Female Indian Freedom Fighters

Female Indian Freedom Fighters
Rani of Jhansi  Rani of Jhansi
                     1 Rani of Jhansi 
Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi whose heroism and superb leadership laid an outstanding example for all future generations of women freedom fighters. Married to Gangadhar Rao head of the state of Jhansi. She was not allowed to adopt a successor after his death by the British, and Jhansi was annexed. 
With the outbreak of the Revolt she became determined to fight back. She used to go into the battlefield dressed as a man. Holding the reins of there horse in her mouth she used the sword with both hands. Under her leadership the Rani's troops showed undaunted courage and returned shot for shot. Considered by the British as the best and bravest military leader of rebels this sparkling epitome of courage died a hero's death in the battlefield.
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 click and read original documents:- http://www.copsey-family.org/~allenc/lakshmibai/documents.html

 Lakshmibai, Rani of Jhansi

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Lakshmibai

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Tech Stuff
I do not have access to the original source material, but where I have found a document quoted I have transcribed it as faithfully as possible and have avoided changes to format, spelling, etc.. I have used the most complete document available. In general these documents are actually extracts from the original. Where I, or someone else, has added an explanatory comment it is in square brackets ([]). Missing text is indicated by ellipsis (...) unless it is at the beginning or end of the document in which case it may be assumed.
I have collected together documents relating to the Annexation of Jhansi and The Mutiny and Massacre of Jhansi and offered my own comments on them.
In general the documents listed below are in chronological order with the exception of the statements of witnesses to the mutiny and massacre. These statements were made sometime after the events but I have chosen to list them according to the date of the events rather than the date of the document, in order to provide a more coherent narrative, but be aware that this testimony was not necessarily available to the British at that time.
The documents will appear in a separate pop-up style window. If you are clever and arrange the 2 windows sensibly you can simply click through the documents.
1853 Nov 4 Sleeman, William Major Malcolm A letter to Major Malcolm giving Sleeman's view on how the Rani should be treated.
1853 Dec 3 Jhansi Rani Dalhousie The first of her letters contesting the annexation
1854 Feb 16 Jhansi Rani Dalhousie The second of her letters contesting the annexation.
Prior to 1854 Feb 26 Council of Dalhousie Dalhousie Extract of report on the succession of Jhansi
1854 Feb 27 Dalhousie et al
Draft justification for annexing Jhansi.
1854 Mar Lang, John
Lang's account of his consultation with the Rani.
1854 Mar 25 Dalhousie
Extract of a minute regarding the inheritance rights of Damodar Rao.
1854 Apr 22 Jhansi Rani Dalhousie Her third letter requesting a delay in the annexation, but declaring that Jhansi would not resist the annexation with force.
Unknown Mrs Mutlow
Her statement with respect to the mutiny and massacre
1858 Mar 23 Sahibuddin. one of Skene's orderlys
His statement with respect to the mutiny and massacre.
Unknown Unnamed customs clerk
His statement with respect to the mutiny and massacre
Unknown Captain P.G. Scot
His report gleaned from three independent witnesses on the mutiny and massacre.
Unknown Aman Khan, Jhansi mutineer
An extract from his statement regarding the involvement of the Rani.
1857 Jun 12 Jhansi Rani Major Erskine Written immediately after the mutineers left Jhansi. It describes the events of the mutiny, massacre and the initials steps she has taken to restore order.
1857 Jun 14 Jhansi Rani Major Erskine A follow up letter with an accompanying report (not available here) on the status of Jhansi and a more detailed report of the mutiny and massacre.
1857 Jun 14 Jhansi Rani Major Erskine The Narrative of Events that accompanied her letter of June 14th 1857.
1857 Jun 29 Major Ellis Secretary to Lord Canning Telegram giving an account of the mutiny and massacre from some Indians who had been inside the fort.
1857 Jul 2 Major Erskine Jhansi Rani Requesting her to assume control of Jhansi until a new Superintendent can be sent.
1857 Jul 2 Major Erskine
The Proclamation sent to the Rani with his letter of 2nd July 1857
1857 Jul 2 Major Erskine Secretary to Lord Canning Giving the Rani's accounts of events, detailing his own actions, and other events.
1857 Jul 23 Secretary to Lord Canning Major Erskine Giving conditional approval to Erskine's actions and expressing doubt on the Rani's veracity.
1857 Aug 18 Mr Thornton/Major Erskine Unknown Extract from a statement implicating the Ranee in the massacre.
1857 Nov 19 Gulam Muhammad, one of Skene's orderlys
His deposition before a magistrate with respect to the mutiny and massacre.
1858 Jan 1 Jhansi Rani Sir Robert Hamilton, Agent Governor General for Central India Detailing the troubles with Orchha and Datia and pleading for help.
1858 Jan 8 Unknown
Extract of British intelligence report of comments by the Rani that she would not fight the British.
1858 Jan 16 Gopal Rao, record keeper of Jhansi Major Erskine Reporting political and military preparations in Jhansi
1858 Feb 14 Jhansi Rani (assumed)
Proclamation of rebellion
Early 1858 Jhansi Rani
Translation of a letter to the Raja of Banpur and others
1858 Apr 30 Hugh Rose
Rose's account of the siege and capture of Jhansi
Unknown Vishnu Godse
Extract from his account of the massacre in Jhansi
Early April 1858 Jhansi Rani
Translation of a letter to the Raja of Banpur and others
1858 Jun 11 Secretary to Lord Canning Mr R Hamilton Advising Hamilton that a reward may be given for the capture of the Rani
1858 Oct 13 Gen Hugh Rose Chief of Staff Extract from Rose's report on the battle for Gwalior in which he mentions the death of the Rani
1858 Jun 25 Brig. M W Smith Gen Hugh Rose Smith's report on the actions around Kotah-ki-Serai
1858 Nov 4 Pinkney F. W. Secretary to Government, Bombay A letter explaining the confiscation of property of the Rani and others, along with a summary of the evidence against the Rani.
1889 Aug 20 T. A. Martin Damodar Rao Letter of unknown provenance exonerating the Rani of complicity in the massacre of the British.
1897 Summer Mr. Martin John Venables Sturt Extracts from three letters by a Mr Martin to John Venables Sturt telling of the death of the Rani, her innocence of rebellion, and mentioning an autobiography of Damodar Rao and a biography of the Rani by Damodar Rao.
1912 G. W. Forrest
Short extract from Forrest's Introduction to his Selections From The State Papers Preserved In The Military Department.


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Photograph of Jhansi Fort taken in 1882 by Lala Deen Dayal, from the Lee-Warner Collection: 'Scenes and Sculptures of Central India, Photographed by Lala Deen Diyal, Indore.' The East India Company assumed control of the fort after the death of Raja Gangadhar Rao in 1853. In 1857, the fort was taken over by rebel forces. Although the Rani of Jhansi, Lakshmi Bai, who had been disposed, was not successful in controlling of the fort, she nonetheless defended it against British recapture, which eventually took place in 1858.
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Newalkars of Jhansi -- The Prequel
By Akshay Chavan:
Sunday, March 07, 2010 4:23 PM

We all know the tale of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi. Also, based on my previous article, the fate of her son Damodar Rao after she died. But what about the history of Jhansi state before Rani Lakshmibai? Again, sadly in our history books, this is a big black hole. There is very little awareness of the Newalkar dynasty of Jhansi and it’s past history. Here we look at the history of Jhansi state and Newalkar dynasty before Manukarnika Tambe became Rani Lakshmibai Newalkar of Jhansi.
The family tree of the Newalkar dynasty of Jhansi (Created by and copyright owner, Mr Abhijit Malwade, Mumbai)
1. The state of Jhansi
In heart of India lies Bundelkhand “The land of the Bundelas”. Once upon a time, it was divided into several kingdoms, the most important of them was Jhansi. Territorially, it was not a very large state. It lay on the southern foot hills of vindhyas. To its north was Gwalior and Samthar state, on the east lay Dhasan river and the state of Hammirpur. To south lay Lalitpur parganas and Orchha state and to west lay Datia and parts Gwalior state. It was 4,986 sq miles in area and had a population of around 9 lakhs. It comprised of 2140 villages. The main rivers were vetravati (Chambal) and dhasan. The main town was Jhansi which had a strong fort. It was in possession of Raja Chhatrasal . Peshwa Bajirao came to the aid of Raja Chhatrasal against the mughal subedar. In gratitude, Raja Chhatrasal declared Bajirao to be his son and gave territory worth one crore as gift to the Marathas. It came to be known as Maratha Bundelkhand.
Peshwa Bajirao divided the territories which he had received into 3 parts or subas with a subedar (governor) to administer them. First part was given to Sardar Govindpant Bundele . It comprised of Jalaun, Sagar, Gurserai etc. Second part was given to Ali Bahadur, son of Bajirao from his love Mastani. This comprised of Banda, Kalpi etc. The smallest part which comprised of Jhansi was given to a minor official named Naro Shankar Motiwale.
The Parola fort in Jalgaon district of Maharashtra, ancestral home of the Newalkar family.
In 1756, a revolt of local Gosavi raja forced the Maratha subedar to flee Jhansi. Peshwa appointed a brave warrior named Raghunath Hari Newalkar to Jhansi to quell the revolt. He quelled the revolt and re-established Peshwa’s rule in Jhansi. As a reward, he was made the subedar of Jhansi. On becoming the subedar, Raghunath Hari maintained a large army to maintain control over the local Bundela rajas.
2. Raghunathrao Newalkar:
The Founder of Jhansi state
The founder of the Newalkar dynasty was Raghunathrao who was a village headman of Pavas in Rajapur district of Konkan in Maharashtra. He had two sons first Khanderao and second, Damodar Pant. Damodar Pant Newalkar had three sons, Raghopant, Sadashiv Pant and Hari Pant. All the three sons were brave fearless warriors. The Peshwas were so impressed with them that they soon rose to a high position in the army of Malharrao Holkar. As a result of their valour, the Newalkar family was given the village of Parole in Maharashtra as a jagir. Raghopant died in the battlefield. Sadashiv Pant and Hari Pant’s son Lakshmanrao looked after the jagir in Parole. The Hari Pant’s second son was Raghunath Hari, who had been sent by Peshwa to Jhansi to quell the rebellion there and then given the governorship of Jhansi as a reward.
Fascinating Fact: Raghunath Hari Newalkar was the first Indian royal who could read, write and speak in English!
Raghunath Hari was a brave and kind warrior. He was known all over Bundelkhand for his valour and chivalry. He died in 1796 and was succeeded by his brother Shivraobhau. He too was a brave warrior. In his time, Peshwa Bajirao II was the ruler in Pune and Maratha civil war broke out. The Newalkars were subedars or governors of Jhansi on behalf of the Peshwas and hence had to send administrative reports and taxes to Pune every year. However, talking advantage of the confusion, Shivraobhau stopped the practice and declared the quasi independence of Jhansi state.
3. Shivraobhau Newalkar: Rani of Jhansi’s Father in law.
It was during the reign of Shivraobhau that the British first came to Jhansi. The British wanted to increase their influence in Bundelkhand. Most of the Bundela rajas were under the suzerainty of the Subedar of Jhansi. Hence, the British felt that it was better if they became friends with the ruler of Jhansi. On 18th November 1803, Shivraobhau and the British signed a treaty of friendship.
It was this treaty which helped British expand their influence in Bundelkhand. Jhansi and the British signed a second treaty of Friendship on 6th February 1804 as per which Jhansi took and undertaking that it would not enter into relations with any foreign power. Shivraobhau maintained good relations with the British. In a letter to the Board of Directors of the British East India Company, the then Governor General Lord Wellesely makes a favorable mention of Jhansi ruler as a valuable “ally of the British”.
Shivraobhau ruled Jhansi for around 18 years. He suddenly fell ill in 1814. Realising that he will not survive long, he handed over the reins of kingdom of Jhansi to his grandson Ramchandrarao and retired to the banks of Ganges as a sadhu. He died soon after.
Shivraobhau had three sons, Krishna rao, Raghunath rao and Gangadhar rao. Krishna rao died young in 1811 and was succeeded by his son Ramchandrarao. Since Ramchandrarao was a minor, the kingdom was ruled by his mother Sakhubai as regent along with the old loyal Dewan Gopalraobhau.
4. Sakhubai: The villainous queen of Jhansi
Ramchandrarao was Rani Sakhubai’s only son but she was a cruel and a wicked queen. She wanted to destroy her own son and take over the reins of the kingdom. She made many attempts to kill her own son Ramchandrarao! Having failed in most of these, she hatched a diabolical plan. Ramchandrarao was fond of swimming in the Laxmi Talav (Lake) on outskirts of Jhansi city. Rani Sakhubai had sharp spears placed in the very spot where Ramchandrarao swam every day. Fortunately, Lalu Kadolkar, a loyal servant of the Raja saved him in a nick of time. A furious Rani Sakhubai sent mercenaries and had the loyal servant hacked to pieces! Shocked by this action of his own mother, Ramchandrarao had Rani Sakhubai imprisoned for life. Overcome by remorse, Rani Sakhubai swallowed a diamond and killed herself, bringing an end to tragic chapter in history of Jhansi.
The Lakshmi Tal at Jhansi , is where Queen Sakhubai tried to kill her own son.
5. Ramchandrarao Newalkar
The British signed a new treaty with Ramchandra Rao to establish their rights. According to this treaty, the British, in recognition of services rendered by Shiv Rao Bhau , gave his grandson, Ram Chandra Rao the state of Jhansi to carry forward his heritage and lineage. This historical treaty was signed on 17.11.1817 at Sipri on which Gopal Rao , the confidante minister of Ram Chandra Rao signed on his behalf.
Ramchandra Rao had friendly relations with British throughout. He helped the British at Kalpi to defeat a brave rebellious Maratha Nana Pant for which Lord William Bentinck thanked Jhansi for his timely help. Lord Bentinck organised a court function to felicitate Ram Chandra Rao and conferred titles of Maharajadhiraj and Fidwi-i-Badshah-Jan-Jane-Hindostan on Ramchandra Rao.
Ramchandrarao’s reign was of chaos and neglect. The revenue and power of Jhansi state shrunk considerably. Ramchandrarao fell ill and died in 1835 without an heir. His wife adopted her sister’s son Krishnarao but this adoption was declared as invalid. Therefore, Raghunathrao the uncle of Ramchandra Rao was placed on the Jhansi throne. But he proved to be incompetent and extravagant ruler. Thus, in 1837, British removed him and took the state directly under their control.
6. Gangadhar Rao Newalkar: Rani Lakshmibai’s Husband

After Raghunath Raos’ death four names come up for the throne of Jhansi. Gangadhar Rao, Krishna Rao (Adopted son of Ramchandra Rao), Ali Bahadur and Maharani of Raghunath Rao. A commission was constituted to discuss the candidature headed by Mr.Spears of Gwalior State. After much consideration the commission recommended the name of Gangadhar Rao to the government which was accepted and thus Gangadhar became the ruler of Jhansi
However, it was stipulated that until he married, he will not have full rights over the kingdom. He was forced to maintain a subsidiary force and Jhansi had to pay for it. As a result, he was forced to cede territory worth Rs. 2,27,458.
The Rani Mahal at Jhansi, built by Raghunath Hari Newalkar. It was called Rani Mahal because Rani Lakshmibai lived there after the annexation of the kingdom.
After having restored the kingdom of Jhansi, the British government also restored to him, a sum of Rs 30 lakhs which had been confiscated earlier. Gangadhar rao, who was quiet extravagant, spent a lot of this money on acquiring trappings of princely power. He ordered various gold ornaments for his favourite elephant Siddabaksh. Despite his extravagance, he did strengthen and fortify the Jhansi army. Under his tenure, Jhansi army had 5000 soldiers. In addition, there were 2000 policemen, a cavalry of 500, a special force of 100 soldiers and 4 cannons.
In his personal life, Gangadhar Rao was extremely old fashioned and repressive. His first wife, Ramabai had died and then 1842, he married a 12 year old girl - Manikarnika Tambe as his second wife. As per the Marathi tradition, she was given a new name of Lakshmibai. He was 40 at that time. The marriage ceremony was performed at the Ganesh mandir. Gangadhar Rao had a son from Rani Lakshmibai but that child died very soon when he was only 4 months old. Overcome by grief, Maharaja Gangadhar Rao died on 21st November 1853. At that time, Rani Lakshmibai was only 18 years old. After Raja’s death, the British annexed Jhansi.
Famously Rani Lakshmibai said “Main meri Jhansi nahi doongi” and as they say, rest is history!
By Akshay Chavan
Indian Royalty, Maharajas and more........
    


      John Lang -  Rani of Jhani’s Lawyer
Monday, March 07, 2011 12:49 AM
“Main Meri Jhansi Nahi Doongi” - the most famous words of India’s greatest patriots, Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi when informed of the annexation of her kingdom. They have been immortalized in popular Indian lexicon and replayed in movies and plays through the centuries. We all have a mental picture of the Queen with her eyes burning red in anger tearing down her purdah in view of the fully durbar. Expressing her rage and anguish at the unjust decision of the British East India company unlawfully taking what belonged to her. We can’t but help emphasize with her , with her loss. While we as an audience in this historical drama may applaud the brave Rani and her words, what else do we know of this episode? Where did Rani utter these words and why? How did rest of the world get to know her famous words?
I think it is important for anyone to know the contexts in which there historic incidents are framed. I investigated extensively as to who was present when this incident occurred and what actually happened. My discovery was startling and interesting. It brings out a biography of a very interesting man, who can only be described as a true friend of India and Indians.
John Long, Australia’s first native novelist and a lawyer to Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi was one of the most extraordinary gentlemen of his age. In the high age of imperialism and colonialism, he was one of the few white men who stood up for the rights of the “natives”. John Lang was a friend and admirer of India and Indians at a time where “native Indians” were considered to be barbaric and had to be civilized. He lived and travelled extensively in India interacting with Indians. He earned the wrath of the ruling British class for his championing of the Indian cause.
As a mofussil lawyer, he helped protect the interests of his Indian clients against their haughty British rulers. It was due to his position as an honest lawyer that he was approached by Jhansi durbar to fight the adoption case of the Rani.
It was during his trip to Jhansi, in his meeting with Rani Lakshmibai, that she uttered the famous phrase “Mai Meri Jhansi Nahi Doongi”. I will not reveal more. Do read ahead to hear about first hand account of his trip to Jhansi in John Lang’s own words (which also is one of the best first hand accounts of how the Rani actually looked like):
A trip to Jhansi and meeting the Rani:
This is an excerpt from the book “Wanderings in India” , published in 1861, which has the first had account of John Lang’s trip to Jhansi and his interactions with Rani Lakshmibai.
This is perhaps the only such account written in English, though extremely interesting and revealing.
Read on! -
“About a month after the order had gone forth for the annexation of the little province of Jhansi (in 1854), and previous to a wing of the 13th Native Infantry occupying the country, I received a letter in Persian, written upon "gold paper" from the Ranee begging me to pay her a visit. The letter was brought to me by two natives of rank. One had been the financial minister of the late Rajah. The other was the head vakeel (attorney) of the Ranee.
I was at Agra when I received the Ranee's letter, and Agra is two days' journey. Even as I travelled from Jhansi, I sympathized with the woman. The boy whom the Rajah had adopted was only six years old, and during his minority, that is to say, until he had attained his eighteenth year, the Ranee - so the Rajah willed - was to have been the Regent, and the boy's guardian; and it is no small matter for a woman - a native woman of rank, too - to give up such a position and become a pensioner, even on  Rs 60,000 year. Let me detail the particulars of my journey to the residence of the Ranee of Jhansi. I got into my palanquin at dusk, and on the following morning, at daylight, arrived at Gwalior. The Rajah of Jhansi had a small house about a mile and a half from the cantonment, which was used as a halting-place, and thither I was taken by the minister and the vakeel who accompanied me.  
At ten o'clock, after I had breakfasted and smoked my hookah, it was proposed that we "go on at once." The day was very warm, but the Ranee had sent a large and comfortable palanquin carriage; in short, it was more like a small room than a carriage, fitted up as it was with every convenience, including even a punkah, which was pulled from the outside by a servant, who sat upon a foot-board. In the carriage, beside myself and the minister and vakeel, was a khansamah, or butler, who, with the apparatus between his knees, kept on cooling water, and wine, and beer, in order that, whenever I felt thirsty, I might be supplied at a moment's notice. This enormous carriage was drawn by a pair of horses of immense strength and swiftness. Each stood about seventeen hands high. The late Rajah had imported them from France at a cost of 1500l. The road was rather rough in many places, but, on the average, we got over it at the rate of about nine miles an hour.
  At about two o'clock in the day we entered the Jhansi territory, having changed horses twice, and we had now some nine miles to drive. Hitherto we had been escorted only by four sowars (horsemen), but now our escort amounted to about fifty, each horseman carrying an immense spear, and dressed much in the same way as the Irregular Cavalry in the pay of the East India Company. And along the road, at intervals of a few hundred yards, were horsemen drawn up, and as we passed, they joined the cavalcade; so that by the time we came in sight of the fortress — if those old weak walls, surmounted by some nine pieces of old ordnance of inferior calibre, deserved the name - the whole strength of the Jhansi cavalry was in attendance. The carriage was driven to a place called " the Rajah's garden," where I alighted, and was conducted by the financial minister and the vakeel and other servants of state, to a large tent, which was pitched beneath a clump of gigantic mango trees. The tent, which was that in which the late Rajah used to receive the civil and military officers of the British Government, was elegantly fitted up, and carpeted; and at least a dozen domestic servants were ready to do my bidding.
  I must not omit to mention that the companions or my journey - the minister and the vakeel - were both men of good ability and pleasing manners. They were, moreover, men of learning, so that my time upon the road had been beguiled very agreeably. The Ranee had consulted one of the many Brahmins who were supported by her as to the most propitious hour for me to come to the purdah behind which she sat; and the Brahmins had told her that it must be between the setting of the sun and the rising of the moon, which was then near her full; in other words, between half-past five and half-past six o'clock.
This important matter having been communicated to me, I expressed myself perfectly satisfied with the time of the appointment, and ordered dinner accordingly. This done, the financial minister, after betraying some embarrassment, intimated that he wished to speak to me on a rather delicate subject, and that, with my permission, he would order all the menial servants in attendance on me, including my own sirdar-bearer (valet), to leave the tent and stand at a distance. I complied, of course, and presently found myself alone with only the "officials" (eight or nine in number) of the little native state of Jhansi.
What the finance minister wished to ask me was this - Would I consent to leave my shoes at the door when I entered the Ranee's apartment? I inquired if the Governor-General's agent did so. He replied that the Governor-General's agent had never had an interview with the Ranee; and that the late Rajah had never received any European gentleman in the private apartments of the palace, but in a room set apart for the purpose, or in the tent in which we were conversing. I was in some difficulty, and scarcely knew what to say, for I had a few years previously declined to be presented to the King of Delhi, who insisted on Europeans taking off their shoes when they entered his presence.
  The idea was repugnant to my mind and I said as much to the minister of the late Rajah of Jhansi; and I asked him whether he would attend a levee at the palace of the Queen of England, if informed that he must enter her Majesty's presence with his head uncovered, as did all her subjects, from the lowest to the highest. To this question he would not give me a direct answer, but remarked, "You may wear your hat, Sahib; the Ranee will not mind that. On the contrary, she will regard it as an additional mark of respect towards her." Now this was what I did not want. My desire was that she should consider the wearing of my hat, supposing I consented to take off my shoes, as a species of compromise on her part as well as on my part. But I was so amused with this bargaining, as it were, that I consented; giving them distinctly to understand, however, that it was to be considered not as a compliment to her rank and dignity, but to her sex, and her sex alone. That great point settled, I partook of a very sumptuous repast that was prepared for me, and waited patiently the setting of the sun or the rising of the moon, determined, however, that I would wear my hat - a black "wide-awake," covered with a white turban.
The hour came, and the white elephant (an Albino, one of the very few in all India), bearing on his immense back a silver houdah, trimmed with red velvet, brought to the tent. I ascended the steps, which were also covered with red was velvet, and took my place. The mahoot, or elephant-driver, was attired in the most gorgeous manner. The ministers of state, mounted on white Arabs, rode on either side of the elephant; the Jhansi cavalry lining the road to the palace, and thus forming an avenue. The palace was about half a mile distant from my encampment ground.
Ere long we arrived at the gates, at which the attendants on foot began to knock violently; A wicket was opened, and closed hastily. Information was then sent to the Ranee; and, after a delay of about ten minutes, the "hookum" (order) came to open the gates. I entered on the elephant, and alighted in a court-yard. The evening was very warm, and I fancied that I should be suffocated by the crowd of natives (retainers) who flocked around me. Observing my discomfiture, the minister imperiously commanded them to "stand back!"
After another brief delay, I was asked to ascend a very narrow stone staircase, and on the landing was met by a native gentleman, who was some relative to the Ranee. He showed me first into one room and then into another. These rooms (six or seven), like all rooms of the kind, were unfurnished, save and except that the floors were carpeted; but from the ceiling punkahs and chandeliers were suspended, and on the walls were native pictures of Hindoo gods and goddesses, with here and there a large mirror. At length I was led to the door of a room, at which the native gentleman knocked. A female voice from within inquired, "Who is there?"
"Sahib," was the reply. After another brief delay, thee door was opened by some unseen hand, and the native gentleman asked me to enter, informing me, at the same time, that he was about to leave me. A brief delay now occurred upon my part. It was with great difficulty that I could bring myself to take off my shoes. At length, however, I accomplished it, and entered the apartment in "stocking feet." In the centre of the room, which was richly carpeted, was an arm-chair of European manufacture, and around it were strewn garlands of flowers (Jhansi is famous for its beautiful and sweet-smelling flowers). At the end of the room was a purdah or curtain, and behind it people were talking. I sat myself down in the arm-chair, and instinctively took off my hat; but recollecting my resolve, I replaced it, and rather firmly - pulling it well down, so as completely to conceal my forehead. It was a foolish resolve, perhaps, on my part, for the hat kept the breeze of the punkah from cooling my temples.
I could hear female voices prevailing upon a child to "go to the Sahib," and could hear the child objecting to do so. Eventually, he was "launched" into the room; and upon my speaking kindly to the child, he approached me - but very timidly. His dress and the jewels on his person satisfied me that the child was the adopted son of the late Rajah, and the rejected heir to the little throne of Jhansi. He was rather a pretty child, but very short for his, years and broad-shouldered - like most of the Mahratta children that I have seen.
Whilst I was speaking to the child, a shrill and discordant voice issued from behind the purdah, and I was informed that the boy was the Maharajah, who had just been despoiled of his rights by the Governor-General of India. I fancied that the voice was that of some very old woman - some slave or enthusiastic retainer, perhaps; but the child having imagined that he was spoken to, replied, "Maharanee!" and thus I was told the error of my conclusion.
And now the Ranee, having invited me to come closer to the purdah, began to pour forth her grievances; and, whenever she paused, the women by whom she was surrounded, set up a sort of chorus - a series of melancholy ejaculations - such as " Woe is me!" " What oppression!" It reminded me somewhat of a scene in a Greek tragedy - comical as was the situation.
I had heard from the vakeel that the Ranee was a very handsome woman, of about six or seven and twenty years of age, and I was very curious indeed to get a glimpse of her; and whether it was by accident, or by design on the Ranee's part, I know not, my curiosity was gratified. The curtain was drawn aside by the little boy, and I had a good view of the lady. It was only for a moment, it is true still I saw her sufficiently to be able to describe her. She was a woman of about the middle size - rather stout, but not too stout. Her face must have been very handsome when she was younger, and even now had many charms - though, according to my idea of beauty, it was too round. The expression also was very good, and very intelligent. The eyes were particularly fine, and the nose very delicately shaped. She was not very fair, though she was far from black. She had no ornaments, strange to say, upon her person, except a pair of gold ear-rings. Her dress was a plain white muslin, so fine in texture, and drawn about her in such a way, and so tightly, that the outline of her figure was plainly discernible - and a remarkably fine figure she had. What spoilt her was her voice, which was something between a whine and a croak. When the purdah was drawn aside, she was, or affected to be, very much annoyed; I but, presently she laughed, and good-humouredly expressed a hope that, a sight of her had not lessened my sympathy with her sufferings nor prejudiced her cause.
"On the contrary," I replied, "if the Governor-General could only be as fortunate as I have been and for even so brief a while, I feel quite sure that he would at once give Jhansi back again to be ruled by its beautiful Queen."
She repaid this compliment, and the next ten minutes were devoted to an interchange of such matters. I told her that the whole world resounded with the praises of her beauty and the greatness of her intellect; and she told me that there was not a corner of the earth in which prayers for my welfare remained unsaid.
We then returned to the point - her "case." I informed her, that the Governor-General had no power to restore the country, and recognise the claim of the adopted son, without a reference to England, and that the most prudent course for her to adopt would be to petition the throne, and meanwhile draw the pension of 6000l. a year, under protest that it was not to prejudice the right of the adopted son.
At first she refused to do this, and rather energetically exclaimed: "Mera Jhansi nahin dengee" (I will not give up my Jhansi).
I then pointed out to her, as delicately as possible, how futile would be any opposition; and told her, what was the truth, that a wing of a native regiment and some artillery were within three marches of the palace; and I further impressed upon her that the slightest opposition to its advance would destroy her every hope, and, in short, jeopardize her liberty. I did this because she gave me to understand - and so did her attorney (and my impression is that they spoke the trutb) - that the people of Jhansi did not wish to be handed over to the East India Company's rule.
It was past two o'clock that night before I left the palace; and ere I took my departure, I had talked the lady into my way of thinking, except that she would not consent to draw any pension from the British Government.

