions on Hindus wishing to enter places of worship in 1936, including untouchables and outcastes. Signed the instrument of accession to the Dominion of India, 15th August 1947. Merged his state with Cochin and served as Rajpramukh of the Travancore-Cochin Union from 1st July 1949 until 31st October 1956. The GOI amended the Indian Constitution to remove his position as a "ruler" and his right to receive privy-purse payments, 28th December 1971. Hon Maj IA 12/1/1943, prom Hon Lieut-Col 11/7/1944, Hon Col 15/8/1945, and Hon Maj-Gen 15/10/1946. Hon Col 16th Light Cavalry, IA 3/3/1947, 12th (Malabar) Btn 3rd Madras Regiment (ITF) 1/9/1940, and 16th (Travancore) Btn The Madras Regiment 1/5/1954. Col-in-Chief Travancore State forces 1924-1949 and Travancore-Cochin State Forces 1949-1954. Chancellor Univ of Travancore 1937-1956. Hon D.Litt. Annamalai and Andhra Univs. Presdt Sri Mulam Club (Trivandrum). Patron-in-Chief Trivandrum Tennis Club (TTC) 1938-1991, Sri Swati Thirunal Sangita Sabha 1942-1991, and the Travancore Athletic Assoc. Patron Travancore Boy Scouts Assoc, Trivandrum Club, Trivandrum Friend-in-Need Soc, etc. Rcvd: Silver Jubilee (1935), Coron (1937) and Indian Independence (1948) medals. He dunm. at the at Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum, 19th July 1991 (succ. by his younger brother).



KERALA COINS:-http://historicalleys.blogspot.com/2009/07/fanams-of-calicut.html




[1991] Colonel H.H. Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Patmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Martanda Varma III [Uthradom Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore. b. at Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum, 22nd March 1922, second son of H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Maharani Setu Parvati Bayi, Junior Maharani of Travancore, by her husband M.R.Ry. Ravi Varma Avargal, Kochu Koil Tampuran of Kilimanur, educ. privately and at Travancore Univ (BA). Became Heir Apparent with the title of Elaya Raja, at birth.  Succeeded on the death of his elder brother as the Head of the Royal House of Travancore and Supreme Guardian of the Sri Padmanabhaswami Temple, 19th July 1991. Hon Col Travancore Univ Labour Corps and Hon Lt-Col The Maharaja's Bodyguard in the Travancore-Cochin State Forces until 1954. Chief Scout Travancore Boy Scouts Assoc, Travancore-Cochin Boy Scouts Assoc and Kerala Boy Scouts Assoc. Patron-in-Chief Thiruvananthapuram Kendra Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Chief Patron Sneham Super Speciality Hospital Project. Patron Sri Swati Thirunal Sangita Sabha since 1991, Shree Uthradom Tirunal Hospital (SUT), Muthalamada Sneham Charitable Trust, Trivandrum Tennis Club (TCC) since 1938, Trivandrum Club, Trivandrum Friend-in-Need Soc, etc. Rcvd: Silver Jubilee (1935), Coron (1937) and Indian Independence (1947) medals. m. (by puttam parivattavum) at Trivandrum, 5th September 1945, Panapilla Amma Shrimathi Radha Devipilla Kochamma (b. at Madras, 1927; d. at a private hospital in Chenai, 12th December 2005), a gifted jewellery and furniture designer, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Krishnan Gopinath Pandalai, MB, CM, FRCS, LRCP, late IMS, sometime Superintendant of the Government General Hospital, Madras. He had issue, one son and one daughter:1) Sri Anantha Padmanabhan Tampi.




                                   Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum- Kerala-here the present rajah lives




File:Travancore Maharaja's State Carriage .jpg

Travancore Maharaja's State Carriage, IN FRONT OF SRI PADMANABHA SWAMI TEMPLE AT THIRUANANTHAPURAM 1900



