THE NAIR SOLDIERS OF TRAVANCORE AND THEIR FINAL INTEGRATION INTO MADRAS REGIMENT





The King of Cochin -1506-IN PROCESSION

1662-"Nieuhof's Audience with ye Queen of Koylang [Quilon]," from "Mr John Nieuhoff's remarkable voyages & travels into ye best provinces of ye West and East Indies", printed for Awnsham and John Churchill at the Black Swan in Pater Noster Row, London, 1703:



DESCRIPTION OF UMAYAMMA RANI

The Dutch representative William Van Nieuhoff describes the Rani as:
... I was introduced into her majesty's presence. She had a guard of above 700 Nair soldiers about her, all clad after the Malabar fashion; the Queens attire being no more than a piece of callicoe wrapt around her middle, the upper part of her body appearing for the most part naked, with a piece of callicoe hanging carelessly round her shoulders. Her ears, which were very long, her neck and arms were adorned with precious stones, gold rings and bracelets and her head covered with a piece of white callicoe. She was past her middle age, of a brown complexion, with black hair tied in a knot behind, but of majestick mein, she being a princess who shew'd a great deal of good conduct in the management of her affairs [15]
Umayamma Rani
Born: - Died: 1705
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Rajah Aditya Varma
Rani of Venad, Attingal Mootha Thampuran
1677-1684
Succeeded by
Rajah Ravi Varma
Umayamma Rani
Kulasekhara Dynasty
Born: - Died: 1705
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Rajah Aditya Varma Rani of Venad, Attingal Mootha Thampuran
1677-1684 Succeeded by
Rajah Ravi Varma
                                                                                  HISTORY :-

Origin

The Ettara Yogam was formed in the year 15th century.1 and it is presided over by the Swamiyars of Naduvil Madhom or Munchira Madhom to this day. In Malayali Brahmins, Potty families -south of changanassery in travancore are designated as pottis and they in north of changanassery (pottis-malayala Brahmins)are designated as namboothiries usually. Seven potti families and a representative from a Nair family initially who assumed the role of the Temple protector. Besides these trustees, who had one vote each in deciding the matters of the Temple management, the Maharajah of Venad as it was known then had a half vote, rendering the ruler of the land thereby almost powerless in deciding the affairs of the Devaswom of Padmanabhapuram. The Head of the nair family is known as Karanavar. The Karanavar of the nair palliyadi family is a member of Ettara Yogam of Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple (only Nair representative). The present Karanavar or nair member is Srikarnam Palliyadi A.E. Ramakrishna Kurup of Azhakath Bungalow, Adoor. The fact that the Maharajah was powerless in the Temple affairs was very important because the temple possessed vast landed areas and wealth, which owing to his nominal position, gave immense power to the eight members and their confederates. It is also because the sovereign had only half a vote that the council came be known as that of "Eight and a Half".





The Ettuveetil Pillai System, aided by the Ettara Yogam, became supreme power in Travancore to such an extent that the sovereign needed their permission even to construct a palace for himself at his capital 4. With so much power in their hands they wished to do away with the Royal House and all the earlier chroniclers of Travancore history have stated that their chief intention was to extirpate the Royal House and convert the state into a republic, and eventually under a monarchy under one of themselves 5. With this in mind they plotted and assassinated Maharajah Aditya Varma by poisoning him and set the Palace on fire 6.
After Aditya Varma's assassination his niece Umayamma Rani became the regent. The Pillamar approached her with condolences and vowed to support her. But within a year, five of her six sons were cruelly drowned to death at the instigation of the Pillamar in the water pond known as Kalipankulam 7. Now the only heir to the Royal House was her eldest son. However as per the matriarchal traditions ofKerala owing to the absence of females the family could not be perpetuated. Umayamma then adopted a cousin, namely Kerala Varma, into the house but soon he was assassinated as well 8. She then adopted one boy and two girls from the Kolathunadu Royal House, the cousin family of the Travancore Royalty, from the family called Pally Kovilakam in 1684 just before her regency closed and her surviving son Ravi Varma became king. He adopted in 1689 two princesses and princes from Kolathunadu including Rajah Rama Varma9.


The Eight lords and Marthanda Varma

Marthanda Varma was born in 1706 AD to the younger of the two adopted princesses of 1689 and right from his childhood he had to live constantly in hiding, in fear of his life. Many times assassination bids were made on his life. In 1728 an assassination attempt was made on the life of his sister and her son, the later Dharma Raja10. However it was in 1729, when the Rajah Rama Varma, died that actual war was declared.
The Pillamar recognized a dangerous foe in Marthanda Varma and hence on the death of Rajah Rama Varma in 1730 they supported the Kunju Thampis. The late Rajah had left two sons, Padmanabhan and Raman Thampi and a daughter Ummini Thankachi. These children of the late king known as the Kunju Thampis now staked claim to the throne, in spite of the prevailing Marumakkathayam law. The Pillamar furnished them with enough money and men to seek aid from the Pandyas of Madurai. However Marthanda Varma managed to avert war by bribing away the Pandyan army 11. However soon after this the Kunju Thampimar were captured and killed at Nagercoil Palace 12. It may be stated that in popular folklore it is said that Marthanda Varma's enmity towards the Kunju Thampimar was because of their refusal to allow him to marry their sister. It is said that Ummini Thankachi killed herself after the execution of her brothers to escape Marthanda Varma.

Extent of the Pandya Territories c. 1250 CE
The Pillamar were initially deterred by the fate of the Thampis, for they did not expect Marthanda Varma to kill his own cousins. However, soon after this, they plotted once again to murder the king but intelligence of this reached the king. On the day of the Arrat festival when the murder was to take place, Marthanda Varma appeared with an escort strong enough to cow down the Pillamar 13. But having received proof of the intention of the Pillamar to murder him they were all rounded up and tried soon after this 14.
The Eight were either killed or exiled after sufficient evidence of conspiracy and murder was procured. Their houses were dug up and all their assets and armies seized by the victorious Marthanda Varma. Their women and children number around three thousand were given asylum by Jesuit priest of the nearby fishermen coast parish and was therefore called as Vettu kad or eight homes.Marthanda Varma also vowed to give Hundred Gold coins every year to the Jesuit parish priest for the welfare of these subjects The two palaces at Trivandrum known as Ramanamadhom and Thevarathu Koikal were constructed from the wood and material of the palaces of the Pillamar 15. The Travancore State Manual of Nagam Aiya 

Thus ended the long tale of crime and bloodshed committed by the lawless band of Ettuveetil Pillai and the Madampimar who molested the land for a period of two centuries and more



antique plan of Kollam Fort, Kerala, India
                 kollam (quilon) fort
tangasseri fort kollam
kollam fort ---now
Trivandrum fort now

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COCHIN PORTUGESE FORT                                                                                              Portuguese, Cochin 
The Cannanor(KANNUR)-fort[ st angelo 1505]

Cannanore Fort,:-http://malabardays.blogspot.com/2011/02/cannanore-fort-short-discussion-on-its.html


Figure 1. Cananoor during the Dutch Period. [1] Please click on the image for a larger image.

                                                                                       Google Earth Image of St Angelo Fort. Please click on image for larger version.





Figure 3. Showing the fort before 1572.




Tellicherry Bay, showing the location of the battle, in about 1778. By Forbes, Published in 1818. Click click on picture for larger image.


FORT AT ANCHENGO(ANCHU THENGU)NEAR KOLLAM


                                                                                           Anjengo Fort[ANCHU THENGU FORT]

[NAIRS.jpg]

 [some carrying big guns on their shoulder]


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                       File:Wheellock pistol or 'Puffer'.jpg
king of Cochin with Nair soldiers

                  File:Dragon pistol.jpgFile:ArquebusClipAndColor.jpg



                                                                            Portuguese fort of calicut[kozhikode]


1708-WAR ON PEPPERCOAST{KERALA/MALABAR}A battle on the Malabar Coast ("Pepper Coast") between the Dutch East India Company and the Portutuese, with "Nairos[Nair soldiers]," Dec. 1661; Dutch ships are in the background; from 'Wouter Schouten's travels into the East Indies', 2nd ed., Amsterdam, 1708






A MALABAR(KERALA) MAN AND WOMAN 1660



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Ein Nayar aus der Gruppe der Pillai, zeitgenössische Darstellung um 1750[NAIR SOLDIER 1750]

File:Nairs with European Army.png

Photo of Nair soldiers with European army - A wall-painting in Kayamkulam palace.
Velakali - South Indian Folk Dance


Velakali is a spectacular martial dance performed in a few temples of Southern Kerala by Nair warriors holding wooden swords and shields.

The dancers, clad in traditional clothes and colourful headgear of medieval Nair soldiers, engage in vigorous movements and dexterous sword play, to the accompaniment of an orchestra comprising 'Maddalam', 'Ilathalam', 'Kombu' and 'Kuzhal'.