On the following day I returned to Gwalior, en route to Agra. The Ranee presented me with an elephant, a camel, an Arab, a pair of greyhounds of great swiftness, a quantity of silks and stuffs (the production of Jhansi), and a pair of Indian shawls. I accepted these things with great reluctance, but the financial minister entreated me to take them, in somuch as it would wound the Ranee's feelings if I refused. The Ranee also presented me with a portrait of herself, taken by a native, a Hindoo.
The state of Jhansi was not restored to the rule of the Ranee, and we know that she afterwards rivaled that fiend Nana Sahib, whose "grievance" was identical with her own. The Government would not recognise Nana Sahib as the adopted son and heir or the Peishwah; the Ranee of Jhansi sought to be recognized as the Regent during the minority of the late Rajah's adopted son and heir.”
Aftermath: John Lang was ruthlessly persecuted by British establishment for taking side of Indians in various court cases. He was even sentenced to imprisonment. Incidentally, in 1857, when the revolt broke out, John Lang was in England. Sadly, when he returned to India in 1859, most of his Indian as well as British friends had died in the revolt, including Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi. John Lang continued to be the editor of the newspaper The Mofussilite. He wrote the book “Wanderings in India” in 1861 describing his various experiences in India including Jhansi. 
He died in Mussoorie in 1864 and is buried there. However, he will always be remembered for revealing to the world, Rani lakshmibai of Jhansi’s & the most famous words “Main Meri Jhansi Nahi Doongi”
By Akshay Chavan

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After spending most of her money and doing all she could, Lakshmibai wrote one last time to the British authorities. She closed her letter dated January 1, 1858, with this statement: “I beg you will give me your support in the best way you can, and thus save myself and the people who are reduced to the last extremity and are not able to cope with the enemy.”
The Final Showdown
There are conflicting reports of when Lakshmibai decided to oppose the British. To protect herself and Jhansi, she had been forced to cooperate with those opposed to the British; they had taken her throne from her, and the people were opposed to many things about British rule. They also received reports from villages and towns where the British had regained control. Some commanders were lenient, but others executed anyone they suspected of being a rebel, looted the towns and left the wounded to die.
The British force which marched toward Jhansi on January 5, 1858 was led by Sir Hugh Rose. He was apparently of the opinion that no leniency should be offered. One of his subordinates wrote to his parents, “Sir Hugh knows no native language so pays little heed to what a prisoner says. His first question is ‘Was this man taken with arms in his hands?’ If the answer is ‘yes’, ‘Then shoot him’ says Sir Hugh.” Hearing reports from other towns, Lakshmibai had no other choice but to expect the worst. So she prepared.
The siege began on March 21, 1858. She was given a chance to surrender, but the Rani knew that many of her supporters would be executed, so with the support of the people she refused. The British were outnumbered, but had a distinct advantage in weapons and training. The fort was surrounded and bombarded until finally a breach was made in the wall on March 30th.
At the same time, a rebel force of 20,000 under the command of Tatya Tope arrived, forcing Rose to delay entering the fort. Even though Rose was forced to split his forces, he was able to keep continued bombardment on the breach to prevent escape while pursuing the newly arrived rebels to the Betwa river where he defeated them.

The Battle of Betwa, April 1, 1858
The Battle of Betwa, April 1, 1858
Although they were delayed, on the morning of April 3rd, the British entered the fort at Jhansi with orders to kill any male over sixteen. Vishnu Godse, a Hindu priest, wrote of the experience that it was four days of destruction of property and people “without distinction.” The fighting was intense and the Rani was in the middle of it, just as she had frequently been seen on the walls during the siege.
In spite of Rose’s precautions, sometime on April 3rd or 4th Lakshmibai was able to escape. There is a legend that says, once she knew her capture was inevitable, she tied her son to her back, mounted her horse and leapt over the cliff. The horse died, but she escaped and rode 100 miles to Kalpi. At Kalpi, she met with other rebels, but Rose pursued them and again forced them to retreat, this time to Gwalior.

The point from which Lakshmibai supposedly jumped from the battlement on her horse. (Photo credit: Allen Copsey)
The point from which Lakshmibai supposedly jumped from the battlement on her horse. (Photo credit: Allen Copsey)
The fort at Gwalior was considered impregnable and Maharaja Sindia had remained pro-British throughout the rebellion. The British expected them to disband, but instead about 11,000 rebels advanced on Gwalior. After the first few shots, most of the Maharaja’s army defected and he fled to safety. Another Maharaja, Rao Sahib, was crowned and Lakshmibai was given a priceless pearl necklace.
 http://www.heritage-history.com/books/gilliat/mutiny/zpage342.gif
 Battle of jhansi--hand to hand fight outside the fort[original painting]
On June 17th, they faced the British in battle. Lakshmibai was given command of the eastern flank, supposedly the most difficult position to defend. There are several accounts of how she died. You can read several of them at Lakshmibai, Rani of Jhansi: Mutiny, but the one I like the best is from Saul David’s book Indian Mutiny 1857, and taken from the diary of Edward Grey, a veterinary surgeon with the 8th Hussars:

“The Rani was on horseback … when the British cavalry [8th Hussars] made their surprise appearance, causing her escort to scatter … she boldly ‘attacked one of the 8th in their advance, was unhorsed and wounded’, possibly by a sabre cut. A short while later as the British retired … she recognised her former assailant as she sat bleeding by the roadside and fired at him with her pistol. Unfortunately she missed and he ‘dispatched the young lady with his carbine’. But because she was ‘dressed as a sowar’, the trooper never realised ‘that he had cut off one of the mainstays of the mutiny, that there was a reward of a lac [lakh] on his victim’s head, or that at that moment she was wearing jewels worth a crore of rupees’.”

Rani Lakshmibai's statue in Solapur near the Kambar Talav (Sambhaji Talav). Author: Dharmadhyaksha
Rani Lakshmibai’s statue in Solapur near the Kambar Talav (Sambhaji Talav). Author: Dharmadhyaksha. Legend says that she escaped with Damodar tied to her back.


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BEGUM HAZRAT MAHAL 
10. BEGUM HAZRAT MAHAL 
Begum Hazrat Mahal, the Begaum of Oudh. She took active part in the defence of Lucknow against the British. Although, she was queen and used to a life of luxury, she appeared on the battle-field herself to encourage her troops. Begam Hazrat Mahal held out against the British with all her strength as long as she could. Ultimately she had to give up and take refuge in Nepal.


KASTURBA GANDHIKASTURBA GANDHI
KASTURBA GANDHI 



MADAM CAMA 
9. MADAM CAMA 
"This flag is of Indian Independence! Behold, it is born! It has been made sacred by the blood of young Indians who sacrificed their lives. I call upon you, gentlemen to rise and salute this flag of Indian Independence. In the name of this flag, I appeal to lovers of freedom all over the world to support this flag." -- B. Cama , Stuttgart, Germany, 19she unfurled the first National Flag at the International Socialist Conference in Stuttgart (Germany) in 1907. A thousand representatives from several countries were attending. An Indian lady in a colorful sari was a rare phenomena in those days and her majestic appearance and brave and clear words made everybody think that she was a Maharani or at least a princess from a native state. 
 
The tricolor-flag Madam Cama unfurled had green, saffron, and red stripes. Red represented strength, saffron victory, and green stood for boldness and enthusiasm. there were eight lotuses representing the eight provinces and flowers represented princely states. "Vande Mataram" in Devanagari adorned central saffron stripe which meant "salutation to Mother India." The sun and the moon indicated Hindu and Muslim faiths. The flag was designed by Veer Savarkar with the help of other revolutionaries. After Stuttgart, Madam went to United States. She traveled a lot and informed Americans about Indians struggling for Independence. She told about British efforts to smother the voice of educated Indians who protested against tyranny and despotism of British who always boasted themselves as "mother of parliamentary democracy" over the world! She could be called "Mother India's first cultural representative to USA."Where is the Flag Now? 
The flag was smuggled into India by Indulal Yagnik, the socialist leader of Gujarat. It is now on public display at the Maratha and Kesari Library in Pune 

ARUN ASAF ALI
4. ARUN ASAF ALI
Aruna was born at Kalka, Haryana into a Bengali Brahmo family. She was educated at Lahore and Nainital. She graduated and worked as a teacher, an achievement in itself for women, given the conditions prevalent in the country at that time. She taught at the Gokhale Memorial School in Calcutta. She met Asaf Ali, a leader in the congress party at Allahabad and married him in 1928, despite parental opposition on grounds of religion (she was a Brahmo while he was a Muslim) and age (a difference of more than 20 years).
She became an active member of Congress Party after marriage and participated in public processions during the Salt Satyagraha. She was arrested on the charge that she was a vagrant and hence not released in 1931 under the Gandhi-Irwin Pact which stipulated release of all political prisoners. Other women co-prisoners refused to leave the premises unless she was also released and gave in only after Mahatma Gandhi intervened. A public agitation secured her release.

KAMLA NEHRU
6. KAMLA NEHRU
Many women of the Nehru family too had joined the Civil Disobedience Movement. Kamala Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru's wife gave full support to her husband in his desire to work actively for the freedom struggle. In the Nehru hometown of Allahabad she organized processions, addressed meetings and led picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops. She played a prominent part in organizing the No Tax Campaign in United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh).
Kamala Kaul Nehru (1899–1936) was the wife of Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian National Congress and first Prime Minister of India. Kamala married Nehru on 8 February 1916. Their marriage was arranged by his parents.
Shrimati Vijayalakshmi Pandit
8. VIJAYALAXMI PANDIT
Jawaharlal Nehur's sister Vijayalakshmi Pandit inspired by Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi and impressed by Sarojini Naidu entered the Non Cooperation Movement. She was arrested in 1932 and sent to and sentenced to one year's rigorous imprisonment. She was arrested in 1940, and yet again during the Quit India Movement. She attended the Pacific Relations Conference at Hot Springs, U.S.A. as leader of the Indian delegation sponsored by the Indian Council of World Affairs. She was present in San Francisco when the U.N first met there, and through numerous well attended public lectures she challenged the British dominated delegates rights to represent India therein.Sister of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru also played a great role in the freedom movement. She was elected to Uttar Pradesh Assembly in 1936 and in 1946. She was the first woman in India to hold a ministerial rank. She was imprisoned thrice for taking part in the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1932. 1941 and 1942. After Independence, she continued to serve the country. She was the first woman to become president of the United Nations General Assembly.
Vijaya Lakshmi Nehru Pandit (1900 - 1990) was an Indian diplomat and politician, In 1921 she married Ranjit Sitaram Pandit, who died on January 14, 1944. She was the first Indian woman to hold a cabinet post. In 1937 she was elected to the provincial legislature of the United Provinces and was designated minister of local self-government and public health. She held the latter post until 1939 and again from 1946 to 1947. In 1946 she was elected to the Constituent Assembly from the United Provinces.
Sucheta Kripalani
12. Sucheta Kripalani
The contribution of Sucheta Kripalani in the struggle for freedom is also worthy of note. She courted imprisonment for taking part in freedom struggle. She was elected as a member of Constituent Assembly in 1946. She was general secretary of Indian National Congress from 1958 to 1960, and Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh from 1963 to 1967. Sucheta Kripalani was in the words of Shrimati Indira Gandhi, “a person of rare courage and character who brought credit to Indian womanhood.”
She was born in Ambala, Haryana to a Bengali family. Her father, S.N. Majumdar though a government doctor was a nationalist. Educated at Indraprastha College and St.Stephen's College, Delhi she became a lecturer at the Banaras Hindu University. In 1936, she married socialist, Acharya Kriplani and became involved with the Indian National Congress. 
Like her contemporaries Aruna Asaf Ali and Usha Mehta, she came to the forefront during the Quit India Movement. She later worked closely with Mahatma Gandhi during the Partition riots. She accompanied him to Noakhali in 1946. She was one of the few women who were elected to the Constituent Assembly and was part of the subcommittee that drafted the Indian Constitution. She became a part of the subcommittee that was handed over the task of laying down the charter for the constitution of India. On 15th August, 1947 she sang Vande Mataram in the Independence Session of the Constituent Assembly.
After independence she remained involved with politics in U.P. She was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1952 and 1957 and served as a Minister of State for Small Scale Industries. In 1962, she was elected to the U.P Assembly from Kanpur and served in the Cabinet in 1962. In 1963, she became the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, the first woman to hold that position in any Indian state. The highlight of her tenure was the firm handling of a state employees strike. The first-ever strike by the state employees which continued for 62 days took place during her regime. She relented only when the employees' leaders agreed for compromise. Although the wife of a socialist, Kriplani cemented her reputation as a firm administrator by refusing their demand for pay hike.
She retired from politics in 1971 and remained in seclusion till her death in 1974.She was a very active member.She became the first woman to be elected Chief Minister of a state
LAXMI SWAMINATHAN/LAXMI SEHGAL

Rani of Jhansi Regiment 1943 –45.[WITH CAPTAIN LAXMI SWAMINATHAN AND BOSE]CLICK AND READ:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rani_of_Jhansi_Regiment

 


INDIAN FEMALE SOLDIER S UNDER SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE -- KNOWN AS 'RANI OF JHANSI REGIMENT ' FIGHTING AGAINST BRITISH TROOPS

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A BRAVE WOMAN PATRIOT FROM PALGHAT ,KERALA - Lt Col LAXMI Swaminathan of the Indian National Army-CLICK AND READ:->http://pazhayathu.blogspot.in

Lakshmi SAHGALclick and read:->http://en.wikipedia.orghttp:/ 
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Veteran freedom fighter Captain Lakshmi Sehgal passes away- July 23, 2012 



Captain Lakshmi Sehgal
Veteran freedom fighter Lakshmi Sehgal passed away at the age of 97.
On Thursday, Sehgal was admitted to a hospital in Kanpur after she suffered cardiac arrest.
A long time companion of Subhash Chandra Bose, she was a captain of Rani of Jhansi Regiment of Indian National Army. A doctor by profession, she was honoured with Padma Vibhushan in 1998.
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ALSO READ BLOG:-

INDIA FIGHTS FOR INDEPENDENCE;AND HISTORY OF INDIAN FLAG:-http://pazhayathu.blogspot.in/2010/12/india-fights-for-independenceand.html



 

PERSONALITIES - KAMALA BAI PRABHU

KAMALA BHAI
The visit of Gadhiji to Thalassery created a lot of enthusiasm among freedom fighters. A lot of women came forward to court arrest. Among them was Kamala Bai Prabhu who was arrested and brought before a Joint Magistrate Court. She was senteced to 6 months imprisonment and Rs. 1,000 fine. Kamala Bai refused to pay the fine and instead removed her nose-ring and gave it to the magistrate. The magistrate was not satisfied and asked her to handover her mangalsutra. She told the magistrate that only the widows can remove the mangalsutra. The magistrate did not agree and asked the police to break the mangalsutra and hand it over. Left with no option kamal bai told a female friend to remove the mangalsutra and give it to the magistrate. She was then sent to the Vellore central jail.

The incident created a big controlversy. V.P. Narayanan Nambiar raised the issue in the Madras Assembly and S. Sathyamurthy took it up in the Parliament. The issue even came up in the British parliament. Mohammed Ismail, the advisor to the Madras goverment express regrets for the incident. He also ordered that the mangalsutra be returned to Kamala Bai but she refused to accept it. The magistrate Dodwell who created the mangalsutra controversy was sent back to Britain.
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Sarojini Naidu

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Sarojini Naidu
Sarojini Naidu in Bombay (now Mumbai), 1946
Sarojini Naidu in Bombay (now Mumbai), 1946
Born Sarojini Chattopadhyaya
13 February 1879
Hyderabad, Hyderabad State, India
Died 2 March 1949 (aged 70)
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
Occupation Poet, writer, social activist
Nationality Indian Bengali
Alma mater King's College London
Girton College, Cambridge
Spouse(s) Dr. Muthyala Govindarajulu
Children Jayasurya, Padmaja, Randheer, Nilawar and Leelamani

Signature
Sarojini Naidu, also known by the sobriquet The Nightingale of India,[1] was a child prodigy, Indian independence activist and poet. Naidu was one of the framers of the Indian Constitution. Naidu is the second Indian woman to become the President of the Indian National Congress[2] and the first woman to become the Governor of Uttar Pradesh state.[3] Her birthday is celebrated as Women's Day in India.[4]

Contents

Early Life

She was born in Hyderabad to Bengali Hindu Kulin Brahmin family to Agorenath Chattopadhyay and Barada Sundari Devi on 18th February 1879. Her father was a doctor of science from Edinburgh University, settled in Hyderabad State, where he founded and administered the Hyderabad College, which later became the Nizam's College in Hyderabad. Her mother was a poetess baji and used to write poetry in Bengali. Sarojini Naidu was the eldest among the eight siblings. One of her brothers Birendranath was a revolutionary and her other brother, Harindranath was a poet, dramatist, and actor. [5]

Career

Indian Freedom Fighter

File:She was known as Nightingale of India.Mahatma & Sarojini Naidu 1930.JPG
Sarojini Naidu (extreme right) with Mahatma Gandhi during Salt Satyagraha, 1930
Sarojini Naidu joined the Indian national movement in the wake of partition of Bengal in 1905. She came into contact with Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant, C. P. Ramaswami Iyer, Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.[6]
During 1915-1918, she traveled to different regions in India delivering lectures on social welfare, women empowerment and nationalism. She awakened the women of India and brought them out of the kitchen. She also helped to establish the Women's Indian Association (WIA) in 1917.[7] She was sent to London along with Annie Besant, President of WIA, to present the case for the women's vote to the Joint Select Committee.