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History of India
Stone Age before 3300 BCE
- Mehrgarh Culture 7000–3300 BCE
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE
- Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE
-- Ochre Coloured Pottery culture 2nd millennium BCE
-- Cemetery H culture From 1900 BCE
-- Swat culture 1600–500 BCE
Iron Age 1200–180 BCE
Vedic Civilization 1500–500 BCE
-Black and Red ware culture 1300–1000 BCE
-Painted Grey Ware culture 1200–600 BCE
-Northern Black Polished Ware 700–200 BCE
Maha Janapadas • 700–300 BCE
Magadha Empire • 684–424 BCE
Nanda Empire • 424-321 BCE
                                                 [1] Chera Empire • 300 BCE–1200 CE
Chola Empire • 300 BCE–1279 CE
Pandyan Empire • 300 BCE–1345 CE
Maurya Empire • 321–184 BCE
Pallava Empire • 250 BCE–800 CE
Sunga Empire • 185-73 BCE
Kanva Empire • 75-26 BCE
Kharavela Empire • 209–170 BCE
Kuninda Kingdom • 200s BCE–300s CE
Indo-Scythian Kingdom • 200 BC–400 CE
Satavahana Empire • 230 BCE–220 CE
Indo-Greek Kingdom • 180 BCE–10 CE
Middle Kingdoms 1 CE–1279 CE
Indo-Parthian Kingdom • 21–130s CE
Western Satrap Empire • 35–405 CE
Kushan Empire • 60–240 CE
Indo-Sassanid Kingdom • 230–360 CE
Vakataka Empire • 250–500 CE
                                                    [2]Kalabhras Kingdom • 400–600 CE
Gupta Empire • 280–550 CE
Kadamba Empire • 345–525 CE
Western Ganga Kingdom • 350–1000 CE
Kamarupa Kingdom • 350–1100 CE
Vishnukundina Empire • 420-624 CE
Huna Kingdom • 475-576 CE
Rai Kingdom • 489–632 CE
Chalukya Empire • 543–753 CE
Harsha Empire • 590-647 CE
Shahi Kingdom • 565-670 CE
Eastern Chalukya Kingdom • 624-1075 CE
Gurjara Pratihara Empire • 650–1036 CE
Pala Empire • 750–1174 CE
Rashtrakuta Empire • 753–982 CE
                                                      [3]chera empire.800 AD to 1102 AD
Paramara Kingdom • 800–1327 CE
Yadava Empire • 850–1334 CE
Solanki Kingdom • 942–1244 CE
Western Chalukya Empire • 973–1189 CE
Hoysala Empire • 1040–1346 CE
Sena Empire • 1070–1230 CE
Eastern Ganga Empire • 1078–1434 CE
Kakatiya Kingdom • 1083–1323 CE
Kalachuri Empire • 1130–1184 CE
Muslim Period 1100–1800 CE
Islamic Rulers 1206–1707 CE
- Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526 CE
- Deccan Sultanates 1490–1596 CE
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1646 CE
Mughal Empire 1526–1803 CE
Maratha Empire 1674–1818 CE
Durrani Empire 1747–1823 CE
Sikh Confederacy 1733–1805 CE
Sikh Empire 1799–1849 CE
Regional Kingdoms 1100–1800 CE
Cochin Kingdom 1102–1949 CE
                                               [4]Travancore Kingdom 1102–1949 CE
Ahom Kingdom 1228–1826 CE
Chitradurga Kingdom 1300–1779 CE
Garhwal Kingdom 1358–1803 CE
Mysore Kingdom 1399–1947 CE
Keladi Kingdom 1499–1763 CE
Thondaiman Kingdom 1650–1948 CE
Madurai Kingdom 1559–1736 CE
Thanjavur Kingdom 1572–1918 CE
Marava Kingdom 1600–1750 CE
Company rule in India 1757–1858 CE
British India 1858–1947 CE
Partition of India 1947 CE


SOME PHOTOS OF THE ROYAL FAMILY
                                                                            
                                                                                      
Members of the royal family of erstwhile Travancore after the screening of the movie ‘Paadatha Painkili’  [THE KING IN WHITE AND WHITE DRESS,CENTER]




                                                                      
A Garden Party - The Travancore Royal Family with The Nehrus[JAWAHARLAL NEHRU WITH WHITE CAP,INDIRA GANDHI IN SARI,AND THE BOY IS RAJIV GANDHI 
                                                                                           
                                       Tribespeople offer ‘Thirumulkazhcha'

Reminiscing:Members of the Kani tribe offering ‘Thirumulkazhcha'[PRESENTS TO KING] to the head of the royal family of erstwhile Travancore, Uthradom Tirunal Marthanda Varma, at the Levee Hall in the city  Members of the royal family Aswathy Tirunal Gowri Lakshmi Bai and Pooyam Tirunal Gowri Parvathy Bai are also seen









#166, Anantasayanam kasu (1.18gm(18.2grain) ,14mm ).




- #165, Anantasayanam kasu (1.12gm(17.4grain) ,14mm




 #169, Anantasayanam kasu (1.06gm(16.4grain) ,13mm ).


- #323, Kasu/Cash (1.20 gm ,12 mm 




#315, kasu/Cash (1.05 gm ,12 mm



 #119, kasu/Cash (1.09 gm ,13


- #289, kasu/Cash (1.22 gm ,11



 #325, Kasu/Cash (1.08 gm ,11


 #291, kasu/Cash (1.00 gm ,12 X 


 #290, kasu/Cash (1.05 gm ,12



 #343, Kasu/Cash (1.22 gm ,12


 #288, kasu/Cash (1.07 gm ,12




[HACKERS HAVE REMOVED MANY PHOTOS OF COINS BELOW]

Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple Gold Treasure worth 50,000 Crore