Velakali originated in Ambalappuzha where Mathoor Panicker, a chief of the Chempakasserri army, promoted it to boost the martial spirit of the people. Velakali is a regular feature at the Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple festival in Alappuzha district.



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NAIR SOLDIERS AROUND KING SWATHITHIRUNAL'S CHARIOT 1840

TRAVANCORE NAIR SOLDIERS[NAIR PADAYALIKAL] PAINTING 1850 BY SWISS ARTIST

Travancore Nair Brigade (©Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University Library)

From Kerala came the martial clans known as Nairs. This picture shows some of its members part of a Nair brigade in the service of the British, as painted by the Swiss artist Paul Aimé Vallouy (1832-1899) and part of a series of three charcoal and watercolour drawings made in 1855.



Thiruvithamkoor Nair Pattalam' (Travancore Nair Army). The Travancore army was officially referred as the Travancore Nair Brigade in 1818. In the early days, only Nairs were admitted in to this brigade. Later, the unit was expanded and several sub units were formed.Malayalam actor Mohanlal commissioned to the Madras Regiment of the Territorial Army as Lt.Colonel and his visit to the Kowdiar Palace to pay tributes to the erstwhile ruling family of Travancore has evoked considerable interest about the military past of the state.
Two Travancore infantry battalions were integrated into Madras regiment after the states merged with the Indian union and were called 9th (Travancore) and 16th (Travancore) battalions of the Madras regiment. Likewise the Cochin battalion became the 17th (Cochin) under MR.

Major-General Sri Chithira Tirunal H.H. Maharaja Bala Rama Varma of Travancore,

 GCSI, GCIE was the Col-in-Chief of Travancore State forces from 1924-1949 and of the Travancore-Cochin State Forces for the period 1949-1954


[photo taken at 'palayam' Trivandrum where the soldiers were stationed 1861]


[NAAAIR.jpg]


[NNNNNAIR.jpg]
[photo taken at 'palayam' Trivandrum where the soldiers were stationed 1861]



Adoption Durbar, Trivandrum

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the Adoption Durbar, Trivandrum.  The State troops at the Adoption Durbar can be seen here on parade during the ceremony.
File:Madras cavalry.jpg
madras regiment 1847

Left to right, the Madras Horse Artillery, the Madras Light Cavalry, the Madras Rifle Corps, the Madras Pioneers, the Madras Native Infantry, and the Madras Foot Artillery, c. 1830


HEAD QUARTERS OF NAIR SOLDIERS AT TRIVANDRUM [NEXT TO KERALA LEGSL:] 




Madras Infantry, Nancowry Islands[Andaman islands] (ca. 1900)

The Nair Brigade was the army of the erstwhile kingdom of Travancore in India. Nairs were a warrior community in the region which was responsible for the security of Travancore and other local kingdoms. King Marthanda Varma's (1706 - 1758) 

 Before his death Marthanda Varma summoned his nephew and successor and gave his final instructions.to maintain above all the friendship existing between that Honourable Association (the British) and Travancore and to repose in them full confidence. They had proved more trustworthy of all the foreign forces in His opinion.



                                                                                   Velu Thampi's Insurrection

                                                                                   
                                  
Velu Thampi Dalawa and the Paliath Achan, Govindan Menon, met and decided on the extirpation of the British Resident and end of British supremacy in their respective states. Velu Thampi organised recruits, strengthened forts and stored up ammunition while similar preparations was made by the Paliath Achan in Cochin. Velu Thampi applied to the Zamorin of Calicut and to the French for assistance, but both did not acknowledge the request. The plan of the Paliath Achan and Velu Thampi was to unitedly attack the Fort of Cochin and murder the British Resident Major Macaulay and Kunju Krishna Menon. Another force was appointed to attack the British garrison at Quilon. This was in the year 1807.
The Resident realised the object of the simultaneous preparations on Travancore and Cochin and immediately wrote of theMadras government for reinforcements. The British 12th Regiment and two native battalions were ordered to aid the Resident. Velu Thampi pretended great alarm at these preparations and begged permission to resign his office and retire toMalabar in the English territories. The same was agreed upon and on 28 December 1808 Velu Thampi was to be escorted toMalabar. The intention of Velu Thampi however was to divert the Resident's forces away from Cochin in which he succeeded. That night a body of armed men led by the Paliath Achan, surrounded the Residency at Bolghatty Palace and surprised the Resident, who was under the impression that the menace of Velu Thampi was finally over. The Resident and Kunju Krishna Menon however succeeded in escaping and reached Quilon. Velu Thampi ordered his troops to attack them at Quilon.
The Nair troops attacked the Subsidiary force of the British at Quilon. In spite of greater numbers, the troops were not organized and lacked communications with a leader and hence for the night on 30 December 1808 the British Indian troops under Colonel Chalmers held their ground. The Dalawa collected a force of three thousand men and again attacked the British Indian troops on 15 January 1809. The British organized their Indians armies strategically and had better artillery support enabling them to repulse the attack by the Nair warriors. The British Indian regiments in Cochin were attacked by thePaliath Achan but here too he was repulsed. In all these battles, the British were helped by treachery within the Dalawa's camp which forewarned them of the Dalawa's battle plans.
Velu Thampi then went to Kundara where he made his famous proclamation in January 1809 urging the people to fight the British. The proclamation had its effect and the whole country rose like one man against the British. This was now a desperate game being played by Velu Thampi. He exploited the religious orthodoxy of the people by making them believe the British were Christian missionaries. The proclamation even influenced the Maharajah at Trivandrum. Wholesale butchery of foreigners took place in Travancore, thereby disgracing the cause of the rebellion. The British realized that the Dalawa was now desperate.

.                                                                     Rebellion Quelled

Colonel Leger came with Indian troop reinforcements from Madras on 6 February 1809 and camped on the Aramboly pass. The Maharajah who never openly supported the rebellion, now turned against it under the influence of Ummini Thampi, who was a government official and later went on to become the Dalawa of Travancore. Together with the Maharaja's troops Col. Leger entered Travancore the next morning and attacked the lines of the Nair troops near the Palamcottah fort. The Nair troops were defeated and the Dalawa himself fled to Trivandrum. Having secured entry into Travancore the Maharajas's and British troops now moved into the interior and within a few days the two important forts of Padmanabhapuram and Udayagiri also fell into their hands. Meanwhile at Quilon where the Nair troops were planning yet another final attack heard of the fall of these forts and lost heart and dispersed to their homes. The allied army camped on the outskirts of Trivandrum in Pappanamcode.
Velu Thampi himself fled from Trivandrum to Kilimanoor where he called on the Royal family there. After staying there for the night, he proceeded northwards but was overtaken


in the Bhagvawati Temple at Mannadi

velu thambi memorial at Mannadi
Mannadi, Mannadi historical, Mannadi travel, Mannadi tourism, Mannadi Historical Place, travel to Mannadi Monument


where he was surrounded by the Maharaja's troops. However the Dalawa did not wish to be taken alive. In the temple he asked his younger brother to cut his throat, which request on being refused, he did it himself. Velu Thampi died in the Mannadi Temple. His body was brought back to Trivandrum and gibbeted on the Kannammoola hill.
His brother surrendered and was taken to Quilon and executed there. Velu Thampi's body was taken to Trivandrum and exposed on a gibbet. The man who informed the Army of the Dalawa's whereabouts received an award of Rs. 50,000 from the British. Velu Thampi's ancestral home was razed to the ground and his relatives after being flogged and banished, were taken to the Maldives when, while at Tuticorin, many of them committed suicide.
Velu Thampi failed militarily against the British Indian Army even though he commanded a well trained army armed with muskets and artillery organized on European military system with 3000 men and 18 guns. Large sections of the warrior Nair caste [which had nearly 80,000 males of conscription age in Travancore] and the common people supported the Dalawa. At the height of power, Velu Thampi, though a good administrator, was stern and tough, and thus alienated some nobles and officials of the crown. The East India Company entered in a treaty with the Maharaja of Travancore, offering their troops to ward off internal and external threats. Though this meant that the Nair army who had fought for the crown during the Third Mysore war would be disbanded, the Maharaja signed it because the treaty helped him maintain his throne, taking away a threat to his rule from future local rebellions because he could call up the English East India Compan's army to put down civil uprisings. And the Maharajah could save the money needed to maintain a standing army and this was an added incentive to his decision to sign the treaty. This treaty of Subordinate Isolation was used by the the East India Company in other princely kingdoms in India.
The Travancore army primarily consisting of Nairs who fought so well in defense of Nedumkotta against Tipu Sultan's army in 1790, was the first native force to defeat a colonial power in Asia - the Dutch East India Company in Travancore-Dutch war. The army consisted of athletic troops who had to pass a very tough selection procedure to join, and were trained in the European model of warfare by Valiakappittan DeLennoy. However, Velu Thampi himself had disbanded most of the States's Army following the mutiny against him in AD 1805. Velu Thampi may not have realized a number of his supposed friends were planning to betray him and that the Maharaja, who was notorious for his weakness of character, would not hesitate to sacrifice his former Dalawa to normalise relations with the East India Company.
Stinger Lawrence who established the Madras Army with Mohamed Ali Khan Walajan, the Nawab of Carnatic