President of the Congress

In 1925, Sarojini Naidu presided over the annual session of Indian National Congress at Cawnpore. In 1929, she presided over East African Indian Congress in South Africa. She was awarded the hind a kesari medal by the British government for her work during the plague epidemic in India.[8] In 1931, she participated in the Round table conference with Gandhiji and Madan Mohan Malaviya.[9] Sarojini Naidu played a leading role during the Civil Disobedience Movement and was jailed along with Gandhiji and other leaders. In 1942, Sarojini Naidu was arrested during the "Quit India" movement and was jailed for 21 months with Gandhiji. She shared a very warm relationship with Gandhiji and used to call him "Mickey Mouse".[10]

Literary career

Sarojini Naidu began writing at the age of 12. Her play, Maher Muneer, impressed the Nawab of Hyderabad. In 1905, her collection of poems, named "The Broken Exes" was published.[11] Her poems were admired by many prominent Indian politicians like Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Jawaharlal Nehru .

Marriage

During her stay in England, Sarojini met Dr. Govindarajulu Naidu, a non-Brahmin and a doctor by profession, and fell in love with him. After finishing her studies at the age of 19, she got married to him during the time when inter-caste marriages were not allowed. Her father approved the marriage and her marriage was a very happy one.[5]
The couple had five children. Jayasurya, Padmaja, Randheer, Nilawar and Leelamani. Her daughter Padmaja followed in to her footprints and became the Governor of West Bengal. In 1961, she published a collection of poems entitled The Feather of The Dawn. [12]

Works

Each year links to its corresponding "[year] in poetry" article:
  • 1905: The Golden Threshold, published in the United Kingdom[13] (text available online)
  • 1912: The Bird of Time: Songs of Life, Death & the Spring, published in London[14]
  • 1917: The Broken Wing: Songs of Love, Death and the Spring, including "The Gift of India" (first read in public in 1915)[14][15]
  • 1916: Muhammad Jinnah: An Ambassador of Unity[16]
  • 1943: The Sceptred Flute: Songs of India, Allahabad: Kitabistan, posthumously published[14]
  • 1961: The Feather of the Dawn, posthumously published, edited by her daughter, Padmaja Naidu[17]
  • 1971:The Indian Weavers [18]

Famous Poems

  • Damayante to Nala in the Hour of Exile
  • Ecstasy
  • Indian Dancers
  • The Indian Gypsy
  • Indian Love-Song
  • Indian Weavers
  • In Salutation to the Eternal Peace
  • In the Forest
  • In the Bazaars of Hyderabad
  • Leili
  • Nightfall in the City of Hyderabad
  • Palanquin Bearers
  • The Pardah Nashin
  • Past and Future
  • The Queen's Rival
  • The Royal Tombs of Golconda
  • The Snake-Charmer
  • Song of a Dream
  • The Soul's Prayer
  • Suttee
  • To a Buddha Seated on a Lotus
  • To the God of Pain
  • Wandering Singers
  • Street Cries
  • Alabaster
  • Autumn Song
  • Bangle Sellers
×cradle song

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Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay

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Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay
Born Kamaladevi
3 April 1903
Mangalore, Karnataka, India
Died 29 October 1988 (aged 85)
Alma mater Bedford College (London)
Spouse(s) Krishna Rao (m. 1917–1919)
Harindranath Chattopadhyay (m. 1919–1988)
Children Ramakrishna Chattopadhyaya
Awards Ramon Magsaysay Award (1966)
Padma Bhushan (1955)
Padma Vibhushan (1987)
Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay (3 April 1903 – 29 October 1988) was an Indian social reformer and freedom fighter. She is most remembered for her contribution to the Indian independence movement; for being the driving force behind the renaissance of Indian handicrafts, handlooms, and theatre in independent India; and for upliftment of the socio-economic standard of Indian women by pioneering the co-operative movement.[1]
Several cultural institutions in India today are a gift of her vision, including the National School of Drama, Sangeet Natak Akademi, Central Cottage Industries Emporium, and the Crafts Council of India.
The doyen of Indian arts and crafts, a person single-handedly responsible for reviving Indian crafts back from oblivion of 200 years of foreign rule where they went without any patronage, be it government or public, due lack of awareness of its richness as well as its accessibility to the common man.
She stressed the significance which handicrafts and cooperative grassroot movements, play in the social and economic upliftement of the Indian people. To this end she withstood great opposition both before and after independence from the power centres, but managed to leave behind a rich and formidable legacy of thriving Indian handicrafts, theatre forms and arts that have now become an integral of our rural economy, across the nation.

Contents

Biography

Early life

Born on 3 April 1903, Kamaladevi was the fourth and youngest daughter of a Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmin couple in Mangalore. Her father, Ananthaya Dhareshwar was the District Collector of Mangalore, and her mother Girijabai, from whom she inherited an independent streak, belonged to an aristocratic family from Karnataka. Kamaladevi's grandmother was herself, a scholar of ancient Indian texts, and her a mother was also well-educated though mostly home-educated. Together their presence in the household, gave Kamaladevi a firm grounding and provided benchmarks to respect for her intellect as well as her voice, something that she came to known for in the coming years, when she stood as the voice of the downtrodden as well as the unheard.
Kamaladevi was an exceptional student and also exhibited qualities of determination and courage from an early age. Her parents’ befriended many prominent freedom fighters and intellectuals such as Mahadev Govind Ranade, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and women leaders like Ramabai Ranade, and Annie Besant, this made young Kamaladevi an early enthusiast of the swadeshi nationalist movement.
She studied about ancient Sanskrit drama tradition of Kerala- Kutiyattam, from its greatest Guru and authority of Abhinaya, Nātyāchārya Padma Shri Māni Mādhava Chākyār by staying at Guru's home at Killikkurussimangalam.[2]
Tragedy struck early in life, when her elder sister, Saguna, whom she considered a role model, died in her teens, soon after her early marriage, and when she was just seven years old her father died as well. To add to her mother, Girijabai's trouble, he died without leaving a will for his vast property, so according to property laws of the times, the entire property went to her stepson, and they only got a monthly allowance. Girijabai defiantly refused the allowance and decided to raise her daughters on her dowry property.
Her rebellious streak was visible even as a child, when young Kamaladevi questioned the aristocratic division of her mother’s household, and preferred to mingle with her servants and their children wanting to understand their life as well.

First Marriage and widowhood

In 1917, when was only fourteen years of age, she was married to Krishna Rao, and within two years she was widowed, while she was still at school. According to orthodox Hindu rules of the times, being a widow she was not allowed to continue her education, yet she defiantly moved to Chennai, and continued her education from St. Mary's School, Chennai and finally completed her high school in 1918.[3]

1920s

Marriage to Harin

Meanwhile studying at Queen Mary’s College in Chennai, she came to know with Suhasini Chattopadhyay, a fellow student and the younger sister of Sarojini Naidu, who later introduced Kamaladevi to their talented brother, Harin, by then a well-known poet-playwright-actor. It was their mutual interest in the arts, which brought them together.
Finally when she was twenty years old, Kamaladevi married Harindranath Chattopadhyay, much to the opposition of the orthodox society of the times, which was still heavily against widow marriage. Their only son Ramu was born in the following year.[4] Harin and Kamaladevi stayed together to pursue common dreams, which wouldn’t have been possible otherwise, and in spite of many difficulties, they were able to work together, to produce plays and skits.
Later she also acted in a few films, in an era when acting was considered unsuitable for women from respectable families. In her first stint, she acted in two silent films, including the first silent film[5] of Kannada film industry, 'Mricchakatika'(Vasantsena) (1931), based on the famous play by Sudraka, also starring Yenakshi Rama Rao, and directed by pioneering Kannada director, Mohan Dayaram Bhavnani. In her second stint in films she acted in a 1943 Hindi film, Tansen, also starring K. L. Saigal and Khursheed,[6] followed by Shankar Parvati (1943), and Dhanna Bhagat (1945).[7]
Eventually after many years of marriage, they parted ways amicably. Here again, Kamaladevi broke a tradition by filing for divorce much to the chagrin of the society, rather than stay in a non-functional marriage.

Move to London

Shortly after their marriage, Harin left for London, on his first trip abroad, and a few months later Kamaladevi joined him, where she joined Bedford College, University of London, and later she received a diploma in Sociology.

Call of the Freedom Movement

While still in London, Kamaladevi came to know of Mahatma Gandhi’s Non-Cooperation Movement in 1923, and she promptly returned to India, to join the Seva Dal, a Gandhian organisation set up to promote social upliftment. Soon she was placed in charge of the women's section of the Dal, where she got involved in recruiting, training and organizing girls and women of all ages women across India, to become voluntary workers, 'sevikas'.
In 1926, she met the suffragette Margaret E. Cousins, the founder of All India Women's Conference (AIWC), and was inspired her to run for the Madras Provincial Legislative Assembly. Thus she became the first woman to run for a Legislative seat in India. Though she could campaign for only a few days, she lost only by 200 votes.

The All-India Women's Conference

In the following year, she founded the All-India Women's Conference (AIWC) and became its first Organizing Secretary. In the following years, AIWC, grew up to become a national organization of repute, with branches and voluntary programs run throughout the nation, and work steadfastly for legislative reforms. During her tenure, she travelled extensively to many European nations and was inspired to initiate several social reform and community welfare programs, and set up educational institutions, run for the woman, and by women. Another shining example in this series was the formation of Lady Irwin College for Home Sciences, a one of its kind college for women of its times, in New Delhi.

1930s

Later she was a part of the seven member lead team, announced by Mahatma Gandhi, in the famous Salt Satyagraha (1930), to prepare Salt at the Bombay beachfront, the only other woman volunteer of the team was Avantikabai Gokhale. Later in a startling move, Kamaladevi went up to a nearby High Court, and asked a magistrate present there whether he would be interested in buying the 'Freedom Salt' she had just prepared.
On 26 January 1930 she captured the imagination of the entire nation when in a scuffle, she clung to the Indian tricolour to protect it.[8]

First Indian woman to be arrested

In the 1930s, she was arrested for entering the Bombay Stock Exchange to sell packets of contraband salt, and spent almost a year in prison. In 1936, she became president of the Congress Socialist Party, working alongside Jayaprakash Narayan, Ram Manohar Lohia and Minoo Masani. For her, feminism was inseparable from socialism, and where necessary she opposed her own colleagues when they ignored or infringed women’s rights. For instance, when Mahatma Gandhi opposed the inclusion of women in the Dandi March (claiming that Englishmen would not hurt women, just as Hindus would not harm cows), Kamaladevi spoke out against this stand. Some time in the 1920s she and Harindranath separated and divorced by mutual consent; their marriage had largely been one of convenience and they had followed different paths.

1940s

When World War II broke out Kamaladevi was in England, and she immediately began a world tour to represent India’s situation to other countries and drum up support for Independence after the war.

Post-Independence work

Independence of India, brought Partition in its wake, and she plunged into rehabilitation of the refugees. Her first task was to set up the Indian Cooperative Union to help with rehabilitation, and through the Union she made plans for a township on cooperative lines. At length Mahatma Gandhi reluctantly gave her permission on the condition that she did not ask for state assistance, and so after much struggle, the township of Faridabad was set up, on the outskirts of Delhi, rehabilitating over 50,000 refugees from the Northwest Frontier. She worked tirelessly helped the refugees to establish new homes, and new professions, for this they were trained in new skills, she also helped setting up health facilities in the new town.
Thus began the second phase of life's work in rehabilitation of people as well their lost crafts, she is considered single handedly responsible for the great revival of Indian handicrafts and handloom, in the post-independence era, and is considered her greatest legacy to modern India.[9]

1950s and beyond

Around this time she became concerned at the possibility that the introduction of Western methods of factory-based mass production in India as part of Nehru's vision for Indian's development would affect traditional artisans, especially women in the unorganised sectors. She set up a series of crafts museums to hold and archive India's indigenous arts and crafts that served as a storehouse for indigenous known how. This included the Theatre Crafts Museum in Delhi.
She equally promoted arts and crafts, and instituted the National Awards for Master Craftsmen, and a culmination of her enterprising spirit lead to the setting up Central Cottage Industries Emporia, throughout the nation to cater to the tastes of a nation, rising to its ancient glory.
In 1964 she started the Natya Institute of Kathak and Choreography (NIKC), Bangalore, under the aegis of Bharatiya Natya Sangh, affiliated to the UNESCO. Its present director is famous danseuse Smt. Maya Rao.
Kamaladevi was a woman ahead of her times, she was instrumental in setting up the All India Handicrafts Board, she was also it's the first chairperson, The Crafts Council of India was also the first president of the World Crafts Council, Asia Pacific Region.[10]
She also set up the National School of Drama and later headed the Sangeet Natak Akademi, and also a member of UNESCO. Her acclaimed autobiography, Inner Recesses and Outer Spaces: Memoir was published in 1986.

Awards and recognition

The Government of India conferred on her the Padma Bhushan (1955) and later the second highest civilian award, the Padma Vibhushan in 1987, which are among the highest civilian awards of the Republic of India. She also received the Ramon Magsaysay Award (1966) for Community Leadership. She was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship, Ratna Sadsya, the highest award of Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama, given for lifetime achievement in 1974,.[11]
UNESCO honoured her with an award in 1977 for her contribution towards the promotion of handicrafts. Shantiniketan honoured her with the Desikottama, its highest award. UNIMA (Union Internationals de la Marlonette), International Puppetry organization, also made her their Member of Honour.

Legacy

In 2007, the Outlook Magazine chose Kamaladevi amongst its list of 60 Great Indians.[12] and she was India Today's, 100 Millennium People.[13]
Today, the World Crafts Council gives two awards in her memory, the Kamaladevi Awards and the Kamala Sammaan, for exceptional craft persons or to individual for their outstanding contribution to the field of Crafts.[14] Apart from that the Crafts Council of Karnataka, also gives the Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay Vishwakarma Awards, each year to noteworthy crafts persons.[15]
For over three decades now, Bhartiya Natya Sangha has been awarding the 'Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya Award' for the best play of the year.

Books by Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay

  • The Awakening of Indian women, Everyman’s Press, 1939.
  • Japan-its weakness and strength, Padma Publications 1943.
  • Uncle Sam's empire, Padma publications Ltd, 1944.
  • In war-torn China, Padma Publications, 1944.
  • Towards a National theatre, (All India Women's Conference, Cultural Section. Cultural books), Aundh Pub. Trust, 1945.
  • America,: The land of superlatives, Phoenix Publications, 1946.
  • At the Cross Roads, National Information and Publications, 1947.
  • Socialism and Society, Chetana, 1950.
  • Tribalism in India, Brill Academic Pub, 1978, ISBN 0706906527.
  • Handicrafts of India, Indian Council for Cultural Relations & New Age International Pub. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1995. ISBN 99936-12-78-2.
  • Indian Women’s Battle for Freedom. South Asia Books, 1983. ISBN 0-8364-0948-5.
  • Indian Carpets and Floor Coverings, All India Handicrafts Board, 1974.
  • Indian embroidery, Wiley Eastern, 1977.
  • India's Craft Tradition, Publications Division, Ministry of I & B, Govt. of India, 2000. ISBN 81-230-0774-4.
  • Indian Handicrafts, Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd, Bombay India, 1963.
  • Traditions of Indian Folk Dance.
  • The Glory of Indian Handicrafts, New Delhi, India: Clarion Books, 1985.
  • Inner Recesses, Outer Spaces: Memoirs, 1986. ISBN 81-7013-038-7.

Book on Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya

  • Sakuntala Narasimhan, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay. New Dawn Books, 1999. ISBN 81-207-2120-9.
  • S.R. Bakshi, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya : Role for Women’s Welfare, Om, 2000, ISBN 81-86867-34-1.
  • Reena Nanda, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya: A Biography (Modern Indian Greats), Oxford University Press, USA, 2002, ISBN 0-19-565364-5.
  • Jamila Brij Bhushan, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya - Portrait of a Rebel, Abhinav Pub, 2003. ISBN 81-7017-033-8.
  • M.V. Narayana Rao (Ed.), Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay: A True Karmayogi. The Crafts Council of Karnataka: Bangalore. 2003
  • Malvika Singh, The Iconic Women of Modern India - Freeing the Spirit. Penguin, 2006, ISBN 0-14-310082-3.
  • Jasleen Dhamija, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay, National Book Trust , 2007. ISBN 8123748825
  • Indra Gupta , India’s 50 Most Illustrious Women. ISBN 81-88086-19-3.

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The Great Indian Women Freedom Fighters

On the occassion of this Independance Day to remember the Freedom Fighters, who destroyed their beautiful lives for our Beautiful Life. There are many Women Freedom Fighters in Indian history, But we know about few of them only. (I searched for some women Indian freedom fighters on the Web, but I could not found a single word about them (i.e. Kanakalatha Baruva - Assam Freedom Fighter, Naanibala Devi, Suneethi, Shanthi). I am requesting to the readers - Please gather about our Great Indians who spent their valuable life for our Beautiful Future. I am here posting about few of the Brave Indian Women Freedom Fighters.


RANI CHENNAMMA
JHANSI RANI
BEGUM HAZRATH MAHAL
RANI AVANTI BAI
PREETI LATHA
DURGA BHABI
LAKSHMI SEHGAL
KALPANA DUTTA

BEENA DAS
KANAKALATHA BARUVA

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  1. Default Indian Women Freedom Fighters We Salute

    Rani of Jhansi


    You will hardly find an Indian who hasn¡¯t grown up hearing the brave adventures of Rani Laxmibai of Jhansi. She was one of the leading personalities in the National Uprising of 1857. Because of her never-say-die spirit, today she is an epitome of courage and her name is used as a metaphorfor bravery!

    Sarojoni Naidu


    Sarojini Naidu has been a beacon of inspiration to many women. At a time when women were oppressed to a large extent in many states, she was one of the first few women who stepped out and took the reins of leadership in her own hands. As the first woman President of Indian National Congress and Governor of Uttar Pradesh, she displayed some rare qualities. Her poems continue to inspire us

    Begum Hazrat Mahal


    She was one of the iconic freedom fighters of theNational Uprising in 1857. When themutiny began, she was one of the first freedom fighter who urged the rural folk to rise up against the British oppression. She thus seized the control of Lucknow and announced her son as the King of Oudh. However, when the British recaptured Lucknow, she was forcedto retreat to Nepal.

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    Vijaylakshmi Pandit

    Like her brother Jawaharlal Nehru, she too felt passionately for her country. After serving our nation for years, she became the first woman President of the United Nations General Assembly. A writer, a diplomat, and a politician, her worksare an inspiration to many young women.

    Kittur Rani Chennamma

    Even though you may hardly be familiar with her name, she was one of the earliest Indian rulers who fought forfreedom. 33 years before the National Uprising, this queen of a princely state in Karnataka led an armed rebellion against the British, and lost her life in the end. Even today, she is revered as one of the bravest women in Karnataka.

    Bhikaiji Cama

    Bhikaji Cama is undoubtedly one of the bravest women in the history of Indian Freedom Struggle. She was one of the pioneers in setting up the IndianHome Rule Society. When in exile, she wrote several revolutionary literatures from the freedom movement. She even made radical speeches for gender equality in Egypt.

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    Sucheta Kriplani

    With the dedication and passion that she exuded for her country during the struggle, she was elected as the firstwoman Chief Minister of any Indian state. She stepped up for her country with the Quit India Movement and she was one of Gandhiji¡¯s close associates in several Partition riots. She was a role model and encouraged many women to join the struggle.

    Aruna Asaf Ali

    She was an active member of the Congress Party who not just fought for our country¡¯s freedom, but also for the rights of political prisoners in Tihar Jail. She launched a hunger strike for the latter and her efforts resulted in improved conditions but she was subjected to solitary confinement. She displayed great courage by standing up to the oppressive rule as well as her family who were against the idea of her marrying a Muslim (she was originally a Brahmo).

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Timeline

The steady change in their position can be highlighted by looking at what has been achieved by women in the country:
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 Role of
Women in
India’s
Struggle For
Freedom
Siddhartha Dash:-http://orissa.gov.in/e-magazine/Orissareview/2010/August/engpdf/74-76.pdfhttp://orissa.gov.in/e-magazine/Orissareview/2010/August/engpdf/74-76.pdf

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                                Attingal Queen.1810-53 Junior Rani H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini Vanchi Dharma Dyumani Raja Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Parvati Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India
 1810-53 Junior Rani H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini Vanchi Dharma Dyumani Raja Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Parvati Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India)
1815-29 Regent of Travancore
When her elder sister Regent Maharani Gowri Lakshmi Bayi died after childbirth in 1815 she was only thirteen years of age and being the only female left in the family, besides her deceased sister's little daughter, she became Regent Maharani on behalf of her nephew, the heir, Maharajah Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma. She was on her accession actively counselled by her brother in law, Raja Raja Varma of the Changanssery Royal family as well as her husband, Raghava Varma, who belonged to the Royal family of Kilimanoor. Her first act was to appoint a new Dewan, and she continued the reforms of her older sister. Christians got more freedom and some of the restrictions put on some of the lower castes were removed, she also introduced health reforms. er mother, Princes Atham of the Travancore, was the Senior Rani of Attingal. Her first husband was Raghava Varma of the Kilimanoor Royal family and after his death she married his brother After his death in 1824, she married again, but did not have any children. She lived (1802-53).

1815-? Senior Rani Gowri Rukmini Bayi of Attingal in Travancore (India)
succeeded to the title of Senior Rani of Attingal after the death of her mother, the Queen Regent, Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai. Apart from her aunt, who was regent 1815-29, she only female in the matriarchal Travancore Royal Family, she married Rama Varma Koil Thampuran of Thiruvalla Royal Family in 1819 and had seven children, five sons and two daughters. One of these daughters died soon while the other married and had two sons, including Moolam Thirunal Sir Rama Varma. In 1888 two princesses were adopted from the Mavelikara Royal family into Travancore. (b. 1809-?).

