TRAVANCORE WAR WITH TIPU SULTAN OF MYSORE ;TIPU DEFEATED TWICE BY TRAVANCORE NAIR SOLDIERS 1790A.D.


TIPU SULTAN'S MYSORE EMPIRE ON TRAVANCORE'S NORTHERN BORDER





TIPU'S INVASION OF TRAVANCORE
Travancore had an alliance (Treaty of Mangalore) with the English Company according to which "an aggression against Travancore would be viewed as equivalent to declaration of war against the English" (p. 566).

Kingdom of Travancore
Part of History of Kerala
Flag of Travancore
Travancore Kings
Marthanda Varma1729–1758
Dharma Raja1758–1798
Balarama Varma1798–1810
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi1810–1815
Gowri Parvati Bayi1815–1829
Swathi Thirunal1829–1846
Uthram Thirunal1846–1860
Ayilyam Thirunal1860–1880
Visakham Thirunal1880–1885
Moolam Thirunal1885–1924
Sethu Lakshmi Bayi1924–1931
Chithira Thirunal1931–1949
‡ Regent Queens
Capitals
Padmanabhapuram1729–1795
Thiruvananthapuram1795–1949
Palaces
Padmanabhapuram Palace
Kilimanoor palace
Kuthira Malika
Kowdiar Palace



The Dutch who were afraid of Tipu also agreed to transfer the Kodungallur Fort to Travancore, mainly as a strategy to involve the more powerful British in case of war with Travancore on that account. Since Cochin was considered a tributary to Mysore,

Tipu objected to the transfer of Kodungallur Fort

Relics of Cranganore Fort



Nair soldier,an old picture


which was part of Cochin territory before its occupation by the Dutch. Therefore, Tipu Sultan demanded of Travancore to (i) allow free access to Kodungallur because the Travancore defence line had stretched and passed through Cochin territory, and (ii) surrender all Hindu Rajas and nobles from Malabar who had taken refuge in Travancore.

Dharma Raja of travancore


raja kesavadas
But the demand was rejected. That was his pretext for waging a war against the Travancore State. In the meantime, the Cochin Raja, who was under the guidance and protection of the weak Dutch, openly shook off his tributary links with Tipu and aligned with Travancore after the firm offer of support and protection by the British. It may be noted here that Tipu never fought against the British in Kerala.

He fought mainly against the Hindu Rajas.
His hostilities against the British were stepped up only when his ally, the French, waged wars against the British in Europe or his own kingdom was threatened.

TIPU CRIPPLED AND DEFEATED
The Travancore Raja replied to Tipu explaining that he did what he did as per the advice of the British . That provoked Tipu. He launched an attack against Travancore but was defeated in January, 1790. According to Mr. Powney who was the Resident Representative of the English Company in Travancore, Tipu's attack was not only effectively stopped by the Travancore army, Tipu himself fell down from the rampart, was seriously wounded, and was rendered permanently lame during the counter-attack by the Travancore forces.

Tipu and his army were camping on the banks of the Alwaye river before launching the attack on the Travancore defence lines (Nedunkotta Fort).
(Nedunkotta Fort).
The relics of the entrance of travancore lines-


The Travancore army was no match for the huge Mysore army and the monsoon season was four or five months away.

Therefore, under the guidance of Raja Kesavadas, the Prime Minister of Travancore, a temporary bund was constructed way up on the stream by a team headed by Kalikutty Nair.

When the Mysore army launched its assault and Nedunkotta was penetrated, the temporary bund was breached in the midst of heavy fighting, causing an unexpected flood which drowned many Mysore soldiers and rendered the gunpowder wet and useless. The result was panic and confusion in the Mysore army. The triumphant Nair forces of Travancore inflicted heavy casualties on the- invading army. But the valiant Kalikutty Nair was also drowned in the sudden surge of water and became a martyr.

That was the first time, January 1, 1790, when Tipu Sultan tasted a humiliating defeat.

It is recorded in Travancore history and also confirmed by the local folklore that as the wounded Tipu was lying unconscious in the battlefield he was rescued by a Nair soldier who quietly carried the unconscious Sultan to the Mysore military camp during the night and left . The brave Nair soldier could have easily killed the unconscious Tipu as many have done to a Hindu in similar circumstances'

According to authentic historical records, the Nair forces of Travancore attacked the Mysore army which was crossing the defence fortification, and inflicted heavy casualties on it. The sudden and unexpected attack made the Mysore Army panicky, and in the confusion Tipu Sultan fell down from the ramparts of the fort into the ditch below along with his palanquin.

The fall made him permanently lame. Later on, the Travancore forces recovered from the ditch the sword, the pallanquin, the dagger, the ring and many other personal effects of Tipu and presented them to the Dharma Raja. Some of Tipu's personal weapons and ornaments were sent to the Nawab of Arcot on his request (Travancore History by P. Sankunny Menon, published by Kerala Bhasha Institute, Trivandrum, pp. 191-92).