ACCORDING TO ORAL HISTORY FROM OLDER GENERATIONS:-,   ,ABOUT NAIR SOLDIERS:-[ ORAL HISTORY  -SO 'MAY BE'' -TRUE']
 THEY HAD DIFFICULTY UNDERSTANDING ENGLISH COMMANDS OF ENGLISH OFFICERS
[NO INDIAN WAS ALLOWED TO BE AN OFFICER ; BECAUSE THE BRITISH FEARED ANOTHER REVOLT ;AS UNDER VELU THAMPY DALWA]
, LEFT- RIGHT -LEFT RIGHT , MARCH WAS ANNOUNCED IN MALAYALM LANGUAGE TO THE NAIR SOLDIERS STATIONED AT PALAYAM
 [STILL CALLED PALAYAM BUT NO SOLDIERS THERE NOW],TRIVANDRUM CITY.-THIRUANANDAPURAM  CITY.PALAYAM IN MALAYALAM AND TAMIL LANGUAGE ,MEANS WHERE SOLDIERS CAMP].
THE MALAYALAM LANGUAGE TRANSLATION OF LEFT RIGHT LEFT RIGHT MARCH WAS:- OOLA KKAAL- SEELA KKAAL;OOLA KKAAL -SEELA KKAAL
SEELA KKAAL MEANS RIGHT LEG;BECAUSE IT IS BUT NATURAL[SEELAM] FOR MOST PEOPLE TO START WALKING WITH RIGHT LEG
OLA KKAAL MEANS:- THE LEG AS PER ORDER[BRITISH OFFICER'S COMMAND]=OLA=ORDER WRITTEN ON OLA(COCONUT LEAF)= LEFT LEG 
[SO OLA KKAAL MEANS THE LEG TO BE MOVED AS PER THE ORDER =LEFT LEG]
IT WAS DIFFICULT ,IN THE BEGINNING ,FOR NAIR SOLDIERS ,TO START MARCHING WITH THE LEFT LEG, AS THEY WERE USED TO RIGHT LEG START.


OLA MEANS  ORDER- WRITTEN ON PALM LEAF MEANS ORDER OF HIGHER AUTHORITY ;IN MALAYALM ;BECAUSE ALL ORDERS WERE WRITTEN ON OLA{PALM LEAF]AS THERE WERE NO PAPER IN THOSE TIMES






 THE ABOVE A PHOTO OF OLA[PALMLEAF] OR EZZHTU OLA MEANS OLA USED FOR EZHUTHU =WRITING ;WHICH WERE THE ONLY WRITING MATERIAL AVAILABLE IN KERALA ABOUT 150 YEARS AGO

STYLUS FOR WRITING ---[CALLED 'NARAYAM' IN MALAYALAM LANGUAGE]ON PALM LEAF KAAL MEANS LEG 

[2] THE SECOND ORDER ;TRANSLATED INTO  MALAYALM WAS :-PUT THE GUN ON SHOULDER AND MARCH
IT WAS TRANSLATED INTO MALAYALM LANGUAGE AS 'THOOKK EDUTHU THOLEL VAYY'-'[THOKK =GUN ;THOL= SHOULDER ;VAYY= PUT]
THOKK EDUTHU VEETTIL POO'[THOKK=GUN;EDUTHU=TAKE;VEETTIL =HOME=CAMP;POO=MARCH]


The Pazhasshi Raja 


commanding no more than 1000 men mostly armed with swords, spears and bows-arrows and a territory that was limited to present day Wynad district and Talasseri taluk of Kannur district was able to hold out against the Company's and his own uncle's troops for nearly a decade[1793-97 / 1800-1805] till he was betrayed by one of his followers.

1799


Like many insurgencies the war against the Pazhassi Raja was a brutal one, with both sides on occasion taking heavy losses.

Later accounts published in the 19th Century tend to picture the British winning battles over the various Indian forces with comparative ease.

This was often not in fact the case, and as the following news paper account makes clear the insurgents were often able to inflict heavy casualties onto the East India Company forces.

From the Whitehall Evening Post
Saturday, July 20, to Tuesday, July 23, 1799.

Authentic Particulars respecting the primary Rupture with the 
COTIOTE RAJAH(PAZHASSI RAJAH OR KOTTAYAM OF MALABAR) recently received from India. Captain Bowman and Lieutenant Bond were sent with a detachment to take possession of a stronghold near Cootungarry, and were decoyed by a Hircarrah,[1] employed on the occasion, into a narrow defile, where a strong party of Nairs in ambuscade, availing themselves of the disadvantageous situation of the detachment, and their mode of attack, beset the party with a ferocity peculiarly their own, when Captain Bowman and Lieutenant Bond were almost immediately over powered and killed. Several Sepoys were also killed and wounded on the spot. Captain Lawrence, on hearing the report of the musquetry, proceeded, with all possible expedition, at the head of a body of grenadiers, towards the succour and support of Captain Bowman’s detachment: but having experienced a similar breach of faith in his guide, was also attacked in the same defile: but, after a warm and fortunate resistance, effected his retreat, and took post in a pagoda the whole night and part of the next day, hemmed in by upwards of a thousand of the Rajah’s troops.

Captain Troy, who had been employed in mustering the Native troops, and Captain Shean, on his return from a visit, fell in with a party of these sanguinary savages, who, having surrounded them, coolly and unprovokedly put the first to death, and wounded the latter in a shocking and barbarous manner. It would appear, from the foregoing circumstances that the inhuman wretches chiefly aimed at the destruction of the Officers: but particularly from their subsequent barbarity, the bodies of Capt. Troy and Lieutenant Bond having been since found decapitated; their heads, as it is supposed, having been sent to the Rajah – the copse of Captain Bowman was snatched from a similar fate of so many Officers, in being cut off from their relations and friends in this cruel and insidious manner, cannot be too much lamented, and furnishes a melancholy example of the inherent ferocity which has ever been characteristic of the cast of Nairs

[1]Eye witness account from Lachlan Macquarie who participated in one of the battle against Pazhassi Raja:-
http://www.library.mq.edu.au/digital/lema/1797/1797may.html


[2]Thomas Baber's account of the death of the Pazhassi Rajah[BLOG]:-http://malabardays.blogspot.com/2007/08/thomas-babers-account-of-end-of-pyche_12.html


Had Velu Thampi Dalawa followed a similar guerrilla warfare in hilly terrain of Eastern Travanacore, perhaps he might have been able to hold out against the Maharaja's and East India Company's armies for years.
File:Madras cavalry.jpg

[HISTORY SHOWS ENGLISH RULERS TO BE MOST UNTRUSTWORTHY ,CROOKED AND RAPACIOUS IN LOOTING INDIA]


personal bodyguard was called 'Thiruvithamkoor Nair Pattalam' (Travancore Nair Army). The Travancore army was officially referred as the Travancore Nair Brigade in 1818. In the early days, only Nairs were admitted into this brigade. Later, the unit was expanded and several sub units were formed. The name Nair Brigade remained unchanged, even following the admittance of non-Nairs. The army was involved in many services during peace time. The Headquarters of the brigade was in Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum).


Madras Sappers and Miners
The Sappers and Miners, as the Engineers of the Indian Army are designated, are divided into three Corps, of which Queen Victoria's Own Madras Sappers and Miners are the senior. The Corps was originally raised in 1780 and has taken part in almost every campaign since then in which Indian troops have shared. Its battle honours before 1914 show service in Egypt, Java, China, Persia, Abyssinia and Afghanistan, as well as in India, while in the Great War its units fought in France, Egypt, Palestine, Iraq, Persia and East Africa. It is recruited entirely from the Madras Presidency. We show the Subadar-Major of the Corps in Full Dress, standing in front of Government House, Madras.