History

On the night of April 11, 1721 150 Britishers were done to death at the Attingal Palace near Thiruvananthapuram. What perhaps was the first major attack on the British in India though rarely mentioned in Indian history . It was a clever plot laid by Kodumon Pillai, Minister of the queen of Attingal, Umayamma Rani, who out smarted the shrewd British who had superior weapons. The Nair Pada and the local Muslims took part in the operation and the British met with the biggest debacle in the region. The immediate provocation was about the building of a Fort at Anchu Thengu, Anjengo in British records. The scheming British had entered in to a series of maneuvers to make trade in spices their monopoly. Greed for huge profits drove them wild, capturing the spice country itself later. Those were the early days of the English East India Company in India, the Dutch and the British on Indian shores were engaged in a series of conflicts to stake control of the sea trade. Muslims, traditionally intermediaries in spice trade, were severely affected with the curbs in trade. Equipped with their guns and cannons, what the local soldiers were not yet having, they became menacing. Orders of the Rani to stop the building of the Fort were disobeyed. Initial attacks launched by the Nair Pada was rebuffed with severe casualties. It was after a wait that the clever trap was laid and almost everyone in the Fort was executed. Cannons and gunfire of the British came to naught. 
Attingal was the seat of the sovereign of Venad during this period and there were only queens, Ranis, in power. Apart from Attingal proper the principalities of Elayidam or Kottarakkara, Perakam or Nedumangad, Thiruvithamkode or Travancore, Kollam, Kaymkulam, Karunagappalli and Karthikappalli were all under the Attingal Rani. The sovereigns were ceremonial rulers and the actual power remained with the feudal lords titled Pillais, Nairs, who kept their own armies and administration. Feuds between the Pillais used to lead to intermittent clashes at the time. This was a turning point in the history of Kerala, also India. Travancore stood the side of the British after this episode and emerged as a major power during the reign of King Marthanda Varma. It was Marthanda Varma, who with the support of the British, annexed most of these principalities later and created the unified Travancore. The others were mostly allied with the Dutch, except the extreme north like Kolathu Nadu, modern Kannur. Marthanda Varma was also instrumental in neutralizing the powerful Pillais, Nayars, the story of his avenging the ‘Ettuveettil Pillamar’ is a figurative story of the event. From traders the British soon became sovereigns in India. The famous Kalari culture of the feudal lords, Pillais, stood liquidated during the British period that ensued.
The sequence of events that lead to the massacre were rooted primarily in the English attempts to monopolise trade. The Dutch and the English East India Companies were active in spice trade and both had factories on Indian soil, godowns for merchandise initially, which later were made army barracks. The Dutch had a factory at Thenga Pattinam, now in Kanyakumari district, and the English in Vizhinjam. The negotiations were all with the Pillais who had the authority to deal with the traders. Due to the internecine conflicts and overtures to monopolise trade the factory in Thenga Pattinam was destroyed by the Pillais and the factory chief was executed in the year 1684. Two ships belonging to the Dutch were also set on fire. When complained Attingal Rani agreed to compensate the loss, but this was not possible as the Pillais were adamant. A request from the English that they be permitted to build a big wall around the Vizhinjam factory was also opposed by the Pillais. They fore saw the implications. Kottayam Kerala Varma, the ruling king in Thiruvithamkode, adopted from Kolathunadu in the north, was not in very good terms with these powerful feudal lords. It was during this time that the Attingal Rani gave permission to the English to build a factory at Anchu Thengu in the year 1694.
Vanchimuttom Pillai and Kodumon Pillai were the ministers to the queen, prominent among the Council of Ministers, who advised the Rani that it will eventually prove disastrous. Accordingly the Rani asked the Company to stop building the Fort, this the English refused to heed. And Kodumon Pillai with the help of the Nair Pada in Chirayinkeezh attacked the Fort. The English now equipped with their cannons and guns retaliated and the attempt to stop the British ended in vain. Now, Vanchimuttom Pillai and Kodumon Pillai had a tussle going between them and Kodumon Pillai was the favourite of the Rani. How Vanchimuttom, it is believed, secretly helped the English in building the Fort. In 1690 the Rani passed away and the English completed building the Fort in the very next year taking advantage of the confusion. Soon the sea trade was under the control of the British who with their superior arms started dictating terms, in who can trade and at what price, also refused to pay taxes. The queens that followed Umayamma Rani were all adopted from Kolathunadu and they were too weak to manage the scene and the Pillais were restive. Feuds between the two Pillais also became a matter of concern, which gave the English a golden opportunity. The old feudal system was having its own problems.
The English now stationed comfortably at the heavily armed Fort at Anchu Thengu refused to permit anyone else to trade in Attingal principality. Except the Dutch who were very powerful at the time, though the English used to give information about the Dutch vessels to the Muslims who had taken to warfare and were pirates in the seas by now. The English men in the Fort went around trading at their will and started looting the local people who had no choice but obey them. Corruption among the British officers became rampant. The local traders and common people came to hate the English. Each one in the Fort started minting money and one Coifing, who was in charge at the time, was discharged by the Company for misappropriation of money. Next it was the tenure of one Gilford, who made the situation worse from bad. Two incidents at the time became crucial. One was the purchase by one Ignacio, an interpreter of the company, a plot of land belonging to the Devi temple. The one who sold this had no legal rights to sell it and the English forcibly occupied the land despite objections from the local people.
Another episode was the maltreatment to some traders who went to the Fort. A merchant Brahmin who went there was anointed with some ritual powder by a woman, as part of a Christian ceremony, and the insulted man injured the woman taking out his sword. Gilford coming to know about it inflicted severe punishments on the merchants. In fact it was a plot by Gilford who wanted to take revenge on those who refused to help him in his private trade. The matter reached Kodumon Pillai who attacked the Fort with a big force, lost many lives due to gunfire and the English took refuge inside. The Nair Pada burned a ship of the Company and laid a siege on the Fort, but soon after a ship from Mumbai with soldiers arrived and they were saved. The impasse that followed after the cold war between the two Pillais, as to who should be accepted as the Rani in Attingal, was a matter of concern during this period. Eventually in the year 1721 they came to a truce and the sister of the sovereign of Kollam was accepted as queen in Attingal. The British, who had to pay arrears, were contacted and Gilford, facing troubles due to the opposition of the people, decided to meet the queen and also compromise with the Pillais. He sent emissaries to the Palace.
Extensive talks were held through intermediaries and the English agreed to pay up the tax arrears for the period they made default and make relations smooth. To settle the matters they were invited by the Pillais, Gilford and the other Englishmen did not sense the pent up anger and thought it an old story, to the Attingal Palace. Everyone in the Fort were invited for a big party. On 11 th of April almost everyone in the English factory at Anchu Thengu thus came in a procession, as discussed and agreed to. Taking the river route they reached the Palace in great ceremony. The entourage was 150 strong. As the boats landed messengers of the Pillais persuaded the English to leave their guns in the boat as these were not permitted in the Palace. This was complied. Later the English and the Pillais went in to marathon discussions regarding the arrears in taxes and it was dark by then. The English had brought the new currency of the East India Company which the Pillais refused to accept. They demanded that the traditional Venetian currency be paid, what was the dollar of those days, this was not available with the English. Pillais were buying time. They wanted to meet the queen but as it was already dark the Pillais asked the English men to stay for the night and meet her in the morning.
Casey, the second in charge of the Fort, smelt a rat and told Gilford that it was risky to stay there at night but Gilford was not willing to listen. As it was getting pitch dark Gilford heard the unusual movement of people in the Palace and was alarmed. Now sensing danger he sent a messenger to the Fort at Anchu Thengu several kilometers away in the night itself. Soon a huge party of the Nair Pada and the Muslims ran over the English men and every one of the 150 odd people were killed. It was a clean operation where the superior arms did not help. Gilford, crafty and corrupt, to whom they had a long standing grudge, having killed many comrades, was beheaded and the body pinned on a wooden board, then floated in the river. The only one who escaped was the messenger sent by Gilford at night, who reached the Fort the next day. The horrifying revenge was known only at the time. It was mostly women and children at the Fort and the only competent gun man left there, one Samuel, evacuated the women and children to safety by sea. Expecting that the Nair Pada is to attack the Fort soon he sealed the doors. He also burned the large quantity of surplus gun powder stored in the premises. 
As expected the attack of the Nair Pada came on April 14 . It was more to capture the Fort and the weaponry. But they could not enter the huge Fort walls and the cannons kept spitting fire, after sporadic attacks repulsed by the gun men they gave up. They returned back after setting fire to the houses in the vicinity of the Fort. On hearing about the tragedy that befell the Englishmen the Rani send a message expressing sorrow about what happened. Trade had become too attractive to lose. The King of Kollam also send a similar message. Taking advantage of the situation the King of Thiruvithamkode, Travancore, Rama Varma, who had assumed the throne only a few days back, made swift moves. Competition between the spice kingdoms was common, for better trading. Originally belonging to Kolathunadu, Rama Varma, brother Aditya Varma and his sisters were adopted in 1696. This adoption had the support of Adams, chief of the Tellicherry factory of the British, under which the Fort at Anchu Thengue also came. After the massacre the Rani and Vanchimuttom Pillai had left to Kollam allied with the Dutch. Rama Varma saw this an opportunity and also wanted to make his sister queen of Attingal. The British interfering in selection of kings and queens was common in this era, using terms in trade as the bait, offering luxuries and various other means. 
In 1722 Alexander, a cousin of Adams, was appointed chief of Anchu Thengu. In the same year two more adoptions were made from Kolathunadu, a prince and a princess, at the behest of Adams and one of them was crowned the prince of Travancore. Rama Varma meanwhile gave permission to the English, by now his friends, to build a fort at Colachel and permission to mint coins for Travancore in 1723. He made an agreement with the English giving them monopoly for trade in Travancore and gave permission for yet another fort in Idava in 1726. From the two nephews of Rama Varma one was the Prince of Iraniel, who was to become famous later as Marthanda Varma, and the other Prince of Neyyattinkara. In 1728 the Prince of Neyyattinkara taking the help of the Naiks of Madurai hired a battalion of Vaduka Pada and marched on Attingal. The British all along did not directly confront the Nair Pada but made one to fight another. Fifteen of the leading Pillais in Attingal were executed and the remaining surrendered. Karthika Thirunal, a princess and his own relative, was made the queen of Attingal. 
In 1729 after Rama Varma passed away the Neyyattinkara prince and another in Karunagappalli became kings of Travancore and both died in the same year one after other. Prince of Iraniel, Marthanda Varma, became the king of Travancore. He helped the British to contain the Dutch presence in the region and was instrumental in a major expansion drive. Soon Marthanda Varma captured all the remaining Pillais of Attingal involved in the massacre and handed them over to the English. From a small principality that remained south of the river Karamana, Travancore, with the help of the British got extended up to river Periyar in the north. With the help of a Brahmin minister Ramayyan all the principalities were subdued, many of these allied with the Dutch. The traditional social structure with the Nair warriors in charge were razed to the ground. Marthanda Varma raised new armies and this left the traditional warriors jobless. Nair chieftains’ powers of tax collection and legal duties stood removed and those who opposed were mercilessly persecuted, even the women and children not spared. Those favourable were promoted. The state was surrendered to the Padmanabha Swamy temple by Marthanda Varma, under Tulu Brahmin priests, as a clever move to neutralize revolt. But it was an actual surrender to the British that resulted, completed by his heir Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma who consolidated the British connection and Travancore came under the British in 1795. After the war with Mysore, where Tippu Sultan was defeated, Travancore was forced to accept the sovereignty of a Company, the English East India Company, traders became rulers. 
The Travancore royalty, as also many other royal families, remained friends of the British, the British crown taking over control from the Company later, till India attained independence. The popular revolts that immediately followed this phase, by Pazhassi Raja in the north and Velu Thambi in the south (1790 – 1810), against the British, were contained. And those who revolted were pauperized and their powers gradually neutralised. Whether the human sacrifice at Attingal taught the British in India a lesson or it helped the chain of events leading to British occupation is a question that remains unanswered. Monopoly trade, what triggered the massacre, later took over the world and remains the most oppressive regime controlling mankind is a valid observation. Resource poor North exploiting the resource rich South using the game of trade continues to operate without any hindrance. The same urge to monopolise trade is what underlies the modern rhetoric of globalisation, only it is now much more subtle and sophisticated. It has become far too well entrenched, have governments as allies and it has become difficult to question the silent war killing millions in poverty. 

History
It is beleived that Attingal town was built 800 years ago. During ancient times Attingal was known to be "Chittattinkara" as it is encircled on three sides by the rivers "Vamana puram river" and "Mamom river". Historically, Attingal has been the residence of the women of the Venad royal family. The Attingal Palace dates to 1305 C.E. Attingal and the surrounding areas were a principality within the Travancore kingdom, and were ruled by their queens. By the colonial period, trade flourished with Portuguese and Dutch traders. In 1735, Marthanda Varma, the king of Travancore, took Attingal. 
Feudal status
The mother of the Maharaja of Travancore and her sister received the principality of Attingal in joint appanage. They were consequently styled the Senior and Junior Rani (the female form of Raja or Rana) of Attingal, respectively. Their husbands, known as Koil Tampurans, came from one of four or five princely houses who were closely related to the Royal House. Attingal was the seat of the sovereign of Venad during this period and there were only queens, Ranis, in power. Apart from Attingal proper the principalities of Elayidam or Kottarakkara, Perakam or Nedumangad, Thiruvithamkode or Travancore, Kollam, Kaymkulam, Karunagappalli and Karthikappalli were all under the Attingal Rani. 
Attingal Revolution
Attingal Mutiny was the first ever rebellion againt the British in India. The grant of Anchuthengu to the English provoked the wrath of a section of the local population and in 1697 the English factory was subjected to a violent but futile attack. In 1721, the English factors felt the need to appease the Rani of Attingal (Queen) after alienating the local population by their "overbearing behaviour". They sent a set of presents to the Rani. The local agents of the "Pillamar" demanded that those presents should be given to them for transmission to the Rani. When it was denied, on the night of April 11, 1721 140 Englishmen were massacred on their way to the Rani, and the fort was laid under siege for nearly six months. The Nair Pada and the local Muslims took part in the operation and the British met with the biggest debacle in the region The fort was relieved only when reinforcements for the English arrived from Talassery. Similarly the grant of Talassery was resented by Kurangoth Nair who claimed the territory to be under his control. He in alliance with one of the dissident Kolathiri princes, raided the Company's warehouse and inflicted heavy damage to property in 1704-05.
Attingal Palace
The Attingal palaces (Manomohanavilasom and Koyikkal), which are mentioned in literature dating from 1305 A.D., and many temples are in the Municipality. Chirayinkil, a town famous for its Sarkara Temple, is close by. It is also a major road junction.
Until 1837 Senior Rani Gouri Rukmani Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India) 
The younger daughter of the Queen Regent Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai (1810-15), she succeeded her sister, Gouri Lakshmi Bai, as Senior Rani of Attingal. Two of her sons became Maharajas, she was mother of a total of eight children, and lived (1809-37).
1837-53 Senior Rani Parvati Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India)
Also known as Chathayam Tirunal, she succeeded Gouri Rukmani Bai as joint administrator of the principality of Attingal, which were given as appanage to the two senior Princesses of the Travancore royal family, which follows matrilineal inheritance, according to male primogeniture. She was unmarried and (d. 1853).

 







Kingdom of Travancore Part-1 of History of Kerala

Travancore Kings
Rama Varma 1663-1672
Aditya Varma 1672-1677
Umayamma Rani‡ 1677-1684
FLAG OF FORMER PRINCELY STATE OF TRAVANCORE
Ravi Varma 1684-1718
Aditya Varma 1718-1719
Unni Kerala Varma 1719-1724
Rajah Rama Varma 1724-1729
Marthanda Varma 1729-1758
Dharma Raja 1758-1798
Balarama Varma 1798-1810
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi‡ 1810-1815
Gowri Parvati Bayi‡ 1815-1829
Swathi Thirunal 1829-1846
Uthram Thirunal 1846-1860
Ayilyam Thirunal 1860-1880
Visakham Thirunal 1880-1885
Moolam Thirunal 1885-1924
Sethu Lakshmi Bayi‡ 1924-1931
Chithira Thirunal 1931-1949
‡ Regent Queens
Capitals
Padmanabhapuram 1721-1795
Thiruvananthapuram 1795-1949
Palaces
Padmanabhapuram Palace
Kilimanoor palace
Kuthira Malika
Kowdiar Palace

Attingal palace
 The first War of Independence against the East India Company started from this Palace in Attingal, Kerala. This war was headed by the Attingal Queen.
1810-53 Junior Rani H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini Vanchi Dharma Dyumani Raja Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Parvati Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India)1815-29 Regent of TravancoreWhen her elder sister Regent Maharani Gowri Lakshmi Bayi died after childbirth in 1815 she was only thirteen years of age and being the only female left in the family, besides her deceased sister's little daughter, she became Regent Maharani



AyilyamTh irunal
Rani Gouri Lakshmi bai
Uthrittathi Thirunal
Rani Gouri Parvathi


on behalf of her nephew, the heir, Maharajah Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma




. She was on her accession actively counselled by her brother in law, Raja Raja Varma of the Changanssery Royal family as well as her husband, Raghava Varma, who belonged to the Royal family of Kilimanoor. Her first act was to appoint a new Dewan, and she continued the reforms of her older sister. Christians got more freedom and some of the restrictions put on some of the lower castes were removed, she also introduced health reforms. her mother, Princes Atham of the Travancore, was the Senior Rani of Attingal. Her first husband was Raghava Varma of the Kilimanoor Royal family and after his death she married his brother After his death in 1824, she married again, but did not have any children. She lived (1802-53).1815-? Senior Rani Gowri Rukmini Bayi of Attingal in Travancore (India)succeeded to the title of Senior Rani of Attingal after the death of her mother, the Queen Regent, Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai. Apart from her aunt, who was regent 1815-29, she only female in the matriarchal Travancore Royal Family, she married Rama Varma Koil Thampuran of Thiruvalla Royal Family in 1819 and had seven children, five sons and two daughters. One of these daughters died soon while the other married and had two sons, including Moolam Thirunal Sir Rama Varma.


A PORTRAIT OF SREE MOOLAM TIRUNAAL, was the ruler of the Indian state of Travancore between 1885 and 1924, succeeding his uncle Maharajah Visakham Thirunal (1880-1885).


In 1888 two princesses were adopted from the Mavelikara Royal family into Travancore. (b. 1809-?).
History
On the night of April 11, 1721 150 Britishers were done to death at the Attingal Palace near Thiruvananthapuram. What perhaps was the first major attack on the British in India though rarely mentioned in Indian history . It was a clever plot laid by Kodumon Pillai, Minister of the queen of Attingal, Umayamma Rani,


Johan Nieuhof's audience with the Queen of Quilon-umayamma rani

who out smarted the shrewd British who had superior weapons. The Nair Pada(nair soldiers) and the local Muslims took part in the operation and the British met with the biggest debacle in the region.

The immediate provocation was about the building of a Fort at Anchu Thengu, Anjengo in British records. The scheming British had entered in to a series of maneuvers to make trade in spices their monopoly. Greed for huge profits drove them wild, capturing the spice country itself later. Those were the early days of the English East India Company in India, the Dutch and the British on Indian shores were engaged in a series of conflicts to stake control of the sea trade.

Muslims, traditionally intermediaries in spice trade, were severely affected with the curbs in trade. Equipped with their guns and cannons, what the local soldiers were not yet having, they became menacing. Orders of the Rani to stop the building of the Fort were disobeyed.

Initial attacks launched by the Nair Pada(nair soldiers) was rebuffed with severe casualties. It was after a wait that the clever trap was laid and almost everyone in the Fort was executed. Cannons and gunfire of the British came to naught.Attingal was the seat of the sovereign of Venad during this period and there were only queens, Ranis, in power. Apart from Attingal proper the principalities of Elayidam or Kottarakkara, Perakam or Nedumangad, Thiruvithamkode or Travancore, Kollam, Kaymkulam, Karunagappalli and Karthikappalli were all under the Attingal Rani.




The sovereigns were ceremonial rulers and the actual power remained with the feudal lords titled Pillais,


Ettuveedan Nairfeudal chief
Ettuveedan Nair feudal chief



Nairs, who kept their own armies and administration. Feuds between the Pillais used to lead to intermittent clashes at the time.
This was a turning point in the history of Kerala, also India.
Travancore stood the side of the British after this episode and emerged as a major power during the reign of King Marthanda Varma. It was Marthanda Varma, who with the support of the British, annexed most of these principalities later and created the unified Travancore. The others were mostly allied with the Dutch, except the extreme north like Kolathu Nadu, modern Kannur. Marthanda Varma was also instrumental in neutralizing the powerful Pillais, Nayars, the story of his avenging the ‘Ettuveettil Pillamar’ is a figurative story of the event. From traders the British soon became sovereigns in India. The famous Kalari culture of the feudal lords, Pillais, stood liquidated during the British period that ensued

.The sequence of events that lead to the massacre were rooted primarily in the English attempts to monopolise trade. The Dutch and the English East India Companies were active in spice trade and both had factories on Indian soil, godowns for merchandise initially, which later were made army barracks.
The Dutch had a factory at Thenga Pattinam, now in Kanyakumari district, and the English in Vizhinjam. The negotiations were all with the Pillais who had the authority to deal with the traders. Due to the internecine conflicts and overtures to monopolise trade the factory in Thenga Pattinam was destroyed by the Pillais and the factory chief was executed in the year 1684. Two ships belonging to the Dutch were also set on fire. When complained Attingal Rani agreed to compensate the loss, but this was not possible as the Pillais were adamant. A request from the English that they be permitted to build a big wall around the Vizhinjam factory was also opposed by the Pillais. They fore saw the implications

. Kottayam Kerala Varma, the ruling king in Thiruvithamkode, adopted from Kolathunadu in the north, was not in very good terms with these powerful feudal lords. It was during this time that the Attingal Rani gave permission to the English to build a factory at Anchu Thengu in the year 1694.Vanchimuttom Pillai and Kodumon Pillai were the ministers to the queen, prominent among the Council of Ministers, who advised the Rani that it will eventually prove disastrous.

Accordingly the Rani asked the Company to stop building the Fort,


Anchuthengu is an old fort, built by the English East India Company for their use. It is situated 40 kms north of Thiruvananthapuram


this the English refused to heed. And Kodumon Pillai with the help of the Nair Pada in Chirayinkeezh attacked the Fort. The English now equipped with their cannons and guns retaliated and the attempt to stop the British ended in vain.

Now, Vanchimuttom Pillai and Kodumon Pillai had a tussle going between them and Kodumon Pillai was the favourite of the Rani. How Vanchimuttom, it is believed, secretly helped the English in building the Fort. In 1690 the Rani passed away and the English completed building the Fort in the very next year taking advantage of the confusion. Soon the sea trade was under the control of the British who with their superior arms started dictating terms, in who can trade and at what price, also refused to pay taxes.

The queens that followed Umayamma Rani were all adopted from Kolathunadu and they were too weak to manage the scene and the Pillais were restive. Feuds between the two Pillais also became a matter of concern, which gave the English a golden opportunity. The old feudal system was having its own problems.The English now stationed comfortably at the heavily armed Fort at Anchu Thengu


refused to permit anyone else to trade in Attingal principality. Except the Dutch who were very powerful at the time, though the English used to give information about the Dutch vessels to the Muslims who had taken to warfare and were pirates in the seas by now. The English men in the Fort went around trading at their will and started looting the local people who had no choice but obey them.

Corruption among the British officers became rampant. The local traders and common people came to hate the English. Each one in the Fort started minting money and

one Coifing, who was in charge at the time, was discharged by the Company for misappropriation of money.