Sultan Bathery derives its present name from Tipu Sultan of Mysore who used the abandoned Jain temple here and used it as his battery hence the name Sultan's Battery.

File:Mysore1617to1799b.jpg

TIPU'S SECOND DEFEAT
Tipu retreated and sent for reinforcements from Coimbatore and Srirangapatanam. He also "recalled all his troops despatched earlier to different parts of South Malabar

After regrouping and reinforcing his army, Tipu mounted another attack in March 1790 in order to demolish the Travancore defence line. He reached upto Veropally (Varapuzha) near Alwaye.

Meanwhile, following firm assurance of support and protection by the English Company who had by this time extended their military power and political influence to the entire West Coast and South India, some of the important Malabar Rajas such as

Pazhassi Raja,
Pazhassi Raja
Prince Regent of Kottayam

Pazhassi Raja - an artist's view on a laterite wall
Reign1774 - 1805
Full nameKerala Varma Pazhassi Raja
TitlesKerala Simham, Chandrakula Vira, Shaktan Rajah, Vira Pazhassi



Kolathiri Raja and Kadathanad Raja, returned to their respective kingdoms and asserted their independence from Mysore suzerainty.

The Cochin Raja shook off his tributary link with Mysore. The Zamorin and the Palghat Raja were promised help by the British in their opposition to the Mysore Sultan, with the promise of restoring their lost territories to them after the defeat of Tipu.

All the Hindu Rajas and nobles had thus joined hands with the British against the war efforts of Tipu mainly because atrocities in Kerala. Revolt against the Mysore occupation forces broke out all over Malabar and spread to Coorg with the return of the chieftains to their respective areas.

Before the end of 1790, the British captured Palghat Fort and secured the communication channel from Coimbatore to the West Coast for assisting the Travancore forces against the Mysore army.

By the time Tipu Sultan launched his second attack and demolished parts of Nedungotta in May 1790, heavy monsoon rains caused the Alwaye river to flood the countryside. Since the Mysore army was not accustomed to fighting during rainy season, it was easy for the Travancore army to defeat Tipu's army.

That was the second defeat Tipu suffered near Alwaye in 1790.

In the meantime, Lord Cornwallis, the Governor General,

himself assumed the command of the British forces and pushed forward towards Srirangapatanam, headquarters of Tipu Sultan.
Simultaneously, the Maratha and the Nizam's forces also advanced from different directions.

The final assault was mounted and Srirangapatanam surrounded in January-February 1791 by a combined army consisting of the British, Maratha and the Nizam's forces.


Tipu Sultan, who-rushed to Srirangapatanam, abandoning his military operations against Travancore, was forced to sign a treaty in 1792 ceding the entire West Coast and half of his other possessions to the Allies,

ROLE OF THE BRITISH
It may be noted here that the Maharaja of Travancore had kept the British Governor of Madras informed about the political developments and the imminent military operations of Tipu Sultan against Travancore.

But the then Governor of Madras, Mr. Holland, in spite of the obligations under the Treaty of Mangalore, specifically instructed the British contingents sent to the Travancore borders, not to assist the Travancore forces in case of war. When the Governor General, Lord Cornwallis, heard about Travancore's victory over Tipu's forces, he assumed at first that it was due to the active assistance rendered by the English Company. But later on, he came to know about the dubious actions and the corrupt character of Mr. Holland. The Governor of Madras was believed to be in the pay of Tipu Sultan. So he was relieved of his responsibilities and Lord Cornwallis himself assumed command of the Madras Army.

The military operations against Srirangapatanam culminated in Tipu's surrender and the Treaty of Srirangapatanam signed in 1792.


But as far as Tipu's defeat and humiliation on the borders of Travancore were concerned, the British played no role; the entire credit for the victory goes to the strategy of Raja Kesava Das and the valiant soldiers of the Travancore army.

The British not only did not keep their solemn promise to the Malabar kings and chieftains, but also insisted that Travancore should pay heavily for the British "help".

Many members of the royal families of Malabar who migrated to Travancore State preferred to stay back even after the withdrawal of Tipu's army and restoration of peace, because of their nightmarish experience and the peculiar psyche of some of Tipu's soldiers ,and the British not giving the the liberated country back to the rajahs . The prominent royal families were (1) Neerazhi Kovilakam, (2) Gramathil Kottaram, (3) Paliyakkara, (4) Nedumparampu, (5) Chempra Madham, (6) Ananthapuram Kottaram, (7) Ezhimatoor Palace, (8) Aranmula Kottaram, (9) Varanathu Kovilakam, (10) Mavelikkara, (11) Ennakkadu, (12) Murikkoyikkal Palace, (13) Mariappilly, (14) Koratti Swaroopam, (15) Kaippuzha Kovilakam, (16) Lakshmipuram Palace, and (17) Kottapuram.