[SOME ENGLISH OFFICERS OF THE NAIR SOLDIERS-1800 ERA- ARE BURIED IN THE CSI CHURCH-NEAR PUBLIC LIBRARY,MAIN ROAD TRIVANDRUM--WHICH WAS THE CANTONMENT CHURCH FOR BRITISH SOLDIERS OF PALAYAM]

  • The area where the Travancore Brigade was settled came to be called Palayam, which means army settlement. The area is still called so, even though it has changed to a market.
  • The Muslim Cavalry soldiers of the Nair Brigade of Travancore, who had settled in Sasthamangalam and Vattiyoorkavu, built an impressive mosque in Vattiyoorkavu.
  • The famous Pazhavangadi Ganapathi Temple in Thiruvananthapuram was owned and maintained by the Travancore Brigade. This temple is now owned and maintained by the Indian Army, after the integration of Travancore Army with the Indian Forces.
  • The first group of State Forces of Cochin Kingdom was also called as the Nair Brigade in 1940.  The Brigade's name was changed in 1945 to Cochin State Forces by Kerala Varma and allowed non-Nairs also to be admitted into his army.
The total strength of Travancore Nair Army as of 1945 was 4,082 men, of which 84 were officers and 132 were JCOs. A part of this force (those within medical categorization 'A') were absorbed in to the Indian Army (Travancore - Cochin unified forces), while the remaining forces were disbanded. After the unification of Travancore and Cochin forces, Trivandrum was declared as the headquarters of the unified command. Major General V.N. Parameswaran Pillai, the GOC of the Travancore Nair army became the commandant of the unified forces. The unified force was divided in to five infantry battalions (Travancore - I, II, III and IV, Cochin I). The unification took place under Major General V.N. Parameswaran Pillai of Travancore and Lt Col G.S. Subbiah of Cochin on 20th May 1949. Finally the forces unified Travancore-Cochin forces were either disbanded or absorbed in to the Indian Army and Major General V.N. Parameswaran Pillai was allowed to retire.


9th Battalion, Madras Regiment (Travancore)

The 9th battalion of the Madras Regiment (Travancore) has completed 300 years in the service of the motherland. The battalion was raised in 1704 at Padmanabhapuram in Kalkulam taluk of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu. Padmanabhapuram was the erstwhile capital of Travancore State. Raised as personal bodyguards to the Maharaja of Travancore, the unit, though redesigned through the ages, continues to retain its individual identity with no history of disbandment or reraising.
Headquarters of the Nair Brigade of Travancore -[at palayam Trivandrum].- The building is now the Legislative Museum of Kerala
The Travancore Army completely exterminated the superior and better equipped Dutch Forces which landed at Colachal in July 1741 during the reign of Anizham Thirunal Veer Bala Marthand Varma. In the battle of Colachal, Capt Eustace De Lanoy, the Dutch Naval Forces Commander, was captured
De Lannoy's Surrender at the Battle of Colachel.
 who was asked later to train the Travancore Army.The key element of the Raja's army was his personal army, known as the Travancore Nair Brigade or locally known as the Nair Pattalam. This unit was later integrated into the Indian Army as the 9th Battalion Madras Regiment and the 16th Battalion Madras Regiment in 1954.


3RD MADRAS CAVALRY SOLDIERS
 From 1741 to 1758, Capt De Lanoy remained in command of the Travancore Forces and was involved in annexation of small principalities.DELANOY'S GRAVE IN SOUTH INDIA

De Lannoy's Tomb at Udayagiri Fort on theKanyakumari-Trivandrum highway.


De Lannoy's burial site at the tomb atUdayagiri Fort, with inscriptions in Latin and Tami

BRITISH TROOPS AT VELLORE QUELLING A RIOT 1800'S
 A Jamadar of the 20th Deccan Horse
A British officer in the Madras Light Cavalry
In 1935, the Travancore State joined the Indian State Forces Scheme and the battalion was named 1st Travancore Nayar Infantry, Travancore State Forces. The unit was reorganised as an Indian State Infantry Battalion by Lt Col HS Steward who was appointed Commandant of the Travancore State Forces. In 1940, the battalion left for Padmanabhapuram and arrived at Military Station, Cannanore.
Indian infantry, from the time of the First World War.
The battalion served overseas in 1940s. In 1945, Maj Gen Parameshwaran Pillai was appointed GOC, Travancore State Forces. In the same year, the unit was asked to move to South East Asian Command. Embarked on At Taima, the unit sailed to Hong Kong. Disembarked at Kowloon Harbour, it was placed under the command of 150 Independent Infantry Brigade. While at Kowloon, the unit was assigned the task of guarding Japanese prisoners of war, airfields and docks. It also looked after the repatriation of PoWs to Japan. The unit left Hong Kong, disembarked at Madras and arrived at Trivandrum on January 31, 1947.
In April, 1951 the battalion was integrated with Indian Army and on May 1, 1954, it was merged with the Madras Regiment and was redesignated 9th Battalion of the Madras Regiment (Travancore).
 After the integration of Travancore State Force with the Indian Army, the State Forces Colours were ceremonially laid up at Chetwode Hall, Indian Military Academy, Dehra Dun in 1956.


File:Plan of Fort St George and the City of Madras 1726.jpg

Plan of Fort St. George and the city of Madras 


-BELOW:-Image of Calicut,1572
File:Calicut 1572.jpg
Image of Calicut, India from Georg Braunand Frans

Hogenberg's atlas Civitates orbis terrarum, 1572
The then President, Mr VV Giri, presented new Colours to the battalion on May 23, 1970 at Barrack square, Wellington at a solemn ceremony. Over the years, everybody was impressed with the valiant deeds of the battalion. In fond recognition of their bravery, people started calling them terrors.

EARLY INDIAN ' SOLDIERS REDCOATS' 1759
Post Independence, the battalion served from Siachen to Andaman and Nicobar Islands and from Nagaland to Rajasthan. The battalion actively participated in the Hyderabad Police Action during 1948 and was instrumental in restoring peace and tranquility in the riot-torn region. For the first time, the unit was deployed in high altitude area in Sugar Sector in Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and occupied forward posts in inhospitable terrain during 1962 war.



Fort St George Madras codnor.info
Fort St George, Madras, on the Coromandel Coast, 1754; painting by Jan Van Ryne


South East View of Fort St George, Madras





EARLY BRITISH TRADERS IN MADRAS (CHENNAI)

During Indo-Pak war in 1965, the battalion located at Ferozpur under 65 Infantry Brigade fought the famous Battle of Barki and played a leading role in the capture of Barka-Kalan and Ichogil Bund. In this heroic action, twentyseven personnel made supreme sacrifice. The battalion was honoured with one Vir Chakra, two Sena Medals, twelve mention-in-despatches and the theatre honour Punjab. In Nagaland, the battalion conducted operations against Naga hostiles. The unit performed extremely well and was awarded one Sena Medal and two COAS commendation cards.

Artillery for use against French troops


On September 22/23, 1965, Ichhogil Bund was captured by the 9th battalion of Madras Regiment, under the command of Lt Col BK Satyan in a terrific hand-to-hand fight. The fight ended with the annihilation of approximately two Pakistani companies which attempted to re-occupy the eastern bund of Ichhogil Canal.
ion Cactus Lily during 1971 war. The battalion, deployed under 330 Infantry Brigade at Barmer, captured Mahendro Ro Par and Fateh Ro Par on Gadra City-Umraokot axis. It remained deployed at Naya Chor till the announcement of ceasefire on December 17, 1971. During this operation, it suffered ten casualties. In another operation, during 1971 war, Capt Gopa Kumar Raman Pillai was awarded Vir Chakra.
The battalion served in Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1990 to 1994 where it had the opportunity to undertake anti-poaching operations in conjunction with Navy and the Air Force. The unit was awarded one Vishisht Seva Medal and four GOC-in-C Southern Command commendation cards during these operations. The battalion served in Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1990 to 1994 where it had the opportunity to undertake anti-poaching operations in conjunction with Navy and the Air Force. The unit was awarded one Vishisht Seva Medal and four GOC-in-C Southern Command commendation cards during these operations.
During operation Rakshak, the battalion conducted counter-insurgency operations in Bhadarwah and Rajouri Sectors. It neutralised more than 35 militants and captured a large quantity of weapons, ammunition and explosives including SAM missiles, UMGs and a sniper rifle. Maj Sajjan Singh Gahalawat and three ORs made supreme sacrifice during these operations. The unit was awarded two Shaurya Chakra, three Sena Medals, two COAS commendation cards and two GOC-in-C commendation cards.
While participating in operation Meghdoot, the unit served at the world's highest battlefield from 2000 to 2002. It occupied Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) in Siachen. During this operation, the battalion suffered two casualties due to adverse weather conditions. During operation Parakram, the unit was operationally deployed at Turtuk, Baramulla, Handanbrog, Dras and Kargil.
Widely known as the Terrors in the regiment, 9 Madras (Travancore) concluded their tercentenary celebrations "somewhere in the Western Sector" in June 2004. With 300 glorious years of service to the nation, the regiment has ravelled a long way from being the Personal Bodyguards of the Maharaja of Travancore to one of the finest units of Indian
Army. They have the rare distinction of retaining their identity throughout as they have never been disbanded.he Madras Regimental Centre.
 

The soldiers of the Madras Regiment 

 The practice of carrying standards

Sepoy Officer, 1757

The martyrs of the paltan were paid homage during the solemn ceremonial parade led b
y Maj Gen VDI Devavaram, Colonel of the Madras Regiment. The wreath laying was followed by a special sainik sammelan where all ranks were addressed by the Colonel of the Regiment, previous Commanding Officers and the present Commanding Officer. The Colonel of the Regiment emphasised that the troops have to work two hundred per cent more than other units to maintain the present standards. He presented to the unit a silver replica of the war memorial at Colachal. The unit had defeated Dutch in 1741 at the famous Battle of Colachal. A personal representative of the Maharaja of Travancore also presented the unit with mementos from the Maharaja.