Next it was the tenure of one Gilford, who made the situation worse from bad. Two incidents at the time became crucial. One was the purchase by one Ignacio, an interpreter of the company, a plot of land belonging to the Devi temple. The one who sold this had no legal rights to sell it and the English forcibly occupied the land despite objections from the local people.

Another episode was the maltreatment to some traders who went to the Fort. A merchant Brahmin who went there was anointed with some ritual powder by a woman, as part of a Christian ceremony, and the insulted man injured the woman taking out his sword. Gilford coming to know about it inflicted severe punishments on the merchants. In fact it was a plot by Gilford who wanted to take revenge on those who refused to help him in his private trade.

The matter reached Kodumon Pillai who attacked the Fort with a big force, lost many lives due to gunfire and the English took refuge inside. The Nair Pada burned a ship of the Company and laid a siege on the Fort, but soon after a ship from Mumbai with soldiers arrived and they were saved.

The impasse that followed after the cold war between the two Pillais, as to who should be accepted as the Rani in Attingal, was a matter of concern during this period. Eventually in the year 1721 they came to a truce and the sister of the sovereign of Kollam was accepted as queen in Attingal.

The British, who had to pay arrears, were contacted and Gilford, facing troubles due to the opposition of the people, decided to meet the queen and also compromise with the Pillais. He sent emissaries to the Palace.Extensive talks were held through intermediaries and the English agreed to pay up the tax arrears for the period they made default and make relations smooth.

To settle the matters they were invited by the Pillais, Gilford and the other Englishmen did not sense the pent up anger and thought it an old story, to the Attingal Palace.

Everyone in the Fort were invited for a big party. On 11 th of April almost everyone in the English factory at Anchu Thengu thus came in a procession, as discussed and agreed to. Taking the river route they reached the Palace in great ceremony. The entourage was 150 strong.

As the boats landed messengers of the Pillais persuaded the English to leave their guns in the boat as these were not permitted in the Palace. This was complied. Later the English and the Pillais went in to marathon discussions regarding the arrears in taxes and it was dark by then.

The English had brought the new currency of the East India Company which the Pillais refused to accept. They demanded that the traditional Venetian currency be paid, what was the dollar of those days, this was not available with the English.

Pillais were buying time. They wanted to meet the queen but as it was already dark the Pillais asked the English men to stay for the night and meet her in the morning.Casey, the second in charge of the Fort, smelt a rat and told Gilford that it was risky to stay there at night but Gilford was not willing to listen.

As it was getting pitch dark Gilford heard the unusual movement of people in the Palace and was alarmed. Now sensing danger he sent a messenger to the Fort at Anchu Thengu several kilometers away in the night itself. Soon a huge party of the Nair Pada and the Muslims ran over the English men and every one of the 150 odd people were killed. It was a clean operation where the superior arms did not help.

Gilford, crafty and corrupt, to whom they had a long standing grudge, having killed many comrades, was beheaded and the body pinned on a wooden board, then floated in the river. The only one who escaped was the messenger sent by Gilford at night, who reached the Fort the next day.

The horrifying revenge was known only at the time. It was mostly women and children at the Fort and the only competent gun man left there, one Samuel, evacuated the women and children to safety by sea. Expecting that the Nair Pada is to attack the Fort soon he sealed the doors. He also burned the large quantity of surplus gun powder stored in the premises.

As expected the attack of the Nair Pada came on April 14 . It was more to capture the Fort and the weaponry. But they could not enter the huge Fort walls and the cannons kept spitting fire, after sporadic attacks repulsed by the gun men they gave up. They returned back after setting fire to the houses in the vicinity of the Fort.

On hearing about the tragedy that befell the Englishmen the Rani send a message expressing sorrow about what happened. Trade had become too attractive to lose. The King of Kollam also send a similar message.

Taking advantage of the situation the King of Thiruvithamkode, Travancore, Rama Varma, who had assumed the throne only a few days back, made swift moves. Competition between the spice kingdoms was common, for better trading. Originally belonging to Kolathunadu, Rama Varma, brother Aditya Varma and his sisters were adopted in 1696. This adoption had the support of Adams, chief of the Tellicherry factory of the British, under which the Fort at Anchu Thengue also came.


After the massacre the Rani and Vanchimuttom Pillai had left to Kollam allied with the Dutch.

Rama Varma saw this an opportunity and also wanted to make his sister queen of Attingal. The British interfering in selection of kings and queens was common in this era, using terms in trade as the bait, offering luxuries and various other means.In 1722 Alexander, a cousin of Adams, was appointed chief of Anchu Thengu.

In the same year two more adoptions were made from Kolathunadu, a prince and a princess, at the behest of Adams and one of them was crowned the prince of Travancore.

Rama Varma meanwhile gave permission to the English, by now his friends, to build a fort at Colachel and permission to mint coins for Travancore in 1723.

He made an agreement with the English giving them monopoly for trade in Travancore and gave permission for yet another fort in Idava in 1726.

From the two nephews of Rama Varma one was the Prince of Iraniel, who was to become famous later as Marthanda Varma, and the other Prince of Neyyattinkara.

In 1728 the Prince of Neyyattinkara taking the help of the Naiks of Madurai hired a battalion of Vaduka Pada and marched on Attingal.

The British all along did not directly confront the Nair Pada but made one to fight another. Fifteen of the leading Pillais in Attingal were executed and the remaining surrendered.

Karthika Thirunal, a princess and his own relative, was made the queen of Attingal.In 1729 after Rama Varma passed away the Neyyattinkara prince and another in Karunagappalli became kings of Travancore and both died in the same year one after other.


Prince of Iraniel, Marthanda Varma, became the king of Travancore.

He helped the British to contain the Dutch presence in the region and was instrumental in a major expansion drive. Soon Marthanda Varma captured all the remaining Pillais of Attingal involved in the massacre and handed them over to the English.


From a small principality that remained south of the river Karamana, Travancore, with the help of the British got extended up to river Periyar in the north. With the help of a Brahmin minister Ramayyan all the principalities were subdued, many of these allied with the Dutch.

The traditional social structure with the Nair warriors in charge were razed to the ground. Marthanda Varma raised new armies and this left the traditional warriors jobless. Nair chieftains’ powers of tax collection and legal duties stood removed and those who opposed were mercilessly persecuted, even the women and children not spared. Those favourable were promoted. The state was surrendered to the Padmanabha Swamy temple by Marthanda Varma, under Tulu Brahmin priests, as a clever move to neutralize revolt. But it was an actual surrender to the British that resulted, completed by his heir Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma who consolidated the British connection and Travancore came under the British in 1795.



After the war with Mysore, where Tippu Sultan was defeated, Travancore was forced to accept the sovereignty of a Company, the English East India Company, traders became rulers.The Travancore royalty, as also many other royal families, remained friends of the British, the British crown taking over control from the Company later, till India attained independence.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The popular revolts that immediately followed this phase, by Pazhassi Raja in the north and Velu Thambi in the south (1790 – 1810), against the British, were contained.

And those who revolted were pauperized and their powers gradually neutralised. Whether the human sacrifice at Attingal taught the British in India a lesson or it helped the chain of events leading to British occupation is a question that remains unanswered.

Monopoly trade, what triggered the massacre, later took over the world and remains the most oppressive regime controlling mankind is a valid observation. Resource poor North exploiting the resource rich South using the game of trade continues to operate without any hindrance. The same urge to monopolise trade is what underlies the modern rhetoric of globalisation, only it is now much more subtle and sophisticated. It has become far too well entrenched, have governments as allies and it has become difficult to question the silent war killing millions in poverty.

History

It is beleived that Attingal town was built 800 years ago. During ancient times Attingal was known to be "Chittattinkara" as it is encircled on three sides by the rivers "Vamana puram river" and "Mamom river". Historically, Attingal has been the residence of the women of the Venad royal family. The Attingal Palace dates to 1305 C.E. Attingal and the surrounding areas were a principality within the Travancore kingdom, and were ruled by their queens. By the colonial period, trade flourished with Portuguese and Dutch traders. In 1735, Marthanda Varma, the king of Travancore, took Attingal.

Feudal status

The mother of the Maharaja of Travancore and her sister received the principality of Attingal in joint . They were consequently styled the Senior and Junior Rani (the female form of Raja or Rana) of Attingal, respectively. Their husbands, known as Koil Tampurans, came from one of four or five princely houses who were closely related to the Royal House. Attingal was the seat of the sovereign of Venad during this period and there were only queens, Ranis, in power. Apart from Attingal proper the principalities of Elayidam or Kottarakkara, Perakam or Nedumangad, Thiruvithamkode or Travancore, Kollam, Kaymkulam, Karunagappalli and Karthikappalli were all under the Attingal Rani.

Attingal Revolution-(Attingal Mutiny) was the first ever rebellion againt the British in India.


Similarly the grant of Talassery was resented by Kurangoth Nair who claimed the territory to be under his control. He in alliance with one of the dissident Kolathiri princes, raided the Company's warehouse and inflicted heavy damage to property in 1704-05.

Attingal Palace

The Attingal palaces (Manomohanavilasom and Koyikkal), which are mentioned in literature dating from 1305 A.D., and many temples are in the Municipality. Chirayinkil, a town famous for its Sarkara Temple,


is close by. It is also a major road junction.Until 1837 Senior Rani Gouri Rukmani Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India)The younger daughter of the Queen Regent Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai (1810-15), she succeeded her sister, Gouri Lakshmi Bai, as Senior Rani of Attingal. Two of her sons became Maharajas, she was mother of a total of eight children, and lived (1809-37).1837-53 Senior Rani Parvati Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India)Also known as Chathayam Tirunal, she succeeded Gouri Rukmani Bai as joint administrator of the principality of Attingal, which were given as appanage to the two senior Princesses of the Travancore royal family, which follows matrilineal inheritance, according to male primogeniture. She was unmarried and (d. 1853).
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SECOND CHAPTER OF BRITISH RULE IN KERALA(TRAVANCORE)-----------------------------------------------------------------

BRITISH LOOTING OF TRAVANCORE (NOW SOUTH KERALA) 19TH CENTURY

Rama Varma (AD 1758-1795), successor of Martanda Varma signed a treaty of perpetual friendship with the British in 1795.
Dharma Raja
Karthika Thirunal Dharma Rajah
This costly treaty was also perhaps partly responsible for the numerous taxes on the poorer segments of the society. The administration of Rama Varma’s successor namely Balarama Varma led to a people’s rebellion led by Velu Thampi who eventually became the Diwan and was partly responsible for the
‘subsidiary treaty’.
This draconian treaty (1805) not only committed to an annual payment of Rs 8 Lakhs equal to about 3 million $ mandatory but also permitted the British to interfere in the internal affairs / decisions of the administration.

For example, when Balarama Varma passed away in 1810, the British Resident overlooked the claim of Ilaya Raja Kerala Varma, who had been groomed to succeed Balarama Varma all
along, and who was a confirmed anti-British, for the throne. The British not only banished him from Travancore but also kept him as a prisoner. In his place Rani Laxmi Bai was appointed as the queen; and the resident(english man) assumed the office of the Diwan as well! Further she was succeeded by Rani Parvati Bai at the age of 13. Thus the period after 1795 was indeed a period of turmoil for Travancore.
.
THIS LOOTING by the British LED TO POVERTY IN KERALA
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google map:-http://wikimapia.org#lat=8.6904027&lon=76.8029952&z=17&l=0&m=b&v=8

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Gandhi and Status of Women
by Jyotsna Kamat
Page Last Updated:  February 15, 2013
Article on how Mahatma Gandhi's experiments with truth involved and affected women's status in the 20th century in India. 
Excerpts from a lecture given at the Gandhi Peace Foundation in December 1998

Women's status at the time

When Gandhiji assumed India's leadership the average life span of an Indian woman was only twenty seven years. Babies and the pregnant women ran a high risk of dying young. Child marriage was very common and widows were in very large number. Only 2% of the women had any kind of education and women did not have an identity of their own. In North India, they practiced the purdah (veil) system. Women could not go out of the house unless accompanied by men and the face covered with cloth. The fortunate ones who could go to school had to commute in covered carts (tangas).
It is in this context that we have to recognize the miracle of Gandhi's work. Gandhiji claimed that a woman is completely equal to a man and practiced it in strict sense. Thousands and millions of women, educated and illiterate, house wives and widows, students and elderly participated in the India's freedom movement because his influence. For Gandhiji, the freedom fight was not political alone; it was also an economic and social reform of a national proportion. After a couple of decades, this equality  became very natural in India. After India's freedom (in1947) and adoption of constitution (1950), emphasized equality of women, when Hindu code was formulated,  the population was not even impressed. They said -"Of course, it had to be done."

Woman and Progress

Gandhiji always advocated a complete reform which he called "Sarvodaya" meaning comprehensive progress. He believed that the difference between men and women was only physical and has expressed several times in his writings that in many matters especially those of  tolerance, patience, and sacrifice the Indian woman is superior to the male. You will discover this when you read his articles from "Young India" and "Harijan". During the 40 years of his political career, he only found more reasons to deepen his faith in what he wrote. He never had a specific program for women, but women had a integral role to play in all his programs. I feel that this is one of the reasons why women participated in his programs so overwhelmingly.
Gandhiji declared that there is no school better than home and there is no teacher better than parents. He said men and women are equal, but not identical. "Intellectually, mentally, and spiritually, woman is equivalent to a male and she can participate in every activity."

Indian society is a male dominated one. Gandhiji has illustrated in his autobiography (The stories of my experiments with truth) how early in his marriage he too wanted to dominate his wife. He often said that paternal society is the root cause of inequality. In his book, there is a very touching chapter about when he asked his wife to clean a public toilet and the resulting conflict between him and his wife. He has written how ashamed he was of himself, and how he took care not to hurt her anymore for the rest of his life. Even though there was big gap between him and his wife intellectually, it did not affect their family life. He has said that Kasturba followed her husband more than was expected of her. Gandhiji followed Bramacharya (strict discipline of food, drinks, and of celibacy) from a very young age, but when his wife passed away, Gandhi grieved that without Ba, his life would have been meaningless. That was the bondage of his 62 years of marriage.

Woman and Social Service


Gandhiji struggled very hard to understand a woman's physical and mental pain. From a young age he introduced his wife and children to social sacrifice and service. He believed that service has to be performed for self-fulfillment, not for public consumption or exhibition. He believed that the publicity given to one's social service actually decrements the value of the service. He tried very hard to eliminate job indignity and bias based on caste system. He tried to do the work of a barber, dhobi (washer man), and janitor to understand them and demonstrate that the work one does has no impact on one's status in the society. For me, the fact that he contributed a great deal in raising his children is very modern concept. On one occasion the white midwife would not show up for his wife's delivery and Gandhiji himself delivered his child. He helped wife with feeding, bathing, and toiletries of the infant. In western countries these days men are encouraged to be with their wives during the delivery and the men are supposed to pitch in with diaper changing, etc. Gandhiji practiced this very modern concept 90 years ago in his own family.

Role of Women


"Womanhood is not restricted to the kitchen", he opined and felt that "Only when the woman is liberated from the slavery of the kitchen, that  her true spirit may be discovered".  It does not mean that women should not cook, but only that household responsibilities be shared among men, women and children. He wanted women to outgrow the traditional responsibilities and participate in the affairs of nation. He criticized Indian's passion for male progeny. He said that as long as we don't consider girls as natural as our boys our nation will be in a dark eclipse.

Child Widows


Gandhiji was especially considerate of the young widows. In the last 80 years, as a nation, if we have made any progress on the matter of child widows (girls used get married very early and after untimely deaths of their husbands, they were condemned to a life of great agony, shaving heads, living in isolation, and shunned by the society.) it is due to the reformers like Gandhiji and his contemporaries. Gandhiji once noted during his legendary travels across India that he never came across 13 year old who was not married. He declared the marriages in which the girls were not consulted were unholy. At that time in Madras presidency, the number of child widows were alarmingly large. He called upon the young to marry the widows and also to boycott child marriages. (It may be noted here that Gandhiji himself married when very young; he was thirteen.) The history of India knows of many such young men who married widows and went on to work as social reformers.

Temple women and Prostitutes


Gandhiji was very disturbed by the plight of this low caste untouchable section of the society, namely theDevadasis. (see also: The Temple Women) He was hurt by the miserable way the children of brothels were treated. He had made elaborate plans for their rehabilitation. He declared that protecting women's honor was important and as holy as protecting cows. His book "Women and Social Injustice" contains discussions of very deep thoughts and solutions on the topic. He felt that after India became free, the system of temple women and brothels must be abolished. Even though on paper we have abolished the system of Devadasis, rampant exploitation of women as sex servants has continued. There was no way Gandhiji could have predicted modern ways and means of prostitution (call girls, phone sex etc) but he certainly identified its social evil and tried to fight it.

Gandhiji's contribution for betterment of women in India

As we look back at the Indian history and compare the conditions of women before Gandhi's rise, and now, the progress we have made is quite enormous. A whole generation of women leaders came up influenced by Gandhi's vision. If today in India so many women can go to work in offices, educational institutions, and factories without fear or hesitation, the roots for such system were laid 90 years ago by Gandhiji and his followers.
As mentioned earlier, Gandhiji formulated India's freedom struggle as a comprehensive plan for women's development. Even though a lot of inequalities remain in our society, there is a fundamental agreement that men and women are equal. As Indians, we can be very proud that the same cannot be claimed even by so called "advanced nations". In Britain as well as in the U.S.A., women could not vote 75 years ago. But women's voting came very naturally to us from the beginning. About 100 years ago, the western woman could not own property, get a divorce or take the custody of her children. We just have to look at the life and struggles of  Dr. Annie Besant to understand the status of western women during Gandhiji's time. The western women had to take to streets, overcome many stereotypes to establish themselves voting and other rights. But for us, political, economic and voting rights came so naturally through the constitution!

Legacy


Today, if Gandhi's agenda has fallen apart, it is due to Indian politics. The continued exploitation of women can be attributed to the degradation in moral values of the society, and utter poverty of our nation. We ignored the role of social service, job dignity, and self reliance. Once in a while we run into true volunteers (like Sushilamma - see visit to an ashram) who believe in Gandhiji's ideals and have implemented his programs. I hope that at least a few of the younger generation take up Gandhiji's unfinished manifesto and work to eliminate social barriers facing women.


====================================================




Indian Joan of Arc-Veera Mangai Velunachiyar


Veera Mangai Velunachiyar was one of the queens in the 18th century in South India. She rebelled against the British Empire and fought for the freedom of India.  She was born in 1730 AD to the Mannar Sellamuthu Sethupathy and to Rani Sakandhimuthal of  Ramnad Kingdom.  She was the only daughter of this Royal family. The Royal couple had no male heir.  The royal family brought up the Princess, Velunachiyar, like  Prince of Ramnad due to this reason. She was trained in the skills of using weapons and also in martial arts like Valari, stick fighting  etc. She learnt horse riding and archery earlier. The Royal couple had engaged teachers to teach her many languages like French, English and Urdu. Thus this young brave Princess had excellent training in all war techniques. She was a scholar in many languages and was ready to rule the Ramnad Kingdom . She married Sivagangai Mannar Muthuvaduganathar at the age of sixteen.  In the year 1772 , the English invaded her kingdom . Velu Nachiyar heard that her husband Raja Muthu Vaduganathar and her daughter young Princess Gowri Nachiyar were killed in Kalaiyar Koil war. This war was held in Kalaiyar Koil palace. British troops attacked the palace under the command of Lt.Col. Bon Jour . She was very much worried and wanted to take revenge. Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai and Maruthu brothers sustained injuries. They promised to recapture the samasthan to punish the English. Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai, an incredible and distinguished person was the most powerful administer in Sivagangai samsthanam.  Thandavaraya Pillai, the loyalist served (1700-1773) as Palavay and also as Pirathani under the three rulers of Sivagangai samsthanam. He was responsible for the development of Sivagangai samsthanam . At first he served the King Sasivarna Periya Udaiya Thevar during 1730-1750. Later he served under Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar, the King during 1750-1772 . He also served as *Pirathani to the queen Rani Velu Nachiyar.Here Dalavay means  military chief and the Pirathani means  chief minister. Pirathani was responsible for  the improvement of Foreign affairs. Thus the two charges were the most important and also  powerful .
(Thandavaraya Pillai was the son of Kathavaraya Pillai who was an accountant and also as Karvar, (administer) in this samsthan.He rendered his service with loyalty from the beginning of this samsthanam. He administered well and helped in the development. The King Udaiya Thevar was very much pleased because of his good administration and granted him his hereditary management. It shows the significance of loyalty of Dalavay Thandavaraya Pillai.   He advised Veera Mangal Velunachiar to move to different places often in order to avoid British invaders . Meanwhile Dalavay Thandavarayan Pillai wrote a letter to Sultan Hyder Ali on behalf of Velu Nachiyar to provide 5000 infantry and 5000 cavalry to defeat the British army. But unfortunately he passed away due to old age. She decided to meet Hyder Ali after the demise of Dalavay Thandavarayan Pillai  at  Mysore with the help of his son. She could explain in detail in Urdu all her problems with East India Company. She explained him her strong opposition of British regime. Hyder Ali was very much pleased and promised to help her in this conflict… He accepted her request with sympathy and provided the necessary military assistance. He orderd Syed Karki of Dindigul fort gladar to provide the required military equipments to Rani Velu Nachiyar. He released 5000 infantry and 5000 cavalry to Rani Velu Nachiyar immediately. Her troops advanced to Sivaganga with the help provided by Maruthu brothers. The Nawab of Arcot put so many hindrances to avoid the advancement of Rani Velu Nachiyar’s combined troops. The queen and Maruthu brothers overcame all hurdles. They geared up the troops and entered Sivaganga. She defeated the Nawab of Arcot and took him as a captivator. She re-captured her Sivaganga samsthan with the help of Hyder Ali and crowned as queen of the Sivagangai seemai. Velu Nachiyar is only the first queen who raised the revolt  against the British emperor. According to historians. Prof.Sanjeevi  mentioned in his ‘ Maruthiruvar’ book that ‘ the bravery queen Velu Nachiyar raised revolt against English emperor and fought for the freedom of India 85 years before Jhansi Rani’s freedom struggle in North . Venkatam further stated that Velu Nachiyar is India’s Joan of Arc.

[by sivashanmugam.referred books: The Madura country a manual..J.H.Nelson. The Sivaganga Zamindary..K.Annaswamy Aiyer.Maruthiruvar..Prof.Sanjeevi.Viduthalai porin vidi velligal… M.Balakrishnan..]

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Kuyili was a follower of Rani Velu Nachiar, the 18th century queen of Sivaganga. After her husband Muthuvaduganathaperiya Udaiyathevar was killed in a battle in 1780, Velu Nachiyar fought the British with help from Gopala Nayaker and Hyder Ali and won the battle. Her army commander Kuyili doused herself with oil, set herself ablaze and walked into a British storehouse of ammunition.

While a commemorative postage stamp on Rani Velu Nachiar 
 
 was released in 2008, the state will construct a memorial for Kuyili on the premises of the memorial being constructed for Velu Nachiar in Sivaganga.