END OF TIPU'S DYNASTY
Siege of Seringapatam
Part of the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War
Tipu death.jpg
The Last Effort and Fall of Tippoo Sultan by Henry Singleton




Seringapatam, the fortress capital of the Mysore Kingdom, had been threatened on a number of occasions never been captured before the historic battle in 1799
Battle of Seringapatam, (Srirangapatna, Karnataka), 1799




An_historic_gem_set_and_gilt_silver_mounted_Islamic_saber_attributed_to_Tipu_Sultan_and_captured_at_the_Siege_of_Seringapatam_in_17991
An historic gem-set and gilt silver-mounted Islamic saber attributed to Tipu Sultan and captured at the Siege of Seringapatam in 1799, probably Turkish, 17th centur


Anglo-Mysore war, 1799
It may be recalled here that the members of the overthrown Wodeyar Royal Family were kept prisoners in their palaces all through the reign of Hyder Ali Khan




and Tipu Sultan. Tipu did not kill them because of his fear of a popular uprising against him.

Daria Daulat ,The Palace of Tipu Sulthan




A view of the Hoally Gateway, Srirangapatnam, where Tipu Sultan was killed. Illustration by Thomas Sydenham, c.1799


The Mausoleum Of Tipu Sulthan


His eleventh and only surviving son, Prince Ghulam Muhammad, was exiled by the British to Calcutta and the Mysore Kingdom which had been usurped by Hyder Ali Khan, was restored to the Wodeyars. However, Prince Ghulam Muhammad was also given a substantial pension by the English , is the largest Muslim trust in Calcutta.

Shrirangapattana
city



Shrirangapattana
Location of Shrirangapattana
Above is a piece of cannon among many others used to defend the fort of Srirangapattnam.
Plan for a fortified Castle, Palace, or Country House. [&] Plan of the Town & Fortifications of Seringapatam.

"Tipu's Tiger"

"Tipu's Tiger"
Tipu Sultan (c.1750-1799) -Rocketry

Anglo-Mysore Wars

The First Anglo-Mysore War (1766-1769) saw Hyder Ali inflicting crushing defeats on the combined armies of the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad, and the British. The Kingdom of Mysore gained large tracts of land to the north after this war.
The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-1784) saw the rise of Tipu Sultan as a powerful military leader. Soldiers from Mysore decimated British armies in the east, repelled a joint Maratha-Hyderabad invasion from the north and captured territories in the south. The war was ended in 1784 with the Treaty of Mangalore, at which both sides agreed to restore the others' lands to the status quo ante bellum.
In the Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792), Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Mysore and an ally of France, invaded the nearby state of Travancore in 1789, which was a British ally. The resultant war lasted three years and was a resounding defeat for Mysore. The war ended after the 1792siege of Seringapatam and the signing of the Treaty of Seringapatam according to which Tipu had to surrender half of his kingdom to the British East India Company and its allies.


1780-1799
1792
Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan used rockets against British forces
"Tipu could simultaneously launch three rockets. He had a rocket force of 6,000 rocketeers. He used many of the rockets against the British, who could not withstand them and were defeated.;in the 1780 war ;south india
[YES BRITISH WERE DEFEATED TWICE (1769 AND 1784) IN BATTLE]
1801-1802
Englishman William Congreve examined Indian rockets

1806-1814
Britain used rockets developed by Congreve in several sea battles

rockets used by tipu against british troops-
The English confrontation with Indian rockets came in 1780 at the Battle of Guntur. The closely massed, normally unflinching British troops broke and ran when the Indian Army laid down a rocket barrage in their midst.
Seringapatam 1799

last moment of tipu sultan after his defeat








Court coat (Jama)Muslin, decorated with couched flattened silver-gilt wire
Probably Deccan, late 18th century, from the wardrobe of Tipu Sultan (d. 1799) at Seringapatam




East View of Seringapatam on 15th May 1791 by R.H. Colebrooke.







Fra Bartolomaeo, in his well-known book, "Voyage to East India". Following is the verbatim description of the atrocities by a Christian victim as given in the book:-

"First a corps of 30,000 barbarians who butchered everybody on the way, followed by the Field-Gun Unit under the French Commander, M. Lally.