 The bagpipers of the Madras Regiment at Wellington, Nilgiris
 and a First Day cover on the occasion. Eklingarh Cantonment wore a festive look throughout the three-day celebrations which included variety entertainment programmes and exhibition of various art forms of South India.




Mother of Late Sep Bhaskaran Nair receiving Vir Chakra

 September 23, Sep Narayanan and Sep Bhaskaran of the leading platoon were found dead in a pool of blood. Sep Narayanan was within a few feet of the pill-box, presumably after throwing a grenade through the slit of the pill-box which held three Pak soldiers—a machine gunner, a light machine gunner and a rifleman with unlimited quantity of ammunition. Sep Narayanan had six bullets across his face.



MADRAS REGIMENT ---TRAVANCORE STATE FORCES WERE PART OF THIS


Crest


Madras Infantry
1758

Regimental Badge
1850

Regimental Crest
1850

Regimental Badge
1865

Regimental Crest
1865

Regimental Badge
1891


Badge 10 MADRAS
Native Infantry

Badge 20 MADRAS
Native Infantry

Badge 83 Wallajahbad
Light Infantry

Madras Regiment Crest 1865

Madras Regiment Crest

Mysore State Force1951


State Forces of Travancore & Cochin1951

Madras Regiment Crest 1942-52
  

After the Battle of Assaye (1803), the device of the Assaye Elephant was sanctioned as a special honour-badge to the 2nd, 4th, 8th, 10th and 24th Madras Infantry. The Regiment therefore claimed the Assaye Elephant as part of its Cap Badge. The present Regimental Crest consists of the Assaye Elephant surmounting a pair of Malabar swords with a shield at the crossing, and a scroll below inscribed 'THE MADRAS REGIMENT'. It is bi-metallic, the shield being in brass and the rest in white chrome. The elephant faces west as seen from the front, and has an arched back, a slightly curved trunk, tusks pointing upwards, and a sagging belly, with the tuft of the tail resting at the rear edge of its left thigh.



The 9th battalion of the Madras Regiment (Travancore) has completed 300 years in the service of the motherland. The battalion was raised in 1704 at Padmanabhapuram in Kalkulam taluk of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu. Padmanabhapuram was the erstwhile capital of Travancore State. Raised as personal bodyguards to the Maharaja of Travancore, the unit, though redesigned through the ages, continues to retain its individual identity with no history of disbandment or reraising.
The Travancore Army completely exterminated the superior and better equipped Dutch Forces which landed at Colachal in July 1741 during the reign of Anizham Thirunal Veer Bala Marthand Varma. In the battle of Colachal, Capt Eustace De Lanoy, the Dutch Naval Forces Commander, was captured who was asked later to train the Travancore Army. From 1741 to 1758, Capt De Lanoy remained in command of the Travancore Forces and was involved in annexation of small principalities.
In 1935, the Travancore State joined the Indian State Forces Scheme and the battalion was named 1st Travancore Nayar Infantry, Travancore State Forces. The unit was reorganised as an Indian State Infantry Battalion by Lt Col HS Steward who was appointed Commandant of the Travancore State Forces. In 1940, the battalion left for Padmanabhapuram and arrived at Military Station, Cannanore.
The battalion served overseas in 1940s. In 1945, Maj Gen Parameshwaran Pillai was appointed GOC, Travancore State Forces. In the same year, the unit was asked to move to South East Asian Command. Embarked on At Taima, the unit sailed to Hong Kong. Disembarked at Kowloon Harbour, it was placed under the command of 150 Independent Infantry Brigade. While at Kowloon, the unit was assigned the task of guarding Japanese prisoners of war, airfields and docks. It also looked after the repatriation of PoWs to Japan. The unit left Hong Kong, disembarked at Madras and arrived at Trivandrum on January 31, 1947.
In April, 1951 the battalion was integrated with Indian Army and on May 1, 1954, it was merged with the Madras Regiment and was redesignated 9th Battalion of the Madras Regiment (Travancore). After the integration of Travancore State Force with the Indian Army, the State Forces Colours were ceremonially laid up at Chetwode Hall, Indian Military Academy, Dehra Dun in 1956.
The then President, Mr VV Giri, presented new Colours to the battalion on May 23, 1970 at Barrack square, Wellington at a solemn ceremony. Over the years, everybody was impressed with the valiant deeds of the battalion. In fond recognition of their bravery, people started calling them terrors.
Post Independence, the battalion served from Siachen to Andaman and Nicobar Islands and from Nagaland to Rajasthan. Some of the operational achievements are highlighted below:

•  The battalion actively participated in the Hyderabad Police Action during 1948 and was instrumental in restoring peace and tranquility in the riot torn region.















President’s Colours being given by the then President Mr. VV Giri on May 23, 1970


•  For the first time, the unit was deployed in high altitude area in Sugar Sector in Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and occupied forward posts in inhospitable terrain during 1962 war.
•  During Indo-Pak war in 1965, the battalion located at Ferozpur under 65 Infantry Brigade fought the famous Battle of Barki and played a leading role in the capture of Barka-Kalan and Ichogil Bund. In this heroic action, twentyseven personnel made supreme sacrifice. The battalion was honoured with one Vir Chakra, two Sena Medals, twelve mention-in-despatches and the theatre honour Punjab.
•  In Nagaland, the battalion conducted operations against Naga hostiles. The unit performed extremely well and was awarded one Sena Medal and two COAS commendation cards.
•  The 9th battalion took part in operation Cactus Lily during 1971 war. The battalion, deployed under 330 Infantry Brigade at Barmer, captured Mahendro Ro Par and Fateh Ro Par on Gadra City-Umraokot axis. It remained deployed at Naya Chor till the announcement of ceasefire on December 17, 1971. During this operation, it suffered ten casualties. In another operation, during 1971 war, Capt Gopa Kumar Raman Pillai was awarded Vir Chakra.
•  The battalion served in Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1990 to 1994 where it had the opportunity to undertake anti-poaching operations in conjunction with Navy and the Air Force. The unit was awarded one Vishisht Seva Medal and four GOC-in-C Southern Command commendation cards during these operations.
•  The battalion served in Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1990 to 1994 where it had the opportunity to undertake anti-poaching operations in conjunction with Navy and the Air Force. The unit was awarded one Vishisht Seva Medal and four GOC-in-C Southern Command commendation cards during these operations.






Before Colours laying at IMA, Dehra Dun in 1956
•  During operation Rakshak, the battalion conducted counter-insurgency operations in Bhadarwah and Rajouri Sectors. It neutralised more than 35 militants and captured a large quantity of weapons, ammunition and explosives including SAM missiles, UMGs and a sniper rifle. Maj Sajjan Singh Gahalawat and three ORs made supreme sacrifice during these operations. The unit was awarded two Shaurya Chakra, three Sena Medals, two COAS commendation cards and two GOC-in-C commendation cards.
•  While participating in operation Meghdoot, the unit served at the world’s highest battlefield from 2000 to 2002. It occupied Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) in Siachen. During this operation, the battalion suffered two casualties due to adverse weather conditions.
•  During operation Parakram, the unit was operationally deployed at Turtuk, Baramulla, Handanbrog, Dras and Kargil.
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TIPU DEFEATED TWICE BY TRAVANCORE NAIR SOLDIERS 

1790A.D.:-







TIPU'S INVASION OF TRAVANCORE
Travancore had an alliance (Treaty of Mangalore) with the English Company according to which "an aggression against Travancore would be viewed as equivalent to declaration of war against the English"

Kingdom of Travancore
Part of History of Kerala
Flag of Travancore
Travancore Kings
Marthanda Varma1729–1758
   Dharma Raja1758–1798
Balarama Varma1798–1810
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi1810–1815
Gowri Parvati Bayi1815–1829
Swathi Thirunal1829–1846
Uthram Thirunal1846–1860
Ayilyam Thirunal1860–1880
Visakham Thirunal1880–1885
Moolam Thirunal1885–1924
Sethu Lakshmi Bayi1924–1931
Chithira Thirunal1931–1949
‡ Regent Queens
Capitals
Padmanabhapuram1729–1795
Thiruvananthapuram1795–1949
Palaces
Padmanabhapuram Palace
Kilimanoor palace
Kuthira Malika
Kowdiar Palace

 The Dutch who were afraid of Tipu also agreed to transfer the Kodungallur Fort to Travancore, mainly as a strategy to involve the more powerful British in case of war with Travancore on that account. Since Cochin was considered a tributary to Mysore,

 Tipu objected to the transfer of Kodungallur Fort
Relics of Cranganore Fort

                                                                               Views of Portuguese Cranganore[KODUNGALLOOR]

Nair soldier,an old picture   

which was part of Cochin territory before its occupation by the Dutch. Therefore, Tipu Sultan demanded of Travancore to (i) allow free access to Kodungallur because the Travancore defence line had stretched and passed through Cochin territory, and (ii) surrender all Hindu Rajas and nobles from Malabar who had taken refuge in Travancore.