The CM said a memorial would be constructed for philanthropist and educationist Swami Sagajananda of Chidambaram, who had worked for the welfare of the poor. She said the memorial for Dr BR Ambedkar on Greenways road in Mandaveli would also be renovated. 

Velu Nachiyar
Rani Velu Nachiyar was an 18th century Indian Queen from Sivaganga. Rani Velu Nachiyar is the first Queen of Tamil Origin to fight against the British in India.
  http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-_QrtJPG2WtI/UGV8AAWBdeI/AAAAAAAAA64/1lP_0IJ3e_E/s1600/British-Troops-Delhi.jpg

Indian Stamps-Rani Velu Nachchiyar-By India Post
Rani Velu Nachiar and her daughter Vellachi Nachiar lived under the protection of Hyder Ali at Virupakshi near Dindigul. Frustrated by the joining of forces against him, the Nawab ordered that Velu Nachiar and Marudhu Brothers were permitted to return to Sivaganga and rule the country subject to payment of Kist to the Nawab. Abiding by this Order, Rani Velu Nachiar accompanied by Marudu brothers and Vellachi Nachiar entered Sivaganga. An agreement was reached where by Rani Velu Nachiar was permitted to govern the Sivaganga Country and Chinna Marudu, the younger was appointed her minister and the elder Vellai Marudu as the Commander-in-chief. Thus the widow Queen Velu Nachiar succeeded her husband in 1780.
Date Of Issue:-31.12.2008.




Velu Nachiyar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velu_Nachiyar
Rani Velu Nachiyar (Tamil: இராணி வேலு நாச்சியார்) was an 18th century Indian Queen from Sivaganga. Rani Velu Nachiyar is the first ...

Velu Nachiyar

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Rani Velu Nachiyar
Born 3 January 1730 Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu, India
Died the exact date of her death is not known (it was about 1790). Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu, India
Name Velu Nachiyar
Occupation Queen of Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu, Circa 1760-1799
Succeeding State British India
Rani Velu Nachiyar (Tamil: இராணி வேலு நாச்சியார்) was an 18th century Indian Queen from Sivaganga. Rani Velu Nachiyar is the first Queen of Tamil Origin to fight against the British in India.[1]

Her life

She was the princess of Ramanathapuram and the daughter of Chellamuthu Sethupathy. She married the king of Siva Gangai and they had a daughter - Vellachi Nachiar. When her husband Muthuvaduganathaperiya udaiyathevar was killed, she was drawn into battle. Her husband and his second wife were killed by a few British soldiers and the son of the Nawab of Arcot. She escaped with her daughter, lived under the protection of Hyder Ali at Virupachi near Dindigul for eight years.[2] During this period she formed an army and sought an alliance with Gopala Nayaker and Hyder Ali with the aim of attacking the British. In 1780 Rani Velu Nachiyar fought the British with military assistance from Gopala Nayaker and Hyder Ali and won the battle. When Velu Nachiyar finds the place where the British stock their ammunition, she builds the first human bomb. A faithful follower, Kuyili douses herself in oil, lights herself and walks into the storehouse.[3] Rani Velu Nachiyar formed a woman's army named “udaiyaal” in honour of her adopted daughter — Udaiyaal, who died detonating a British arsenal. Nachiar was one of the few rulers who regained her kingdom and ruled it for 10 more years.[4]
Velu Nachiyar is the first queen who fought for the freedom against British in India and succeeded.
The Queen Velu Nachiar granted powers to Marudu brothers to administer the country in 1780. Velu Nachiar died a few years later, but the exact date of her death is not known (it was about 1790). Marudu brothers are the sons of Udayar Servai alias Mookiah Palaniappan Servai and Anandayer alias Ponnathal. They are native of Kongulu street of Ramnad. They belonged neither to the family of the ancient poligars nor to their division of the caste.[5]
On 31-December-2008, a commemorative postage stamp on her was released
 

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Tamil Nadu to build memorial for freedom fighter Kuyili


CHENNAI: The Tamil Nadu government has decided to honour freedom fighter Kuyili with a memorial in Sivaganga district.


Kuyili was a follower of Rani Velu Nachiar, the 18th century queen of Sivaganga

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Online edition of India's National Newspaper
Tuesday, Jan 11, 2011
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The league of extraordinary women

A photo- tribute to women freedom fighters from Tamil Nadu revealed remarkable tales of valour
PHOTO: SPL ARRANGEMENT

SHOULDER TO SHOULDER Women displayed exemplary courage during the freedom movement

S.N. Sundarambal of Tirupur was pregnant when she was arrested for taking part in Individual Satyagraha in the early 1940s. Ammapon alias Leelavathi was 11 years old when she took part in Neil statue Satyagraha in 1927. She was later arrested and kept in a children's home. Saraswathi Pandurangan lost her two-year-old daughter and son of 19 months while she was in prison for taking part in the Quit India Movement, Civil Disobedience movement, Salt Satyagraha and Individual Satyagraha. The list of ordinary women who pitched in their support for the freedom struggle is long, but regrettably, is little known.
These women freedom fighters from Tamilnadu took centre stage in the photo exhibition ogranised by the Mahatma Gandhi Study Centre of Kumaraguru College of technology and Mahatma Gandhi museum of the Mahalingam Mariammal Manivizha charitable trust as part of Coimbatore Vizha.
That Velu Nachiyar of Sivaganga battled bravely against the British forces after the death of her husband and that Rani Lakshmi Bai took on many a battle with her son strapped to her back is well-known. But how many of us know that Pappammal from Karur took active part in Individual Satyagraha? C. S. Ramakrishnan from Mahatma Gandhi Study Centre said, "According to the book ‘Kongu naattil Indhiya sudhandhira porattam', the Coimbatore region alone had about 21 women taking part in the freedom struggle." The exhibition had photographs along with short descriptions on the lives of women such as Akilandammal, Engammal, S. Kamalam and Alamelu Mangai who were imprisoned for opposing the British rule.
For a lot of these women, stepping out of their homes to fight for a cause required monumental effort and grit. Kaliammal, for example was from an oppressed section of the society. Inspired by Kasturba Gandhi, she came forward to fight for the cause of her people.
Madurai-born Sornathammal, is yet another unsung heroine. Along with Lakshmi Bai Ammal, she organised a women's march in 1943, raising the quit India slogan. The women were arrested by the police, beaten and humiliated. It was only after midnight that they were cast off near Alagarkoil. Undaunted, they continued their fight for freedom. Photographs of D.K. Pattammal, M.S. Subbulakshmi and M.R. Kamalaveni, who used music to instigate nationalistic fervour, were displayed. In fact, Kamalaveni was jailed with a one-year-old infant.
Other women freedom fighters from the South included Dr. Lakshmi Swaminathan who was the commandant of Rani Lakshmibai's regiment, S. Manjubashini who was in charge of prayer and food when Gandhiji visited Chennai in 1946, Vijayalakshmi who provided shelter for freedom fighters, Kannavaram Ammaiyar who worked for the welfare of Harijan children in Sivaganga and Sakuntala who entered the freedom struggle as a college student.
AKILA KANNADASAN
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 MORE PHOTOS OF RANI KI JHANSI REGIMENT (WOMEN'S REGIMENT)UNDER SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE'S INDIAN NATIONAL ARMY AT SINGAPORE;MALAYA(MALAYSIA) BURMA (MYANMAR) 1943-1945




SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE-THE ENIGMA -

Rani of Jhansi Regiment's march to the battle front
- Capt. L.C. Malik recounts his time spent in the INA




















Captain Lakshmi Sehgal-THEN AND 2012
leader of the Rani of Jhansi Regiment.
She was the Captain of INA during her
imprisonment in Burma. She mostly helped
the injured troops during the war by
forming a medical clinic

Puan Sri Janaky Athi Nahappan
founder of the Malaysian Indian Congress,
was one of the first women to take part in
the INA's Rani of Jhansi Regiment.

 
I was a junior officer in the administrative branch of Headquarters Supreme Command of the Azad Hind Fauj at Singapore when I was selected as one of the three officers to escort a detachment of Rani Jhansi Regiment from Singapore to the battlefront in North Burma.
It was a hazardous journey across three countries, Malaya, Thailand and Burma. Chances of bombardment from the air, due to the air supremacy of the British were high.
The journey, ardous and under trying conditions, took 40 days with the train (goods wagons) moving at snails speed at night with complete halts during the day.
During the halts utmost care was taken to camouflage the wagons as a precaution against air raids. The wagons would be dispersed and positioned at a distance from each other.
What was most remarkable and praiseworthy was the zeal and spirit of sacrifice of the girls. Though thousands of miles away from their home and hearth, kith and kin and facing an uncertain future fraught with risks, their enthusiasm did not wane.
Their voice had thunder and when in unison they shouted" Netaji Zindabad", the thunder resounded miles away.
No less was the enthusiastiac participation of the local population of Indian origin who thronged the various halting places in hundreds to congratulate and encourge the girls going to the battle front, fighting for the freedom of their Motherland. We were all through carrying a wagon load of food, fruit and other gifts given so lovingly by the local Indian populace.
Before moving to the actual battlefront, we came to be stationed at a place called Mamyo in central Burma about 60-70 miles in rear to the fighting lines.
I, in the advance headquarters of the supreme command of the Azad Hind Fauj and the detachment of Rani Jhansi Regiment in hutments close by.

1945


The Imphal retreat
- Shali Ittaman

No battleground ever tested the INA steel more than Imphal of 1944. Forced against their will to retreat, the men braved worsening weather, disease and starvation to try and stay alive for the battle they hoped would win freedom for their homeland.
The fields of Kohima, especially stands witness to the bravery of these men, who even as they lay dying, had Jai Hind on their lips.
The retreat from Kohima was perhaps one of the most difficult retreats that any army in the world had made. Heavy rain had washed away all tracks. The kutcha tracks had become muddy, in which many of the men got stuck and died.

At that time there was no transport of any kind. Almost every man was suffering from dysentery or malaria. No one had any strength left in him to help anyone else. In that retreat, men ate horses which had been dead for four days. There were hundreds of bodies of soldiers who had died of exhaustion, starvation or disease, and some who faced with the prospect of falling into the hands of the British, had taken their own lives.
Amid all these miseries, the fortitude and the courage of the men lent an epic character to the tragedy. A former INA soldier recalls the incident of a man who, as he lay dying in his brother's arm, bid his brother to carry his message to Netaji that he died without yielding in spirit.
Another soldier who survived the cross, also recalls an incident when a Garhwali soldier who was no longer able to walk, broke down in tears. To lighten the weight of his haversack, when his ammunition was thrown away and "as a final insult" his gun was taken from him, his commander, a burly Sikh shouted: "This man would have died with his rifle in his hand and not as like a rat you have now turned him into. Who ordered this retreat."
For the survivors and many others who followed the history of the war, the experiences of the retreat range from dealing with death in the midst of indescribable suffering to coming face-to-face with awe-inspiring sacrifice and nobility of spirit.
There is a war report which helps to summarize the events and the spirit which guided them, most befittingly. "A man was seen crouching on the ground in the posture of one trying to defecate, with his body supported by a tree trunk. When he continued to stay like that, other approached him to find that he was already dead - victim of a type of dysentery. The soldier was a well-known Punjabi businessman, Khanna, who had donated his entire property and business worth several lakhs of rupees to the Azad Hind fund. After having donated everything, he joined the Subhas Brigade, his young wife volunteered for the Rani Jhansi Brigade and their son joined Netaji's Bal Sena."
This was a family, like many others, which had responded when Netaji asked for their blood.

 Leading from the front
 Never say die…
 Capturing Sita Hills
 Tracking the enemy
 March to Rangoon
 INA Women Brigade
 The Submarine Cross
 Missing INA Treasure
 The Great Escape


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Legion Freies Indien
known commonly as Azad Hind Fauj,
the stepping stone of the INA. It was
originally formed alongwith the German
army, and attacked the British army through
Baluchistan in 1941. Subhas Chandra Bose
was its co-founder. The force was also active
in Europe, particularly in Netherlands and France.
When the Third Reich surrendered in 1945, the troops
were captured in Switzerland, and were sent back to
India and were imposed charges of treason. 



1000 Indian Rupees of Indian National Army
Major General Mohammad Zaman Kiyani
Commander of the 1st division of the INA.
Later, he took the position of Chief of General Staff,
which was earlier occupied by Col. JK Bhonsle.
Kiyani surrendered to the British on 25th August 1945
and after the partition of India, he settled in Pakistan

Colonel Prem Kumar Sehgal (3rd from left)
with wife Capt. Lakshmi Sehgal (6th from left)
Col. Sehgal was appointed as the Commander of the 2nd Infantry 
Regiment under the 2nd Division and fought in the Burma campaign.
He was among the 3 soldiers who were tried for treason against the
British Empire, but were released later


Datuk Rasammah Naomi Navarednam
was involved in the Malaysian independence.
She was also part of the Rani of Jhansi Regiment.
At present, she is the chairperson of the National
Council of Women's Organisations and Human Rights
Commission in Malaysia

 
Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon
Commander of the 4th Guerrilla Regiment
or Nehru Brigade. He was put to trial on
5th August 1945, for waging war against
the Emperor
  Major General Shah Nawaz Khan
Commander of the 1st Guerrilla Regiment
or Subhas Brigade. The troops under his
command, fought mostly in Burma and north
east India. He was appointed as the Commander
at the Mandalay division in 1944

Raja Habib Ur Rahman Khan, Indian National Army
One of the prominent leaders of the INA.
He was appointed the Deputy Quartermaster
General of INA. He was appointed as the
in-charge of the technical branch. Later,
he was appointed as the Second-in-Command




Statue of Netaji at INA complex in Moirang

Statue of Netaji at INA complex in Moirang



INA complex at Moirang

INA complex at Moirang

Netaji and Col. Saukat Hayat Malik remembered on INA's 69th flag hoisting day...



Plaque at INA complex

Plaque at INA complex

Netaji and Col. Saukat Hayat Malik remembered on INA's 69th flag hoisting day...




Recently, U.K.’s National Army Museum conducted a poll on Britain’s greatest battle fought over the last 400 years. Waterloo, Aliwal, D-Day/Normandy, Rorke’s Drift and the twin battles of Imphal and Kohima were selected as the top five battles but in the last round, it threw up a name that came as a surprise to many. It voted outright Britain’s twin battles against Japan-INA (Indian National Army) fought in Kohima and Imphal in India during the Second World War as the greatest ever.
It is interesting news considering most Indians are themselves not aware of one of the bloodiest battles of World War II fought on their soil, which if Japan had succeeded in winning, would have changed the fate of the Allied forces and may be Indian history. During my reportage in the North East, I came across some of the eyewitnesses of this battle. One of the affected villages was Maibam Lotpaching, just outside Imphal. I cannot exactly recollect the year but when I met Taoram Gourmohan Singh he was 74. He couldn’t remember the exact date but he recalled the time. It was a little past midnight when hundreds of Japanese soldiers arrived on foot. Gourmohan had gone into hiding when the entire village was evacuated and trenches were dug along his courtyard. The same courtyard where I met him.
He was a young boy when the Japanese army fell upon the main Allied advance base in Imphal. That was April 1944. The war was right at his doorstep — on the Red Hill where the British forces clashed with the advancing Japanese army.
“I was 12 then… there were about 300 Japanese soldiers on the hill … they reached at midnight on May 20 … they first fought in Moreh but couldn’t come to Imphal … so they took this route,” he said. Gourmohan Singh’s story came to me in bits and pieces. Age had blurred his memory but he recounted carrying water for some of the Japanese soldiers. Also, carefully tucked away in a loft in his outhouse was war memorabilia, rusted, but held very dear. “I love these articles. Japan had come for India’s independence, was fighting against the British, so I keep them with me. I treasure them,” he told me. He laid them out for me in the courtyard. Bullet shells, helmets and water flasks.
It’s believed that Imphal was as bad for the Japanese as Flanders was for the Germans in WWI, for there on the bloody plain, 50,000 of the best of the Japanese army were killed. It was from the Red Hill — its supply lines cut off by a heavy monsoon — that the INA began its retreat just 10 kms short of Imphal, whose capture could have altered the course of Indian history. At least that is the claim many historians make today though there are doubts on how they might have been used by the Japanese except for generating rebellion among the Indians behind the British lines.
But the defeat of Red Hill didn’t send back the Japanese. They came close to the railhead in Assam after they took over Kohima. Without the bases in Assam they wouldn’t have been able to access a northern Burma supply route.
An eyewitness to this war in Kohima, Kuosa Kere, could still speak a smattering of Japanese when I met him. It was at Kigwema village near Kohima where General Saito, the famed Japanese commander, had stationed himself during the decisive siege of the hill town in World War II. From here, the Japanese opened attack and timed the assault at exactly 4 p.m. on ‘4.04.44’ (April 4, 1944). It lasted for two months. “It was a long war, we were warned by the Brits and were very apprehensive about the Japanese, but they were friendly. They lived with the families, paid for everything and unlike the British, they had no relationships with local women. They never misbehaved. General Saito was a very nice man. For us teenagers, the war was an adventure,” recalled Kuose Kere.
It was in June when the dangerous Japanese advance into the plains of India was finally halted by the British and the Indian forces. But what went down in history as Britain’s fiercest battles of World War II was fought on a tennis court adjoining the Deputy Commissioner’s bungalow in Kohima. As many as 1200 Indian and British soldiers who died fighting the Japanese have been laid to rest there with the famous lines engraved on a tombstone: “When you go home tell them of us and say, For your tomorrow, we gave our today.”
The tennis court battle was also called the Battle under the Cherry Tree. The cherry tree was a Japanese sniper post. The tree is no more but a branch of the historic tree has taken its place.
Reminiscing about the battle, once a war veteran standing in the middle of the Kohima War Cemetery, told me: “After several months, it was virtually over. We were repatriated home; we were on our way to Bombay when the atom bomb was dropped. It was all over. We don’t want it but we do need it sometimes … look at this. It’s the sad part, but anyway we came out victorious.” Tears rolled down his wrinkled cheeks.
Then there was Lily, a war-time nurse. Sitting on a tombstone, she broke down: “Sixty years ago, I was a nurse at the army-combined hospitals. So many young people had died, too many lives wasted, they died in my arms. And we still have wars.”
Fought between March 7 and July 18, 1944, the Battles of Imphal and Kohima came back to hit the headlines recently. And also to remind the eyewitnesses the times that were.
(The author’s book “Che in Paona Bazaar: Tales of Exile and Belonging from India’s North-East” (Pan Macmillan India) has a section with a detailed account of this little-known battle.)
 

           Pritilata Waddedar

From Wikipedia,
Pritilata Waddedar
Pritilata waddedar.jpg
Native name প্রীতিলতা ওয়াদ্দেদার
Born 5 May 1911
Dhalghat, Chittagong, Bengal Presidency, British India
(now in Bangladesh)
Died 23 September 1932 (aged 21)
Chittagong, Bengal Presidency, British India
(now in Bangladesh)
Cause of death Suicide by consuming potassium cyanide
Nationality British Indian
Other names Rani (nickname)
Ethnicity Bengali
Alma mater Bethune College
Occupation School teacher
Known for Pahartali European Club attack (1932)
Relatives Madhusduan (brother)
Kanaklata (sister)
Shantilata (sister)
Ashalata (sister)
Santosh (brother)
Pritilata Waddedar (5 May 1911 – 23 September 1932) was a Bengali revolutionary nationalist. After completing her education in Chittagong, she attended the Bethune College in Calcutta. Pritilata graduated in Philosophy with distinction.
After a brief stint as a school teacher, Pritilata joined a revolutionary group headed by Surya Sen. She led a 15 man team of revolutionaries in a 1932 attack on the Pahartali European Club,[5][6] which had a sign board that read "Dogs and Indians not allowed". The revolutionaries torched the club and were later caught by the British police. To avoid getting arrested, Pritilata consumed cyanide and died.

Early life


Matriculation examination certificate of Pritilata

Early life

Pritilata was born to a middle-class family on 5 May 1911 in Dhalghat village in Patiya upazila of Chittagong (now in Bangladesh). Her parents were Jagabandhu Waddedar (father) and Pratibhamayi Devi (mother). Jagabandhu was a clerk in the Chittagong Municipality. Her mother Pratibhamayi Devi was a housewife. The couple had six children– Madhusduan, Pritilata, Kanaklata, Shantilata, Ashalata and Santosh. Pritilata was nicknamed Rani. Waddedar was a title conferred to an ancestor of the family who originally had the surname Dasgupta.
Jagabandhu tried to arrange best possible education for their children. He got Pritilata admitted in Dr. Khastagir Government Girls' School of Chittagong. Pritilata was a meritorious student. A teacher in the school, whom students affectionately used called Usha Di, used stories of Rani Lakshmibai to inspire nationalism in her students. Kalpana Datta, a classmate of Pritilata, writes in the biography Chittagong Armoury raiders– "We had no clear idea in our school days about our future. Then the Rani of Jhansi fired our imagination with her example. Sometimes we used to think of ourselves as fearless...".Arts and literature were Pritilata's favourite subjects. She passed out of Dr. Khastagir Government Girls' School in 1928 and in 1929, got admitted to the Eden College, Dhaka. In the Intermediate examinations, she stood first among all students who appeared in that year's examination from the Dhaka Board. As a student in Eden College, she participated in various social activities. She joined the group Sree Sangha, headed by Leela Nag, under the banner Dipali Sangha.

In Calcutta

To pursue higher education, Pritilata went to Calcutta (now Kolkata) and got admitted to the Bethune College. Two years later, she graduated in Philosophy from the college with a distinction. However, her degree was withheld by British authorities at Calcutta University. In 2012, she (and Bina Das) were conferred their certificates of merit posthumously.

As a school teacher

After completing her education in Calcutta, Pritilata returned to Chittagong. In Chittagong, she took up the job of a school teacher at a local English medium secondary school called Nandankanan Aparnacharan School. She was appointed as the first Headmistress of the school.

Revolutionary activities

Joining Surya Sen's revolutionary group

"Pritilata was young and courageous. She would work with a lot of zeal and was determined to drive the British away."
Binod Bihari Chowdhury, a contemporary revolutionary[18]
Pritilata decided to join the Indian freedom movement. Surya Sen had heard about her and wanted her to join their revolutionary group. On 13 June 1932, Pritilata met Surya Sen and Nirmal Sen in their Dhalghat camp. A contemporary revolutionary, Binod Bihari Chowdhury, objected that they did not allow women to join their group. However, Pritalata was allowed to join the group because the revolutionaries reasoned that women transporting weapons would not attract as much suspicion as men.

Inspiration from Ramkrishna Biswas

Surya Sen and his revolutionary group decided to kill Mr. Craig, Inspector General of Chittagong. Ramakrishna Biswas and Kalipada Chakravarty were assigned for this task. But they mistakenly killed SP of Chandpur and Traini Mukherjee instead of Craig. Ramakrishna Biswas and Kalipada Chakravarty were arrested on 2 December 1931. After the trial Biswas was ordered to be hanged till death and Chakravarty to be exiled to Cellular Jail.
The family and friends lacked the amount of money required to travel to Chittagong to Alipore Jail of Calcutta. Since at that time Pritilata was staying in Kolkata, she was asked to go to Alipore Jail and meet Ramkrishna Biswas.