French Commander, M. Lally
Tipu Sultan was riding on an elephant behind which another army of 30,000 soldiers followed.
[Most of the men and women were hanged in Calicut. First mothers were hanged with children tied to the necks of their mothers.
WOOD CARVING -1805- SHOWING ALL MERCHANTS OF CALICUT TOWN(KOZHSHI KODU TOWN)TIED DOWN ON ORDER OF TIPU SULTAN (MAY BE BEFORE EXECUTION )




Christian and Hindu women were forced to marry Muhammadans and similarly their men were forced to marry Muhammadan women. Those Christians who refused to be 'honored' with Islam, were ordered to be killed by hanging then and there.
The above version of the atrocities was obtained from the sorrowful narration by the victims who escaped from Tipu's army and reached Varapuzha (near Alwaye) which is the centre of Carmichael Christian Mission.]
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LORD CORNWALLIS IN HISTORY OF INDIA AND AMERICA
File:Surrender of Lord Cornwallis.jpg
This painting depicts the forces of British Major General Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (1738-1805) (who was not himself present at the surrender), surrendering to French and American forces after the Siege of Yorktown (September 28 – October 19, 1781) during the American Revolutionary War. The United States government commissioned Trumbull to paint patriotic paintings, including this piece, for them in 1817[
FRENCH HELPED AMERICANS TO DEFEAT ENGLISH ARMY]
Surrender_of_Tipu_Sultan-to cornwallis-[the princes kidnapped by victorius English]
[TIPU WAITED -IN VAIN- FOR FRENCH ARMY HELP VIA EGYPT]



The Tomb of Lord Cornwallis at Ghazipur-INDIA:--http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghazipur
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ENGLISH MEN COPIED INDIAN ROCKET AND USED IT AGAINST AMERICA IN 1813-INSPIRING POET FRANCIS SCOT KEY TO WRITE THE United States National Anthem,





Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan organizedRocket artillery brigades known as Cushoon'sagainst the British East India Company during theAnglo-Mysore Wars.

William Congreve


The Indian rocket experiences, including Munro's book of 1789,[4] eventually led to the Royal Arsenal beginning a military rocket R&Dprogram in 1801. Several rocket cases were collected from Mysore and sent to Britain for analysis. The development was chiefly the work of Col. (later Sir) William Congreve, son of the Comptroller of the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, London, who set on a vigorous research and development programme at the Arsenal's laboratory

William Congreve's Rocket - History of Rockets
William Congreve's Rocket[COPIED FROM INDIAN ROCKETS OF TIPU]
Tip of a Congreve rocket of the Napoleonic Wars, on display at Paris naval museum

War of 1812

During their confrontation with the US during the War of 1812, the British used rockets at the Battle of Bladensburg, which led to the burning and surrender of Washington, D.C..
It was the use of Congreve rockets by the British in the bombardment of Fort McHenry in the U.S. in 1814 that inspired the fifth line of the first verse of the United States National Anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner: "And the rockets’ red glare, the bombs bursting in air".



And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,

Battle for Fort McHenry

Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?
4_mural_fort_mchenry
English men used rockets ,copied from Tipu's rockets by english man william congreve
;against America
This scene inspired Francis Scott to write
AMERICAN National Anthem:-
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs
bursting in air ,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still

there
. O say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?


Francis Scott Key 1779 - 1843 Then, in that hour of deliverance, my heart spoke "Does not such a country, and such defenders of their country, deserve a song"

Francis Scott Key

US National Anthem by the Academy Choirs:-


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NO BODY WROTE A SONG FOR TRAVANCORE Glitter Text Generator WHO DEFEATED Flame Text WITH JUST PRIMITIVE WEAPONS
Blinking Text


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click and listen to -TravancoreNATIONAL ANTHEM
http://www.tmcgulf.com/National.Anthem.htm

N A S A'S TRIBUTE TO TIPU in America
President Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam of India;was visiting Wallops Flight Facility, Virginia, USA. There he “saw a painting displayed in the reception lobby. It depicted a battle scene with a few rockets flying in the background………It turned out to be Tipu Sultan’s army fighting the British”.

THE AMERICAN NATIONAL ANTHEM AND INDIAN ROCKETS:-http://gallimafry.blogspot.com/2010/08/star-spangled-banner-and-indian-rockets.html



The painting shows Tipu Sultan’s army fighting the British and achieving a famous victory thanks to the rocket brigades , which probably is the first ever example of rocket warfare . The painting hangs in the lobby of the Wallops Flight Facility of NASA


Wallops Flight Facility of NASA


. It was this painting that greatly influenced APJ Abdul Kalam and even went on to find a mention in his autobiography , Wings of Fire .

In his autobiography Dr. Kalam further says “The painting depicted a fact forgotten in Tipu’s own country, but commemorated here on the other side of the planet. I was happy to see an Indian glorified by NASA as a hero of warfare rocketry”.
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TIPU REMEMBERED IN ENGLAND:-
Two of Tipu’s rockets have been displayed in the Museum of Artillery at Woolwich in London under the caption ‘Indian Rockets’.

Inscription on Congreve rocket
The Royal Arsenal at Woolwich contains a museum. The museum includes a very good exhibition of artillery with a history gallery.