Dharma Raja Of Travancore


raja kesavadas
But the demand was rejected. That was his pretext for waging a war against the Travancore State. In the meantime, the Cochin Raja, who was under the guidance and protection of the weak Dutch, openly shook off his tributary links with Tipu and aligned with Travancore after the firm offer of support and protection by the British.

 He fought  against the Hindu Rajas. His hostilities against the British were stepped up only when his ally, the French, waged wars against the British in Europe or his own kingdom was threatened.


TIPU CRIPPLED AND DEFEATED
The Travancore Raja replied to Tipu explaining that he did what he did as per the advice of the British . That provoked Tipu. He launched an attack against Travancore but was defeated in January, 1790. According to Mr. Powney who was the Resident Representative of the English Company in Travancore, Tipu's attack was not only effectively stopped by the Travancore army, Tipu himself fell down from the rampart, was seriously wounded, and was rendered permanently lame during the counter-attack by the Travancore forces.

Tipu and his army were camping on the banks of the Alwaye river before launching the attack on the Travancore defence lines (Nedunkotta Fort).
(Nedunkotta Fort).
The relics of the entrance of travancore lines-




 The Travancore army was no match for the huge Mysore army and the monsoon season was four or five months away. 

Therefore, under the guidance of Raja Kesavadas, the Prime Minister of Travancore, a temporary bund was constructed way up on the stream by a team headed by Kalikutty Nair.

 When the Mysore army launched its assault and Nedunkotta was penetrated, the temporary bund was breached in the midst of heavy fighting, causing an unexpected flood which drowned many Mysore soldiers and rendered the gunpowder wet and useless. The result was panic and confusion in the Mysore army. The triumphant Nair forces of Travancore inflicted heavy casualties on the- invading army. But the valiant Kalikutty Nair was also drowned in the sudden surge of water and became a martyr.

That was the first time, January 1, 1790, when Tipu Sultan tasted a humiliating defeat.

 It is recorded in Travancore history and also confirmed by the local folklore that as the wounded Tipu was lying unconscious in the battlefield he was rescued by a Nair soldier who quietly carried the unconscious Sultan to the Mysore military camp during the night and left quickly  The brave Nair soldier could have easily killed the unconscious Tipu 
According to authentic historical records, the Nair forces of Travancore attacked the Mysore army which was crossing the defence fortification, and inflicted heavy casualties on it. The sudden and unexpected attack made the Mysore Army panicky, and in the confusion Tipu Sultan fell down from the ramparts of the fort into the ditch below along with his palanquin. 

The fall made him permanently lame. Later on, the Travancore forces recovered from the ditch the sword, the pallanquin, the dagger, the ring and many other personal effects of Tipu and presented them to the Dharma Raja. Some of Tipu's personal weapons and ornaments were sent to the Nawab of Arcot on his request (Travancore History by P. Sankunny Menon, published by Kerala Bhasha Institute, Trivandrum, pp. 191-92).

Sultan Bathery derives its present name from Tipu Sultan of Mysore who used the abandoned Jain temple here and used it as his battery hence the name Sultan's Battery.






TIPU'S SECOND DEFEAT
Tipu retreated and sent for reinforcements from Coimbatore and Srirangapatanam. He also "recalled all his Muslim troops despatched earlier to different parts of South Malabar  . 

After regrouping and reinforcing his army, Tipu mounted another attack in March 1790 in order to demolish the Travancore defence line. He reached upto Veropally (Varapuzha) near Alwaye. 





Meanwhile, following firm assurance of support and protection by the English Company who had by this time extended their military power and political influence to the entire West Coast and South India, some of the important Malabar Rajas such as


 Pazhassi Raja,

Pazhassi Raja
Prince Regent of Kottayam

Pazhassi Raja - an artist's view on a laterite wall
Reign1774 - 1805






Kolathiri Raja and Kadathanad Raja, returned to their respective kingdoms and asserted their independence from Mysore suzerainty.

 The Cochin Raja shook off his tributary link with Mysore. The Zamorin and the Palghat Raja were promised help by the British in their opposition to the Mysore Sultan, with the promise of restoring their lost territories to them after the defeat of Tipu.

 All the Hindu Rajas and nobles had thus joined hands with the British against the war efforts of Tipu mainly because of his  atrocities in Kerala. Revolt against the Mysore occupation forces broke out all over Malabar and spread to Coorg with the return of the chieftains to their respective areas.



 Before the end of 1790, the British captured Palghat Fort and secured the communication channel from Coimbatore to the West Coast for assisting the Travancore forces against the Mysore army.

By the time Tipu Sultan launched his second attack and demolished parts of Nedungotta in May 1790, heavy monsoon rains caused the Alwaye river to flood the countryside. Since the Mysore army was not accustomed to fighting during rainy season, it was easy for the Travancore army to defeat Tipu's army.

That was the second defeat Tipu suffered near Alwaye in 1790.

In the meantime, Lord Cornwallis, the Governor General,

 himself assumed the command of the British forces and pushed forward towards Srirangapatanam, headquarters of Tipu Sultan. Simultaneously, the Maratha and the Nizam's forces also advanced from different directions. The final assault was mounted and Srirangapatanam surrounded in January-February 1791 by a combined army consisting of the British, Maratha and the Nizam's forces. Tipu Sultan, who-rushed to Srirangapatanam, abandoning his military operations against Travancore, was forced to sign a treaty in 1792 ceding the entire West Coast and half of his other possessions to the Allies, thus relieving the Hindus of Kerala from further Islamic brutalities.


ROLE OF THE BRITISH
It may be noted here that the Maharaja of Travancore had kept the British Governor of Madras informed about the political developments and the imminent military operations of Tipu Sultan against Travancore. 

But the then Governor of Madras, Mr. Holland, in spite of the obligations under the Treaty of Mangalore, specifically instructed the British contingents sent to the Travancore borders, not to assist the Travancore forces in case of war. When the Governor General, Lord Cornwallis, heard about Travancore's victory over Tipu's forces, he assumed at first that it was due to the active assistance rendered by the English Company. But later on, he came to know about the dubious actions and the corrupt character of Mr. Holland. The Governor of Madras was believed to be in the pay of Tipu Sultan. So he was relieved of his responsibilities and Lord Cornwallis himself assumed command of the Madras Army.

 The military operations against Srirangapatanam culminated in Tipu's surrender and the Treaty of Srirangapatanam signed in 1792. But as far as Tipu's defeat and humiliation on the borders of Travancore were concerned, the British played no role; the entire credit for the victory goes to the strategy of Raja Kesava Das and the valiant soldiers of the Travancore army.
MAP OF MALABAR KINGDOMS AT THE TIME OF TIPU'S INVASION: [Marthanda Varma (Anizham Thirunal) (Malayalam: മാര്‍ത്താണ്ഡ വര്‍മ്മ), (1706–1758) was the Maharajah of the Indian princely state of Travancore from 1729[united all small kingdoms from kanyakumari to cochin.:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marthanda_Varma



The British not only did not keep their solemn promise to


 the Malabar kings and chieftains, but also insisted that


 Travancore should pay heavily for the British "help".

File:BMImg 65514 firstMadras.JPG
Many members of the royal families of Malabar who migrated to Travancore State preferred to stay back even after the withdrawal of Tipu's army and restoration of peace, because of their nightmarish experience and the peculiar psyche of the forcibly converted  population in Malabar. The prominent royal families were (1) Neerazhi Kovilakam, (2) Gramathil Kottaram, (3) Paliyakkara, (4) Nedumparampu, (5) Chempra Madham, (6) Ananthapuram Kottaram, (7) Ezhimatoor Palace, (8) Aranmula Kottaram, (9) Varanathu Kovilakam, (10) Mavelikkara, (11) Ennakkadu, (12) Murikkoyikkal Palace, (13) Mariappilly, (14) Koratti Swaroopam, (15) Kaippuzha Kovilakam, (16) Lakshmipuram Palace, and (17) Kottapuram.