Activities in Surya Sen's group

Along with the revolutionary group of Surya Sen, Pritilata took part in many raids like attacks on the Telephone & Telegraph offices and the capture of the reserve police line. In the Jalalabad battle, she took the responsibility to supply explosives to the revolutionaries.

Pahartali European Club attack (1932)


Pahartali European Club (current image), which was torched by the group of revolutionaries
In 1932, Surya Sen planned to attack the Pahartali European Club which had a signboard that read "Dogs and Indians not allowed".

 Surya Sen decided to appoint a woman leader for this mission. Kapana Datta was arrested seven days before the event. Because of this, Pritilata was assigned the leadership of the attack. Pritilata went to Kotowali Sea Side for arms training and made the plan of their attack there.
They decided to attack the club on 23 September 1932. The members of the group were given potassium cyanide and were told to swallow it if they were caught.
On the day of the attack, Pritilata dressed herself as a Punjabi male. Her associates Kalishankar Dey, Bireshwar Roy, Prafulla Das, Shanti Chakraborty wore dhoti and shirt. Mahendra Chowdhury, Sushil Dey and Panna Sen wore lungi and shirt.
They reached the club at around 10:45 PM and attacked the club. There were around 40 people inside the club then. The revolutionaries divided themselves into three separate groups for the attack. In the club, a few police officers who had revolvers started shooting. Pritilata incurred a single bullet wound. According to the police report, in this attack, one woman with a surname of Sullivan died and four men and seven women were injured.

Death


In this place Pritilata committed suicide. Now there is a plaque there in her memory
An injured Pritilata was trapped by the British police. In order to avoid arrest, she swallowed cyanide and committed suicide. On the next day police found her body and identified her. On searching her dead body police found a few leaflets, photograph of Ramkrishna Biswas, bullets, whistle and the draft of their plan of attack. After the post-mortem it was found that the bullet injury was not very serious and cyanide was the reason of her death.
The chief secretary of Bengal sent a report to British authorities in London. In the report it was written–

Pritilata had been closely associated with, if not actually the mistress of, the terrorist Biswas who was hanged for the murder of Inspector Tarini Mukherjee, and some reports indicate that she was the wife of Nirmal Sen who was killed while attempting to evade arrest of Dhalghat, where Captain Cameron fell.

Influence


A bust of Waddedar Pritilata Waddedar primary school, Chittagong
Bangladeshi writer Selina Hossain calls Pritilata an ideal for every woman. A trust named Birkannya Pritilata Trust (Brave lady Pritilata Trust) has been founded in her memory. Pritilata's birthday is celebrated by the trust in different places of Bangladesh and India every year. The trust considers her to be "a beacon of light for women". The last end of Sahid Abdus Sabur Road to Mukunda Ram Hat of Boalkhali upazila in Chittagong has been named as Pritilata Waddedar Road. In 2012, a bronze sculpture of Pritilata Waddedar and Suya Sen has been planned to be installed in front of Pahartali Railway School, adjacent to the historical European Club.

In popular media

See also

References

  1. ^ "Pritilata's 100th birthday today". The Daily Star. May 5, 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Pritilata Waddedar (1911-1932)". News Today. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  3. ^ a b "After 80 yrs, posthumous degrees for revolutionaries". The Times of India. Mar 22, 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  4. ^ Geraldine Forbes (28 April 1999). Women in Modern India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 140–. ISBN 978-0-521-65377-0. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  5. ^ "Remembering the Legendary Heroes of Chittagong". NIC. Retrieved 6 January 2013.
  6. ^ "Indian Independence". Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  7. ^ Craig A. Lockard (1 January 2010). Societies, Networks, and Transitions: A Global History: Since 1750. Cengage Learning. pp. 699–. ISBN 978-1-4390-8534-9. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  8. ^ a b "A fearless female freedom-fighter". The Daily Star. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  9. ^ "Pritilata’s birth anniversary observed at CU". New Age. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  10. ^ a b c "Agnijuger Agnikanya Pritilata". BDNews (Bengali). 5 May 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  11. ^ a b c d "The Fire-Brand Woman Of Indian Freedom Struggle.". Towards Freedom. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  12. ^ Pritilata (in Bengali). Prometheus er pothe. 2008. p. 15.
  13. ^ Kalpana Dutt (1979). Chittagong Armoury raiders: reminiscences. Peoples̕ Pub. House. p. 46. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  14. ^ Manini Chatterjee (1999). Do and die: the Chittagong uprising, 1930-34. Penguin Books. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-14-029067-7. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  15. ^ "Biography of Waddedar, Pritilata". Banglapedia. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  16. ^ S. S. Shashi (1996). Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Anmol Publications. p. 135. ISBN 978-81-7041-859-7. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  17. ^ "CCC plans to house 2 girls' schools in commercial complex". The Daily Star. January 31, 2009. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  18. ^ a b c d "A Long Walk to Freedom". The Daily Star. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  19. ^ Reva Chatterjee (2000). Netaji Subhas Bose. Ocean Books. pp. 2–. ISBN 978-81-87100-27-0. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
  20. ^ a b c d e Pal, Rupamay (1986). Surjo Sener Sonali Swapno. Kolkata: Deepayan. p. 162.
  21. ^ "80th death anniversary of Pritilata observed". News Age. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  22. ^ "Fortnightly Reports on Bengal, for the second half of September 1932, GOI Home Poll No. 18/1932". 1932. Missing or empty |url= (help); |accessdate= requires |url= (help)
  23. ^ "Contribution of Pritilata recalled". The Daily Star. June 1, 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  24. ^ "A beacon of light for women". The Daily Star. September 26, 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  25. ^ "Road named after Pritilata in Ctg". New Nation. 18 December 2012 Tuesday. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  26. ^ "Pritilata's bronze sculpture to be installed in port city". The Daily Star. October 2, 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  27. ^ "Young rebels". Business Standard. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  28. ^ "The veer Konna of Chittagong". The Telegraph (Calcutta). Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  29. ^ "Manoj Bajpayee, back in the limelight". Screen India. Retrieved 18 December 2012.


Beena Das (Bhowmick) (1911-1986)

Well-known in the history of Indian freedom fighting for daring attack on English Governor and University Chancellor Stanley Jackson, who was a symbol of a long and oppressive English colonial rule in India. The incident took place during the 1932 convocation of Calcutta University. Although she was unsuccessful, her act inspired many a young mind of those days. Beena Bhowmick’s father was Benee Madhab Das, the well-known educator of the Ravenshaw Collegiate School of Cuttack, Orissa. Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, another famous freedom fighter also studied in that school. Bhowmick was acquainted with Bose.
Bhowmick initially studied in the Bethune College in Kolkata, but later migrated to Diocesan College in order to ensure that her revolutionary activities remain unhindered. She passed the BA with honors in English, her daring attempt occurred during her own convocation ceremony. For this she was given 9 years of imprisonment with labor.
After her release in 1939, she joined the “Jugantar” revolutionary club. She was again imprisoned in 1942 for three years while she was the Secretary of Calcutta Congress Committee. In 1947 she married Jatish Bhowmick, a freedom fighter and a fellow member of Jugantar.
A true revolutionary spirit, her activities did not end with the Indian Independence in 1947. She aided Sheikh Mujibur Rahaman during his declaration of revolution in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) against a brutal and oppressive West Pakistan administration. This incident eventually precipitated into the full-scale Bangladesh war. Again in 1975 Mrs. Bhowmick spoke out against the Declaration of Emergency and suppression of personal rights by the then Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.     She personally witnessed and strongly protested against the police brutality on the refugees in Marichjh(n)api. A good writer, she penned two books, the autobiography “Shrinkhal Jhankar” and “Pitredhan”.
In a characteristic show of idealistic strength, she didn’t accept the “Freedom Fighters’ Pension” offered by the Government of India. After the death of her husband, she decided to live by herself in the Rishikesh (Himalaya), where she died within a month in a lonely condition.
12.Kanaklatha Baruah (1924-1942)

Indian National Congress in Mumbai on August 9,1942, resolved to ‘Do or die’ for Independence of the country and began agitation with ‘Quit India’ slogan against the British regime. Young and old, men and women, boys and girls, all fearlessly and wholeheartedly joined the movement. Among them was Kanaklatha Baruah.
She got an opportunity to fulfill her dream of serving the country. As soon as the ‘Quit India’ movement began the British rulers started arresting Congress leaders. Under the leadership of revolutionary Jyoti Prasad Agarwala, in the district of Darrang a resolution was adopted unanimously to hoist National flag at the court and police station, as they were the marks of British Empire. Being aware of women’s participation in the nation’s freedom struggle, Kanaklatha enrolled herself in the suicide squad. The day for peaceful and non-violent action was decided as September 20.
According to the programme, freedom fighters with National flag had to capture local police station. Four thousands people from Kalabari side and an equal number from Barangabari moved towards Gohpur police station. In the front line was Kanaklatha Baruah holding a National flag in her hands. She requested the officer in charge of the police station to allow her to hoist the flag at the western gate peacefully. The officer in charge ignored her request and threatened to shoot her, if she dared to proceed further. Firebrand Kanaklatha marched ahead and had to face the bullets of the strong police force. She laid down her life for the freedom of the country. Another instance of similar martyrdom was from the district of Nagaon. Berhampur in the district was also on fire of Quit India movement.
13.Nellie Sengupta (Gray)(1886-1973)

Nellie Sengupta was among the English Women who came to India to dedicate her life for its people. Though an outsider she proved herself as a true Indian patriot.
She was born on 12 January 1886 as the daughter of Frederick William Gray and Edith Henrietta Gray. While studying in England, she met Jatindra Mohan Sengupta an Indian patriot. They fell in love and were married. After her marriage, she adopted her husband’s  country as her own and associated sincerely with her husband’s work to letterate India from the bondage of British imperialism. Nellie abandoned the land of her birth and fought against the colonial rulers of her motherland for the sake of of her husband. She was a dedicated life partner who whole-heartedly sided with her brave husband on all occasions during their hours of happiness and sorrow. There was doubt among her in-laws whether she would be able to adjust herself in a joint Indian family. But soon Nellie dispelled this doubt by adjusting quickly to the Indian joint family life. They proved to be an ideal couple not only in family life but also in the political field. Her father in law was so impressed with her behavior that he wrote a letter to Nellie’s mother, that she was nothing but prize addition to his joint family and a worthy partner of his son.
She was the inspiring power behind all his activities in the political field. Mahatma Gandhi and Sarojini Naidu also inspired her.
During the non-cooperation movement she was arrested while selling khadi in Chittagong (now in Bangladesh). Thus she had to endure prison life for the cause of her husband. She helped her husband when he was involved in the strike of the Bengal Assam Railway men as well as steamer service workers in support of the tea plantation laborers who were stranded in Chandpur and were brutally tortured by the British police.
When the health of Jyotindra Mohan deteriorated, Nellie continued his political work. During the days of the Civil Disobedience Movement Nellie accompanied her husband on political tours to Delhi and Amritsar. Jatindra Mohan was arrested for delivering a political lecture. She purposely delivered a speech at a banned meeting in Delhi. She was arrested and put in prison for four months.
Nellie was elected Congress President in 1933. It was a recognition for her valuable contribution to the cause of India’s independence. Later Nellie was elected alderman of Calcutta (Kolkata) Corporation.
After the partition of India, she stayed in her husband’s paternal house. She devoted herself to social welfare work. She was elected unopposed to the East Pakistan(now Bangladesh) Legislative Assembly from Chittagong. She was brought to India for special medical treatment during the last days of her life. In spite of the best treatment made available, she breathed her last on October 23,1973.
14.Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya (3 April 1903- 29 October 1988)

Kamaladevi was born in a Saraswat family on 3 April 1903. But above everything, she is remembered for her phenomenal role in reviving the traditional handicrafts of India during the post independence era. Read on to know more about the life history of Kamaladevi Chattapadhya, whose father was the district collector of Mangalore, whereas her mother hailed from one of the wealthiest families of Karnataka.
Kamaladevi fought against social evils that restricted the development of women. She was an active member of the youth wing of INC (Indian National Congress). During partition, Kamaladevi set up co-operative societies and self-employment schemes to help refugees. She worked to revive traditional industries like weaving and handicrafts. As chief of the Board of Handicrafts, she started the pension system for craftsmen.
She was a trade-unionist, a revolutionary, a reformer, a great patron of arts, an accomplished writer, an orator, and a freedom fighter.
Belonging from an illustrious family, she got ample opportunity to meet the great freedom fighters and intellectuals of her time like Mahadev Govind Ranade, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Annie Besant, who being friends of her parents visited her home frequently. Such acquaintances bore great influence on Kamaladevi Chattapadhya, who became an early supporter of the nations’ swadeshi mission. She married at 14 and widowed two years later while still in school. Yet she went on to take up acting which was considered inapt for women in those days.
The life history of Kamaladevi Chattapadhya went on and she next wedded the poet-playwright brother Harindranath Chattapadhya of the great poetess, Sarojini Naidu in 1920. After this, she also acted in two silent movies. Later she shifted to London with her husband, where she enrolled into the Bedford College to study sociology. But the couple returned to India to participate in the nation-wide non-cooperation movement launched by Gandhiji in 1923. Thereafter, Kamaladevi joined the Seva Dal established to work for social upliftment of the downtrodden.
In her missionary zeal she championed the causes of women empowerment, education, handicraft, theater along with her contribution to the field of arts, crafts and writings.  In her pursuit and commitment she turned down many offers such as being nominated to the posts of the Vice President of India, Governor of Orissa or Tamilnadu, Ambassador in Cairo or Moscow.  She preferred instead to devote herself to social causes.  It was her courage displayed with a keen sense of humour that was extremely rewarding.
As a befitting tribute to a cultural icon of India one can conclude with the words of former President of India, R. Venkataraman, quoted , “Flower buds seemed to blossom at her touch-whether they be flower buds of human beings or institutions.  People became more human and more sensitive to the deeper impulses of society when they came into contact with her….”


Kalpana Datta (1913-1995)

Kalpana Joshi (Datta) a revolutionary, was born at Sripur of Chittagong district on 27 July 1913 in a middle-class family. Having matriculated in 1929 from Chittagong, Kalpana Datta went to Calcutta and joined the Bethune college. Greatly influenced by the examples set by the revolutionaries Kshatriya Basu and Kanailal Datta, she soon joined the Chhatri Sangha. Purnendu Dastidar drew her into the revolutionary circle of Mastarda Surya sen.
The Chittagong Armory Raid took place on 18 April 1930 and Kalpana hurried back to Chittagong and came in contact with Surya Sen in May 1931. In the meantime, many of the leaders of the Raid like Ananta Singh, Ganesh Ghosh and Loknath Bal had been arrested and were awaiting trial.
Kalpana was entrusted with the safe carrying of heavy explosive materials from Calcutta. She also secretly prepared ‘gun-cotton’ and planned to plant a dynamite fuse under the court building and inside the jail to free the revolutionary leaders, who were being tried in a special Tribunal.
The plot was uncovered and certain restrictions were imposed on Kalpana’s movements. She, however, managed to visit regularly the village of Surya Sen, sometimes even at dead of night. She also used to have regular training in revolver shooting, along with her comrade pritilata waddedar.
In September 1931 Surya Sen decided to entrust Kalpana and Preetilata with a plan to attack the European Club at Chittagong. A week before the action Kalpana was arrested while moving out for a survey work in a boy’s attire. While in jail, she was told about the Pahartali action and the heroic suicide of Preetilata. Being released on bail, she went underground at the bidding of Surya Sen and in the early hours of 17 February 1933 the police encircled their hideout. Surya Sen was captured while Kalpana, along with Manindra Datta, escaped.
On 19 May 1933 Kalpana, with some comrades, was arrested. In the second supplementary trial of Chittagong Armory Raid case, Surya Sen and Tarakeswar Dastidar were sentenced to death, and Kalpana was sentenced to transportation for life. Being released in 1939 she graduated from the Calcutta University in 1940. Soon she joined the CPI and resumed her battle against the British rule. She turned Kalpana Joshi in 1943 when she married PC Joshi, the leader of the CPI. She went back to Chittagong and organised the Kisans’ and women’s fronts of the party. In 1946 she contested, though unsuccessfully, in the elections to the Bengal Legislative Assembly. After 1947 she migrated to India and resigned from active politics.
Kalpana Datta breathed her last at New Delhi on 8 February 1995.


Matangini Hazra (1869-1942)

Was an Indian revolutionary who participated in the Indian independence movement until she was shot dead by the British Indian police in front of the Tamluk Police Station (of erstwhile Midnapore District) on September 29, 1942. She was affectionately known as Gandhi buri, Bangla for old lady Gandhi.
Matangini Hazra, who was 73 years at the time, led a procession of six thousand supporters, mostly women volunteers, with the purpose of taking over the Tamluk police station. When the procession reached the outskirts of the town, they were ordered to disband under Section 144 of the Indian Penal Code by the Crown police. As she stepped forward, Matangini Hazra was shot once. Apparently, she had stepped forward and was appealing to the police not to shoot at the crowd.
The Biplabi newspaper of the parallel Tamluk National Government commented:
“” Matangini led one procession from the north of the criminal court building; even after the firing commenced, she continued to advance with the tri-colour flag, leaving all the volunteers behind. The police shot her three times. She continued marching despite wounds to the forehead and both hands. “”
As she was repeatedly shot, she kept chanting Vande Mataram, translating as “hail to the Motherland”. She died with the flag of the Indian National Congress held high and still flying.


Begum Hazrath Mahal (1879)

Begum Hazrat Mahal was the wife of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, Hazrat Mahal was known as the Begum of Avadh (Oudh). She was stunning beautiful, and used her courage and leadership qualities to rebel against the British East India Company during the First Indian War of Independence.
After her husband had been sent away in exile to Calcutta, she with the cooperation of a zealous hand of supporters like Sarafaddaulah, Bal Krishna, Raja Jai Lal and  Mammon Khan worked incessantly to revive the fortunes of Avadh. She seized control of Lucknow in association with the revolutionary forces and set up her son, Prince Birjis Qadir, as the ruler of Avadh, Hazrat Mahal worked in association with Nana Saheb but later escaped from Lucknow and joined the Maulavi of Faizabad in the attack on Sahajahanpur. She was driven from pillar to post, but she made her retreat with fortitude. She rejected with the contempt the promises of allowance and status held out to her by the British against whom her hatred was unrelenting. In the end after bearing misfortune and misery throughout the period of resistance, she found asylum in Nepal where she died in 1879.


.Rani Avanti Bai (1831-1858)

Rani Avantibai was born on 16/08/1831.When Vikramaditya Singh, the ruler of Ramgarh State died leaving behind his wife Avantibai and no heir to the throne, the British put the state under court administration. Avantibai vowed to win back her land from the British. She raised an army of four thousand men and led it herself against the British in 1857. A fierce battle ensured and Avantibai fought most valiantly but could not hold out for long against the superior strength of the British army. When her defeat become imminent she killed herself with her own sword and English army couldn’t defeat her in her life. Later Rani Avantibia’s sacrifice became a example to the Lodhian kingdom and became history of the fight for freedom on 20-03-1858. She was a great freedom fighter.


.Kittur Rani Chennamma (1778-1829)

Kitturu Rani Chennamma was the queen of the princely state of Kittur in Karnataka. In 1824, 33 years before the 1857 war of independence, she led an armed rebellion against the British in response to the Doctrine of lapse. The resistance ended in her martyrdom and she is remembered today as one of the earliest Indian rulers to have fought for independence. Along with Abbakka Rani, Keladi Chennamma and Onake Obavva she is much venerated in Karnataka as an icon of bravery and women’s pride.

Kittur Rani Chennamma : Earliest ruler to fight British rule

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Rani Chennamma : Valiant Queen who fought against British
Rani Chennamma : Valiant Queen who fought against British
 “She did not step back looking at the mighty army of British,
but fought with great vigour, expertise skill and courage.”

Index


Introduction of Rani Chennamma

Rani Chennamma was the first woman independence activist of Bharat. She stood all alone with a vibrant fiery eye against the British Empire. Rani Chennamma did not succeed in driving them away, but she did provoke many women to rise against the British rule. She was Chennamma Queen of the princely state Kittur in Karnataka. Today she is well known as Kittur Rani Chennamma. Let us take a few steps back in history to know more about her.

Early Life

Rani Chennamma was born in Kakati (a small village in north of Belgaum in Karnataka), in 1778 that is almost 56 years earlier than Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi. From a very young age she received training in horse riding, sword fighting and archery. She was well known for her brave acts across her town.

Rani Chennamma was married to Mallasarja Desai, ruler of Kittur at the age of 15. Her married life seemed to be a sad tale after her husband died in 1816. With this marriage she had only one son, but fate seemed to play a tragic game in her life. Her son breathed his last in 1824, leaving the lonely soul to fight against the British rule.

Queen Chennamma during the British rule

The Doctrine of Lapse was imposed on native states by the British. Under this declaration, native rulers were not allowed to adopt a child if they had no children of their own. Their territory formed part of the British Empire automatically.

The state of Kittur came under the administration of Dharwad collectorate in charge of Mr. Thackeray. Mr. Chaplin was the commissioner of the region. Both did not recognize the new ruler and the regent, and informed that Kittur had to accept the British regime.

War against the British

Rani Chennamma and the local people opposed strongly British high handedness. Thackeray invaded Kittur. In the battle that ensued, hundreds of British soldiers were killed along with Thackeray.

The humiliation of defeat at the hands of a small ruler was too much for the British to swallow. They brought in bigger armies from Mysore and Sholapur and surrounded Kittur.

Rani Chennamma tried her best to avoid war; she negotiated with Chaplin and Governor of Bombay Presidency under whose regime Kittur fell. It had no effect. Chennamma was compelled to declare war. For 12 days, the valiant Queen and her soldiers defended their fort, but as is the common trait, traitors sneaked in and mixed mud and dung in the gunpowder in the canons. The Rani was defeated (1824 CE). She was taken a prisoner and kept in the fort of Bailhongal for life. She spent her days reading holy texts and performing pooja till her death in 1829 CE.

Kittur Rani Chennamma could not win the war against British, but she etched her presence for many centuries in the world of history. Along with Onake Obavva, Abbakka Rani and Keladi Chennamma, she is much revered in Karnataka as an icon of bravery.

Rani Chennamma has become a legend. During the freedom movement, her brave resistance to British formed theme of plays, songs, and song stories. Folk songs or lavanis were a legion and freedom struggle got a good boost through singing bards who moved throughout the region.

It is heartening news that a statue of Kittur Chennamma was installed in the Parliamentary Building premises at New Delhi on 11th September 2007. It is the most fitting tribute to a brave queen, who was the earliest ruler in Bharat to fight the British rule.

Freedom fighter Accamma Cherian


Accamma Cherian

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

ACCamma Cherian
Akkamma Cherian.jpg
Born Accamma Cherian
14 February 1909
Kanjirapally, Travancore
Died 5 May 1982
Thiruvananthapuram
Nationality Indian
Known for Freedom fighter
Political party Travancore State Congress
Religion Catholic (St. Thomas Christian)
Spouse(s) V. V. Varkey
Parents Thomman Cherian and Annamma
Accamma Cherian was a freedom fighter from the erstwhile Travancore (Kerala), India. She was popularly known as the Jhansi Rani of Travancore.[3]
Early life and education She was born on 14 February 1909 at Kanjirapally, Travancore, as the second daughter of Thomman Cherian and Annamma Karippaparambil. She was educated at Government Girls High School, Kanjirapally and St. Joseph's High School, Changanacherry. She earned a B.A. in History from St. Teresa's College, Ernakulam.
After completing her education in 1931, she worked as a teacher at St. Mary's English Medium School, Kanjirapally), where she later became head mistress. She worked in this institution for about six years, and during this period she also did her L. T. degree from Trivandrum Training College.