                                              END OF TIPU'S  DYNASTY:-




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ENGLISH OFFICERS OF NAIR PATTALAM(NAIR


 SOLDIERS) ARE BURIED IN 


TRIVANDRUM(THIRUANANTHAPURAM)AT The CSI Christ Church at Palayam the first PROTESTANT church established in Trivandrum1858, surrounded by the University Stadium and the Chandrasekharan Nair stadium,  is strategically located on the arterial Mahatma Gandhi Road on one end and the Kerala Legislature Complex at the other
 opens its gate to rich history and there still stand those century old tombs, within some of which lie the dusty remains of British soldiers of a bygone era 

Christ Church [Trivandrum


Christ Church interior [Trivandrum]

 NOTE:- THE HAND PULLED PUNKAH(HAND PULLED FAN) ON EITHER SIDE ;HANGING DOWN LIKE A SHEET ;FROM ENTRANCE TO THE INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH;ALSO THE KEROSENE LANTERNS (BEFORE ELECTRICITY CAME TO TRIVANDRUM IN 1929)
 THE CHURCH WAS MADE ADJACENT TO THE ARMY CAMP CALLED CANTONMENT NOW KNOWN AS [PALAYAM] AND MOST EUROPEAN OFFICERS WERE STAYING NEAR  , MANY ENGLISH OFFICERS  ARE BURIED IN THE CHURCH
 THE FIRST BURIAL OF AN ENGLISH MAN TOOK PLACE IN 1786 IN  THE CEMETRY;BEFORE THE CHURH WAS MADE; MANY ENGLISH MEN WERE BURIED ,AND MANY OF THEIR NAMES ARE STILL SEEN ON THE TOMB STONES
 THE ARMY PARADE GROUND WAS MADE INTO A STADIUM (CHANDRASEKHARAN NAIR STADIUM OF PALAYAM)
The trees, the tombs and the shade...a cemetery has a heart that beats in silence...

Look closer[CAPTAIN..... IN -NAIR BRIGADE -BURIED


 1838]

No eyes to shed tears... still they stand witness to changing times..
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Shungoony Menon’s History of Travancore
[DETAILED WAR HISTORY  OF TIPU WITH TRAVANCORE NAIR SOLDIERS AT THE NEDUMKOTAH(LONG FORT)]

On the 11th Dhanu (24th December), Tippoo encamped at a place four miles distant from the Travancore lines, where he began to erect batteries on the 12th (25th). On the night of the 15th Dhanu, 964 M.E., (28th December 1789 A.D.), Tippoo's powerful army, under his personal command, attacked the Northern frontier of Travancore and attempted a breach of the barrier; but the attack was ably and gallantly resisted by the troops on duty, generally known by the designation of "Paravoor Battalion”.


On the morning of the 15th Dhanu (28th December), the Sultan's force, consisting of 14,000 select infantry and a body of 500 pioneers, paraded in front of the line. The pioneers were ordered to clear a part of the ditch where the wall was not guarded, and they proceeded with the work which was not successfully completed during the night. However, the Sultan ordered the force to proceed and effect an entrance within the walls during the night. By day break on the 16th Dhanu (29th December) he gained an entrance and succeeded in possessing a considerable extent of the ramparts. The troops of the Maha Rajah, occupying those ramparts, retreated before Tippoo's army as the latter was marching by the side of the wall with the full view of reaching the gate. The Travancore garrison opposed their progress. Tippoo found it necessary to bring in a reinforcement to afford help to the leading corps. In the hurry of the moment, the order was misunderstood and ill-executed. In this confusion, a party of twenty men of the Travancore garrison, who were stationed at a corner of the rampart, threw in a regular platoon on the flank which killed the officer commanding, and threw the corps into inextricable disorder and flight. The advancing relief was met and checked by an impetuous mass of fugitives.


The panic now became general and the retreating men were borne on to the ditch, while others were forced into it by the mass which pressed on from behind. Those that fell into the ditch were, of course, killed. The rear now became the front. The bodies that filled the ditch enabled the remainder to pass over them. The Sultan himself was thrown down in the struggle and the bearers of his palanquin trampled to death. Though he was rescued from death by some of his faithful followers, yet he received such injuries that he never forgot in this episode in his invasion of Travancore.


Tippoo's State sword, signet ring, and other personal ornaments fell into the hands of the Travancore army; several officers and men were taken prisoners, and of the former, five were Europeans, and one a Mahratta.


Tippoo retreated with great shame and chagrin, and Dewan Kasava Pillay returned to Trivandrum in triumph, bringing with him Tippoo's sword, shield, as trophies. The Maha Rajah communicated the news of his success to his friends the English and the Nabob, and received their warm congratulations. The Nabob requested the Maha Rajah to send Tippoo's sword, shield, dagger, belt, palanquin, and they were accordingly forwarded.

Tippoo was now determined on retaliating on Travancore. He remained in the vicinity of the northern frontier and concentrated a large army there which consisted of infantry, cavalry and artillery. The rest of the story involves the British who were asked by the Maharaja for help. The bureaucracy, after some stonewalling by J Holland (some say bribed into inactivity by Tipu) finally decided to enter the fray. Tipu in the meantime was methodically destroying the Nedumkottah which was becoming a long and arduous task.

The British did not receive orders to attack though stationed in readiness. By the time they received it, Tipus forces had become very big and the officers decide to retreat. Keshava Pillay also decided to retreat.

The Sultan's first object was to destroy the "contemptible wall" and fill up the ditch, and so he took a pickaxe himself and set an example which was followed by everyone present and the demolition of the wall was completed by his army without much delay.

The wall was smashed down and Tipous forces pillaged and burnt their way forward, but then another fate befell them, for the master strategist and planner from the placid plains had never seen the fury of the South west monsoon, the very same winds that helps the country with trade.

The south-west monsoon broke out with unusual severity and the beautiful Alwaye river, a stream which usually rises after a few showers, filled and overflowed its banks causing Tippoo's army great inconvenience and rendering their march almost impossible.

Tippoo was certainly in a very awkward predicament and one for which he was not prepared. He had no idea of what a Malabar monsoon was. His army had no shelter; no dry place for parade; all their ammunition, accoutrements etc got wet. Even the very necessaries of life were washed away by the impetuous current of the flooded river.


And thus Tipu limped back to Mysore, defeated at his own waterloo. The limp was to remind him constantly of his misadventures into Malabar, through the rest of his miserable life.
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                                                       1797




Eye witness account from Lachlan Macquarie who participated in one of the battle against Pazhassi Raja