Freedom fighter

In February 1938, the Travancore State Congress was formed and Accamma gave up her teaching career in order to join the struggle for liberty.Under the State Congress, the people of Travancore started an agitation for a responsible government. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar, the Dewan of Travancore, decided to suppress the agitation. On 26 August 1938, he banned the State Congress which then organized a civil disobedience movement. Prominent State Congress leaders including its President Pattom A. Thanu Pillai were arrested and put behind bars. The State Congress then decided to change its method of agitation. Its working committee was dissolved and the president was given dictatorial powers and the right to nominate his successor. Eleven ‘dictators’ (Presidents) of the State Congress were arrested one by one. Kuttanad Ramakrishna Pillai, the eleventh dictator, before his arrest nominated Accamma Cherian as the twelfth dictator.
Accamma Cherian led a mass rally from Thampanoor to the Kowdiar Palace of the Maharaja Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma to revoke a ban on State Congress.[4] The agitating mob also demanded the dismissal of the Dewan, C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar, against whom the State Congress leaders had leveled several charges. The British police chief ordered his men to fire on the rally of over 20,000 people . Accamma Cherian cried, "I am the leader; shoot me first before you kill others". Her courageous words forced the police authorities to withdraw their orders. On hearing the news M. K. Gandhi hailed her as ‘The Jhansi Rani of Travancore’. She was arrested and convicted for violating prohibitory orders in 1939.
In October 1938, the working committee of the State Congress directed Accamma Cherian to organize the Desasevika Sangh (Female Volunteer Crops). She toured various centers and appealed to the women to join as members of the Desasevika Sangh.
The first annual conference of the State Congress was held at Vattiyoorkavu on 22 and 23 December 1938 in spite of the ban orders. Almost all leaders of the State Congress were arrested and imprisoned. Accamma, along with her sister Rosamma Punnose (also a freedom fighter, M.L.A., and a C.P.I. leader from 1948), was arrested and jailed on 24 December 1939. They were sentenced to a year's imprisonment. They were insulted and threatened in the jail. Due to the instruction given by the jail authorities, some prisoners used abusing and vulgar words against them. This matter was brought to the notice of M.K. Gandhi by Pattom A. Thanu Pillai. C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar, however, denied it. Accamma’s brother, K. P. Varkey, also took part in freedom movement.
Accamma, after her release from jail, became a full-time worker of the State Congress. In 1942, she became its Acting President. In her presidential address, she welcomed the Quit India Resolution passed at the historic Bombay session of the Indian National Congress on 8 August 1942. She was arrested and awarded one year imprisonment. In 1946, she was arrested and imprisoned for six months for violating ban orders. In 1947, she was again arrested as she raised her voice against C. P. Ramaswami Aiyar’s desire for an independent Travancore.

Accamma Cheriyan (Malayalam),ISBN 978-81-237-4913-6

Life in Independent India

In 1947, after independence, Accamma was elected unopposed to the Travancore Legislative Assembly from Kanjirapally. In 1951, she married V.V. Varkey, a freedom fighter and a member of Travancore Cochin Legislative Assembly. They had one son, George V. Varkey, an engineer. In the early 1950s, she resigned from the Congress Party after being denied a Lok Sabha ticket and in 1952, she unsuccessfully contested the parliamentary election from Cochin-Meenachil as an independent. In the early 1950s, when the parties ideologies were changing, she quit politics.[4] Her husband V. V. Varkey Mannamplackal,Chirakkadavu. served as an MLA in the Kerala Legislative Assembly from 1952–54. In 1967, she contested the Assembly election from Kanjirapally as a Congress candidate but was defeated by the Communist Party's candidate. Later, she served as a member of the Freedom Fighters’ Pension Advisory Board.

Death and commemoration

Accamma Cherian died on May 5, 1982. A statue was erected in her memory in Vellayambalam, Thiruvananthapuram. A documentary film was made on her life by Sreebala K. Menon.




 RELATED NEWS:-  Rosamma Punnoose(YOUNGER SISTER OF ACCAMMA)  
FREEDOM FIGHTER
 - 
CLICK:-http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/thiruvananthapuram/Rosamma-Punnoose

References 

  മലബാര്‍ ജാഥ തിരുവിതാംകൂറിനെ പിടിച്ചുകുലുക്കിയ കാലംclick and read;-  http://www.mathrubhumi.com/paramparyam/story.php?id=402483http://www.mathrubhumi.com/paramparyam/story.php?id=402483

 

  1. ^ "ROLE OF WOMEN IN KERALA POLITICS REFORMS AMENDMENT ACT 1969 A STUDY IN SOCIAL CHANGE". Journal of Kerala Studies. University of Kerala. 1985. p. 21.
  2. ^ Who is who of Freedom Fighters in Kerala. K. Karunakaran Nair. 1975. p. 89.
  3. ^ "Status of Kerala Women". Archived from the original on 26 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-30.[dead link]
  4. ^ a b c "When friends become statues". tehelka.com. January 20 , 2007. Retrieved 2008-11-06.
  5. ^ The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India. 1977. pp. 413, 503.
  6. ^ "Emergence of nationalism". Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  7. ^ Freedom Fighters Remember. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Govt. of India. 1997. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-230-0575-1.
  8. ^ The Indian States Problem. Navajivan press. p. 167.
  9. ^ Political and National Life and Affairs By Gandhi. Navajivan Pub. House. 1967. pp. 186, 322.
  10. ^ "Road users at the receiving end". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 15 March 2006. Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  11. ^ "‘Remembering the eminent'". Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  12. ^ "Docufest". Retrieved 2008-10-30.
  13. ^ "`Docufest' to begin tomorrow". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 3 October 2005. Retrieved 2008-10-30.


India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures

Police charge demonstrators at the Esplanade Maidan in Bombay with lathis. The protest was organised by the National Congress Party. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images) Getty Images

Read more at: http://ibnlive.in.com/photogallery/4615-20.html?utm_source=ref_article
British Police lathi charge women demonstrators at the Esplanade Maidan in Bombay with lathis. The protest was organised by the National Congress Party.[1930's]
Police charge demonstrators at the Esplanade Maidan in Bombay with lathis. The protest was organised by the National Congress Party. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images) Getty Images

Read more at: http://ibnlive.in.com/photogallery/4615-20.html?utm_source=ref_article

India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures It is 65 years since India's freedom at midnight. We take a look at the struggle that led to the moment in pictures most have not seen before. In this picture, on August 17, 1960 Indian prime minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) addresses the crowd in Delhi, on the occasion of India's 14th Independence day. Above him flies the national flag of India. Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures India has been home to several ancient civilisations and empires, some dating back to more than 2,000 BC. Culture and religions have flourished over the millennia, and foreign influence has ebbed and flowed. The image above shows the repulse of a sortie during the Siege of Delhi, a conflict of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The rebels advance on a British battery, who repel them with swords, bayonets and rifles. A lithograph by E Walker, after a drawing by Captain GF Atkinson. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures The mutiny of 1857 was the first anti-British agitation on Indian soil. In the image above, British troops in Delhi during the 'Indian Rebellion of 1857'. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures The mutiny was a revolution of sorts. The image shows a scene from the battle at Cawnpore (Kanpur) where an entire British garrison, including women and children, was wiped out in 1857 during the Indian Mutiny. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures In this 1857 image, Indian soldiers (sepoys) of the Bengal army of the British East India Company are seen rebelling in a battle scene during the Indian Mutiny (1857 - 1859). Original Artwork: Engraving entitled - Defeat Of The Sealkote Mutineers By General Nicholson's Column (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures In 1858, India comes under direct rule of the British crown after a failed Indian mutiny. After their capture of Delhi the Indian mutineers lost the city to British forces who extracted swift reprisals by hanging the leaders. Two of them are hanging from a gallows. (Photo by Felice Beato/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures In 1857, disarmament of the 26th Indian regiment at Barrackpore during the Indian Mutiny. Illustration - WHD (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures 1857: British soldiers storming Delhi during the Indian Mutiny. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures The rebellion by the soldiers had shaken the foreign rulers. They stubbed it out with vengeance. In the image above, in 1857 holding the dead body of his wife, Major Skene shoots himself as Indian soldiers close in on him during the Indian Mutiny at Jhansi, India. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures The final spark was provided by the rumoured use of cow and pig fat in the newly-introduced Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle cartridges. Soldiers had to bite the cartridges with their teeth before loading them into their rifles, and the reported presence of cow and pig fat was offensive to both Hindu and Muslim soldiers. Indian soldiers at an army barracks during the Indian Mutiny, 1857. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures Under the Government of India Act 1858, the Company was deprived of its involvement in ruling India, with its territory being transferred to the direct authority of the British government. circa 1880: The soldiers of the Indian army who constitute the Viceroy of India's bodyguard. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures A group of officers present at the Siege of Delhi during the Indian Rebellion, 1857. From left to right, Surgeon Campbell Brown, Captain Chesney, Major A Bunny BHA, Colonel Ewart AAG, Colonel D Stewart DAG, Captain Tytler, Major R Lawrence, Major General Welchman CB, Captain H Hayley BNI, Captain Gully, Captain Wauchope, B Arty, Colonel H Norman, Major Maisey DJA, Major H Vicars, Major J, Hills VC, Surgeon Scott, Captain K Coghill, Captain A Lindsay, Captain M Elliott, Major F Roberts VC (1832 - 1914), Brigadier General J Brind CB, Captain R Pemberton and Major M Sankey. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures The 1857 mutiny by Indian soldiers, then called 'sepoys', led to significant change in how India was to be controlled by the British. In this image from circa 1915, Indian signallers from the 1st Regiment of Bombay Infantry keep watch from a hillside lookout post and relay their sightings to the troops. (Photo by Bremner/Fox Photos/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures A poster for an exhibition of 'Hamilton's New Overland Route to India' at the Egyptian Hall in London, 1876. The route encompasses Paris, Mount Cenis, Brindisi and the Suez Canal. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures Circa 1900: In front of a temple a crowd watches a widow at her husband's funeral as she prepares for 'suttee', whereby a widow of a dead man commits suicide by throwing herself on his funeral pyre. (Photo by Henry Guttmann/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures Besides spices and cloth, opium was one of the major exports of the Empire. This 1882 image shows the Sino-Indian opium trade. Scenes from an opium factory at Patna, culminating in the opium fleet descending the Ganges on its way to Calcutta. Original Publication: The graphic published July 8, 1882 (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures Life in India for the foreigners was one long extended summer holiday. King George V inspects the day's kill after a tiger hunt in India during his royal visit to celebrate his accession to the throne. Original Artwork: From the 'King Emperor's Indian Durbar Tour of 1911 -1912' (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures A page from the Illustrated London News of 14th August 1897 covering the uprisings against British rule in the Swat Valley, north-west India (now Pakistan). Illustrations show the British army's encampments in the area, as well as Chakdara Fort and the bridge over the swat river (bottom right) and members of the 45th Sikh regiment (centre, right). (Photo by Illustrated London News/Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures Followers of Mahatma Gandhi, in 1922, burned down a police station at Chauri Chaura which claimed the lives of 23 Police officers.(Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Getty Images India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures Police charge demonstrators at the Esplanade Maidan in Bombay with lathis. The protest was organised by the National Congress Party. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)

Read more at: http://ibnlive.in.com/photogallery/4615-20.html?utm_source=ref_article

India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures

Police confront Indian protesters in Bombay after a meeting of the
National Congress at Esplanade Maidan was banned. An argument about the ownership of the esplanade ensued and soon escalated into a small  battle, the police defeating the unarmed Congress volunteers, women and  children, by beating them with heavy lathis


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The 'first woman freedom fighter of India'. Rani abbakka of ullal -mangalore

 CLICK AND READ:-http://pazhayathu.blogspot.in/2014/01/the-first-woman-freedom-fighter-of.html

The 'first woman freedom fighter of India'. Rani abbakka of ullal -mangalore

Rani Abbakka, the Ullal queen who fought against the Portuguese rule five centuries ago --


Abbakka Chowta
Rani of Ullal
Queen Abbakka.jpg
Pietro Della Valle meets Queen Abbakka Rani
Reign 1525 – ?? 1570s
Predecessor Tirumala Raya Chowta
Consort Banga Lakshmappa Arasa
Royal House Chowta
Religious beliefs Jain, Kshatriya, Bunt

Rani Abbakka Chowta was the Queen of Ullal who fought the Portuguese in the latter half of the 16th century. She belonged to the Chowta dynasty who ruled over parts of coastal Karnataka (Tulu Nadu), India. Their capital was Puttige. The port town of Ullal served as their subsidiary capital. The Portuguese made several attempts to capture Ullal as it was strategically placed. But Abbakka repulsed each of their attacks for over four decades. For her bravery, she came to be known as Abhaya Rani (The fearless queen).She was also one of the earliest Indians to fight the colonial powers and is sometimes regarded as the 'first woman freedom fighter of India'.

Early life


The Chowtas who were Jain Digambara followed the system of matrilineal inheritance (Aliyasantana) by which Tirumala Raya, Abbakka's uncle, crowned her the queen of Ullal. He also forged a matrimonial alliance for Abbakka with Lakshmappa Arasa, the powerful king of neighbouring Mangalore. This alliance was to later prove a source of worry for the Portuguese. Tirumala Raya also trained Abbakka in the different aspects of warfare and military strategy. The marriage, however was short lived and Abbakka returned to Ullal. Her husband thus longed for revenge against Abbakka and was to later join the Portuguese in their fight against Abbakka

Historical background

After overrunning Goa and taking control of it, the Portuguese turned their attention southwards and along the coast. They first attacked the South Kanara coast in 1525 and destroyed the Mangalore port. Ullal was a prosperous port and a hub of the spice trade to Arabia and other countries in the west. Being the profitable trading center that it was, the Portuguese, the Dutch and the British vied with one another for control of the region as well as the trade routes. They however, had not been able to make much headway as the resistance from the local chieftains was very strong. The local rulers even forged alliances cutting across caste and religion lines.
Though Abbakka was a Jain by faith, her administration was well represented by Hindus and Muslims. Her army too consisted of people of all sects and castes. She even forged alliances with the Zamorin of Calicut. Together, they kept the Portuguese at bay. The marital ties with the neighbouring Banga dynasty added further strength to the alliance of the local rulers. She also gained support from powerful king Venkatappanayaka of Bidnur and ignored the threat of Portuguese forces.

Battles against the Portuguese

Portuguese carrack

 

The Portuguese, clearly upset by Abbakka's tactics, demanded that she pay them tribute but Abbakka refused to yield. In 1555, the Portuguese sent Admiral Dom Álvaro da Silveira to fight her after she refused to pay them tribute. In the battle that followed, Rani Abbakka once again managed to hold her own and repulsed the attack successfully.
In 1557, the Portuguese plundered Mangalore and laid it waste. In 1568, they turned their attention to Ullal but Abbakka Rani resisted them yet again. João Peixoto, a Portuguese general and a fleet of soldiers were sent by the Portuguese Viceroy António Noronha. They managed to capture the city of Ullal and also entered the royal court. Abbakka Rani, however, escaped and took refuge in a mosque. The same night, she gathered around 200 of her soldiers and mounted an attack on the Portuguese. In the battle that ensued, General Peixoto was killed, seventy Portuguese soldiers were taken prisoners and many of the Portuguese retreated. In further attacks, Abbakka Rani and her supporters killed Admiral Mascarenhas and the Portuguese were also forced to vacate the Mangalore fort.
In 1569 however, the Portuguese not only regained the Mangalore fort but also captured Kundapur (Basrur). Despite these gains, Abbakka Rani continued to remain a source of threat. With the help of the queen's estranged husband, they mounted attacks on Ullal. Furious battles followed but Abbakka Rani held her own. In 1570, she formed an alliance with the Bijapur Sultan of Ahmed Nagar and the Zamorine of Calicut, who were also opposing the Portuguese. Kutty Pokar Marikar, the Zamorine's general fought on behalf of Abbakka and destroyed the Portuguese fort at Mangalore but while returning he was killed by the Portuguese. Following these losses and her husband's treachery, Abbakka lost the war, was arrested and jailed. However, even in prison she revolted and died fighting.

Carracks of the PORTUGUESE SHIPS-India Armada of 1507, from the Livro de Lisuarte de Abreu
First Attack

The first attack by the Portuguese in south Kanara coast was in 1525, when they destroyed the Mangalore port. Rani Abbakka was alerted by the incident and started preparing herself to protect her kingdom.
Second Attack

The Portuguese, clearly upset by Abbakka's tactics, demanded that she pay them tribute but Abbakka refused to yield. In 1555, the Portuguese sent Admiral Dom Álvaro da Silveira to fight her after she refused to pay them tribute. In the battle that followed, Rani Abbakka once again managed to hold her own and repulsed the attack successfully.
Third Attack
In 1557, the Portuguese plundered Mangalore and laid it waste.

In 1558 the Portuguese Army perpetrated another wanton cruelty on Mangalore, putting to death a number of men and women, both young and old, plundering a temple, burning ships and finally setting the city itself on fire.
Fourth Attack
Again, in 1567, the Portuguese army attacked Ullal, showering death and destruction. The great Queen Abbakka resisted it.
Fifth Attack
In 1568, João Peixoto, a Portuguese general and a fleet of soldiers where sent by the Portuguese Viceroy António Noronha. They managed to capture the city of Ullal and also entered the royal court. Abbakka Rani, however, escaped and took refuge in a mosque. The same night, she gathered around 200 of her soldiers and mounted an attack on the Portuguese. In the battle that ensued, General Peixoto was killed,seventy Portuguese soldiers were taken prisoners and many of the Portuguese retreated. In further attacks, Abbakka Rani and her supporters killed Admiral Mascarenhas and the Portuguese were also forced to vacate the Mangalore fort.
Sixth Attack
In 1569 however, the Portuguese not only regained the Mangalore fort but also captured Kundapur (Basrur). Despite these gains, Abbakka Rani continued to remain a source of threat. With the help of the queen's estranged husband, they mounted attacks on Ullal. Furious battles followed but Abbakka Rani held her own. In 1570, she formed an alliance with the Bijapur Sultan of Ahmed Nagar and the Zamorine of Calicut, who where also opposing the Portuguese. Kutty Pokar Markar, the Zamorine's general fought on behalf of Abbakka and destroyed the Portuguese fort at Mangalore but while returning he was killed by the Portuguese. Following these losses and her husband's treachery, Abbakka lost the war, was arrested and jailed. However, even in prison she revolted and died fighting.

Folklore and legend

According to traditional accounts, she was an immensely popular queen and this is also attested by the fact that she is even today a part of folklore. The queen's story has been retold from generation to generation through folk songs and Yakshagana, a popular folk theatre in [Coastal Karnataka]. In Bhuta Kola, a local ritual dance, the persona in trance recounts the great deeds of Abbakka Mahadevi. Abbakka is portrayed as dark and good looking, always dressed in simple clothes like a commoner. She is portrayed as a caring queen who worked late into the night dispensing justice. Legends also claim that Abbakka was the last known person to have the used the Agnivana (fire-arrow) in her fight against the Portuguese. Some accounts also claim that she had two equally valiant daughters who fought alongside her in her wars against the Portuguese. Tradition however treats all three - mother and two daughters as the same person.

Memory

Abbakka's memory is much cherished in her home town of Ullal. The "Veera Rani Abbakka Utsava"


 
India is the gorgeous and democratic country in which people are offered with freedom. Only in India, people of different religions are living together. Unity in diversity concept suits well for the Indian nation. For many years people of India were subjected to torture under the British, French, Dutch and Portuguese people. Many people fought for freedom of nation. They shed their blood, lost their family members, faced uncountable difficulties in prison, and so on. The troubles faced by Indian freedom fighters cannot be explained just through words.

Accamma Cherian - Jhansi Rani of Travancore

Akkamma_Cherian
Accamma Cherian is one of the iron lady of Kerala. She studied well and joined in a middle school, as teacher. Her hard work promoted her as a headmistress, in which school she worked as teacher. At one stage, activities of Portuguese and British became malicious. They crossed their boundary levels and started to torture the people without pity. This event created fire inside her. Immediately, she resigned her job and participated in freedom struggle events. On 1938, National congress party was banned in Kerala. To convey the opposition for this act, she collected the people and directed a rally from Thampanoor to the Kowdiar Palace of kerala. British government announced the firing order for this doings. She requested them to kill her first. This made the British police to put off the shooting order. For this activity, she was named as the Jhansi Rani of Travancore by Mahatma Gandhi. This is just a simple sample to tell about her affection towards nation. Until her death she fought against the people, who worked opposite to the Indian nation.

Before Independence, Pakistan is also part of India. Kerala is one of the cutest states in India during ancient time, now and forever. People from this area actively took part in the freedom struggle. Despite of gender both female and male participated in various events in opposite to the Portuguese, who ruled the Kerala state. They are not only fought against the Portuguese, but also against the cruel acts of the British people.

A V Kuttimalu Amma

A V Kuttimalu Amma
A V Kuttimalu Amma is one of the noteworthy Kerala freedom fighter. Being a lady, she opposed the foreign people with brave. She united many women together and raised flag against the Portuguese. She asked Kerala people to not wear the foreign clothes. She was arrested for Civil-Disobedience Movement and Quit India Movement. She went to jail with her two month old baby, as she took part in the Civil-Disobedience Movement.

Only few names of Kerala freedom fighters are made public. But, countless number of people took part actively in the freedom struggle. Even though their name has not been mentioned in any record, they selfless sacrifice should be praised. As the Indian citizen we should respect the sacrifice of the people, who fought for freedom of India. If just mosquito bites we feel pain. Then think about the harsh punishments that were given by the British government to our Indians. British government did not grant freedom for India just like that. Behind this act, death and sacrifice of million people are there. Even after getting freedom, Indian soldiers are fighting against the enemies to protect our nation. Many Kerala people are serving as soldiers and army officers in Indian army.

N. P. Nayar and Ammu Swaminadhan

Ammu Swaminadhan
N. P. Nayar and Ammu Swaminadhan are few leaders of Kerala, who fought for freedom of India. N.P Nayar is the disciple of Subash Chandra bose. He participated in freedom movements, as per the style of bose. Many times he was arrested by the British people and put in the jail. Ammu Swaminadhan is one of the eminent freedom fighter of Kerala. She followed principles of Mahatma Gandhi and participated in freedom struggle without violence. This made het to occupy good place in hearts of people of Kerala. She is an active member of Constituent Assembly of India and Rajya sabha.

It is responsibility of each and every citizen to preserve the freedom of our country, which was given to us by our ancestors. Let us remember the selfless sacrifice of freedom strugglers' atleast on the Independence Day.

Jai Hind!!