http://www.library.mq.edu.au/digital/lema/1797/1797may.html

May

May 3.
Wednesday! — This morning at Day–break, the Four Companies of the 77th. Regiment, consisting of 2 Captains, 6 Lieutenants, 13 Serjts., 7 Drumrs. & Fifers, and 200 Rank & File, under my command, marched off from Tellicherry Fort, agreeably to the General orders of yesterday, to form part of the Field Army now assembling at Cottiangurry under the orders of Colonel Alexr. Dow of the Bbay Establishment, for the purpose of prosecuting the War in the Cottiote Country, against the Rebellious Pyché Rajah, now at the head of a large Body of Insurgents. —
The Detachment, after an easy and pleasant march, and crossing one River in Jangars; arrived at Cottiangurry at 8,O'Clock in the morning, and Encamped on the Right of the Line. — This Ground is about 9 miles in a due East direction from Tellicherry. —
Having Posted the necessary Guards and dismissed the Detachment to their Tents, I waited on Colonel Dow to report to him my arrival in Camp with the 4 Companies of the 77th. Regiment, and to receive his further orders respecting them. — The Colonel was very glad to see me and expressed great satisfaction at having me thus placed under his command.
The two Brigades of Guns under Capt. Griffiths of the Bbay Artillery, and the Bbay Grenadier Battn. of Sepoys under the command of Major John Mc.Donald, arrived in Camp in a few hours after the 77th. Detachment. —
Lieut. Colonel James Dunlop of the 77th. Regt. arrived also in Camp this afternoon from Tellicherry, being appointed to serve with Colonel Dow's Field Army as second in Command. —
May 4.
Thursday — Nothing Extraordinary.
My friend Col: Dunlop and myself agree to mess together during the Campaign in the Jungle. —
May 5.
Friday! — All the Corps destined for the present service being now arrived in Camp, Colonel Dow in Line Orders of today made out a Disposition and Order of Battle of the Troops under his Command. — By this Disposition the Army is Divided into Two Wings or Columns: – the Right Commanded by Lt. Colonel Dunlop, and the Left by Lt. Colonel Wiseman; these Wings or Columns being each divided into two Divisions. — I have the honor to command the 1st. Division of the Right Wing, consisting of the 77th. Detachment, and 2d. Battn. of the 3d. Regt. of Native Infantry, in all about 700 Fighting men; and this Division is directed in the same orders to form the Advanced Guard, when the whole of the Army move together.
May 6.
Saturday — The Line changed Ground, and the several Corps took up their new Position in the order of Battle Published in yesterday's Orders. —
Colonel Dow at 2,O'Clock this afternoon held a Council of War Composed of the Field officers Commanding Wings and Divisions, for the purpose of laying before them his Instructions from the Commander in Chief, and to take their opinion on his intended Plan of Operations and movements in the Jungle. —
After the Council of War broke up, we all dined with Colonel Dow.
May 7.
Sunday! — Orders were issued this day for the Army to be ready to march early tomorrow morning. —
May 8.
Monday — The orders for the Army to march this morning are Countermanded, in consequence of our Auxiliary Troops – the friendly Corps of Nairs and Mopilas [sic] – declining to march – on account of this being an unlucky Day! – but tomorrow they promise to do whatever they are ordered. —
The Army were accordingly directed to be in readiness to march tomorrow morning in two Separate Wings or Columns by different Routes – towards Todicullum, the Capital of the Pyche Rajah, and where he is reported to be at present. —
May 9.
Tuesday! — At 8,O'Clock this morning, the Army marched – as directed in yesterday's orders – in Two separate Columns – by different Routes; The Right Column under Lt. Col: Dunlop by that of Mananderry – and the Left Column under Lt. Col: Wiseman by that of Neeloor; both Columns being directed to push on rapidly, and to form a junction at Todicullum with the least possible delay, scouring and clearing the Jungle of the Enemy as they move on to that Point. — The Route by Mananderry being reported very bad and impracticable for Guns, they were all ordered to proceed with the Left Column, the roads to Todicullum by Neeloor being tolerably good and better known by the Guides. — Colonel Dow himself also accompanied the Left Column. —
I was directed to command the Advanced Guard of the Right Column, and to march about 500 Yards in Front of the Main Body. — The number of the advanced Guard was only 350 men, on account of there being but one Column to flank on the march. — The rest of my Division remained with Colonel Dunlop. —
Captain Browne of the Bbay Establishment, who requested of Colonel Dow to permit him to serve as a Volunteer on the present Service, was appointed to act as Aide de Camp to Lieut. Colonel Dunlop during the Campaign. The two Columns being provided with the necessary Guides, moved on into the Jungle in the order already mentioned, a large Body of the Auxilliary [sic] Irregular Troops of Nairs and Mopillas marching at the Head of each Column. —
After the Right Column had marched about six miles into the Jungle, the Enemy appeared in front and made their first attack upon us about 1 P.M. at a Village called Kydree [?] belonging to a noted Rebel. — They kept up a smart scattering fire upon us for about half an hour from behind the high banks and enclosures near the Road; but small flanking Parties of the Advanced being detached for that purpose soon dislodged the Enemy from their cover and completely dispersed them, compelling them to take to their heels in different directions. —
Two men of our Irregular Mopillas were wounded in this short conflict, which was all the mischief the Enemy did us. — From Kydree we marched on for about an Hour, through very close Jungle, and occasionally through Batty Fields, without meeting with any molestation, until we entered a narrow Pass that led through remarkable thick Jungle and rough broken Ground full of Ravines, Rocks and Banks that afforded excellent cover for the Enemy. This Pass or Defile – bounded by very high Ground on both Flanks – continued for above two miles. — It was at the entrance of this Pass that Capts. Bowman and Troy and Lieut. Bond were attacked and killed on the 7th. of January last, and that our Convoys were afterwards so severely attacked and annoyed by the Enemy.
We therefore had every reason to expect to meet them again at the same Place; and accordingly every precaution was taken by Colonel Dunlop in marching his Column through this dangerous Defile to guard against a Surprise – and be prepared for the Enemy. — The Column had hardly advanced half a mile in the Defile before our Flanking Parties were fired upon by the Enemy from behind the Rocks and Banks. — The Enemy then commencing a very smart and galling fire upon our whole Line from the Front and both Flanks, the Advanced Guard, under my command were ordered to charge and drive the Enemy from their Cover – but they were no sooner Dislodged from one set of Rocks and Banks than they occupied others at a distance to annoy us from with this teasing and galling Fire. — At length, however, they were completely driven from their Cover – and forced to take to their Heels in different directions through the Jungle – our Troops pursuing them to a considerable distance. —
We had the misfortune to lose Capt. Browne Acting Aide de Camp to Colonel Dunlop on this occasion, having been killed early in the action. — He was a brave and very deserving officer, and was consequently very much regretted by us all. —
Besides Capt. Brown [sic], one Serjeant (Wilson) and Sixteen Privates were killed and wounded; the loss chiefly falling on the Advanced Guard; poor Serjt. Wilson was killed close to me, and was a fine active fellow. — The Enemy being completely dispersed, and our wounded men taken proper care of, the Column continued its march forwards until we arrived at Mananderry, a considerable Nair Village, situated in a large beautiful Valley, surrounded by pretty high Hills, on one of which, close to the Village, stood a small Square Mud Fort. — As soon as the Head of the Column had emerged out of the Jungle into the Plain of this Valley, the Enemy again made their appearance on all the surrounding Heights from whence they commenced and kept up for some time a very smart and most galling fire of Musquetry on the Column as it advanced. — Whilst the Column were deploying into Line, the Advanced Guard, with some additional Companies detached from the Main Body, charged the different Bodies of the enemy posted on the Heights and very soon put them to the Rout, excepting one Party that kept up a constant fire upon us from the Fort. — I sent an officer to Col: Dunlop to obtain his Permission to storm it; which being granted, and some scaling Ladders having been sent me at same time, I moved on rapidly with the Advanced Guard to storm this little Fort accordingly; but the Enemy posted within it perceiving our design, abandoned it in a great hurry and confusion as we were approaching towards it, and before we could possibly reach it to cut off their Retreat – which they unfortunately effected, setting fire to the few Houses in the Fort. —
We had five men killed and wounded in this attack, but luckily no officer materially. — In our advance for the purpose of storming Mananderry Fort, I received a slight contusion on the upper part of my left Foot, where I was struck with a spent Ball, and which I picked up; but which only left a blue mark on the skin, and did not even penetrate through the Leather of my Boot. —
It being almost dark before we were in Possession of Mananderry Fort and the different surrounding Heights, Colonel Dunlop determined to halt the Column here for tonight, the Troops being a good deal fatigued. — We accordingly posted the necessary Guards and Piquets; allowing one half of our Line to sleep while the other lay on their Arms. —
The Remains of Capt. Browne were buried at Mananderry with the usual Honors, and also the few men we lost in this last affair. — Some of our Public & Private Followers were killed in this last attack, and also Fifteen men of our Auxilliaries [sic] – notwithstanding they were very backward and fought very shy all day; – but being always huddled together in great confused Crowds, the Enemy's shot made the greater havock [sic] amongst them.
May 10.
Wednesday! — At 6. A.M. The Column marched from Mananderry, pursuing its route through a very thick close Jungle to Todicullum, without seeing or receiving any molestation whatever from the Enemy.
After a fatiguing march of six Hours, we arrived at the Rebellions Rajah's Capital of Todicullum, and formed a junction with the Left Column, which had arrived there only two Hours before us – but found the Place abandoned – the Rajah and his principal Adherents having fled up the Ghauts on hearing of our approach. — The Left Column met with no opposition whatever in their advance to Todicullum by the Neeloor Route, the whole of the Enemy's force having been directed against the Right Column. —
There was a considerable Body of the Enemy however stationed at Todicullum, where they remained till the Left Column made its appearance, and then fled into the Jungle with the greatest percipitation without firing a shot. —
The Town or Village of Todicullum is situated in a small and very deep Valley, surrounded every way by Heights, covered with very close and almost impenetrable Jungle from the bottom to the tops of these Hills. — The Rajah has here a very fine fortified Pagoda, and which is his favorite place. — The Pagoda and other adjoining Houses are all covered with Copper, and make a beautiful appearance at a distance. Colonel Dow having determined to remain here for a couple of days to rest the Troops – and to [to] endeavour to obtain some intelligence respecting the force of the enemy and the place of the Rebellious Rajah's Retreat, orders were given to the Line to Encamp on their present Ground. —
The men had no sooner began to Pitch the Tents than a straggling fire of Musquetry upon our Line commenced from our concealed Enemy in the Jungle, not a man of them being to be seen with the naked Eye; but on watching and looking with our Spy Glasses at the particular spots from whence the smoke of their fire issued, this dastardly Enemy were seen sitting like monkies [sic] in the Tops of the thickest and Highest Trees in the Jungle, from which they fired in perfect security to themselves – and unperceived by us. — In this way they continued to annoy our Camp the greater part of the Day, killing and wounding a few Soldiers – and several Pubic and Private Followers. — But a few rounds of Grape having been fired amongst them at random from the six Pounders, and some Flanking Parties having been sent out at the same time towards the Evening, theseIntrepid Warriors fled from their lofty Nests – and we were no more annoyed by them. —
We could form no correct judgment of the force of the Enemy thus opposed to us, as we had never seen more than Forty or Fifty of them at any one time together.
May 11.
Thursday — No intelligence being yet received of the Rajah's place of Retreat, Colonel Dow called a Council of War this afternoon of all the Field officers – in which it was resolved – that the Army should march the following morning towards Canote about 2 miles in a South Easterly direction from Todicullum, and where a large Body of the Enemy was said to have lately taken Post, and with an intention to defend it – there being a large fortified Pagoda there. —
May 12.
Friday! — The Army marched this morning at 9,O'Clock from Todicullum, the Right Column leading – with the whole of my Division forming the Advanced Guard – marching about 300 Yards in front of the Main Body – and detaching numerous Flanking Parties. — When we had marched about a mile forwards into the Jungle. The Advance Guard was warmly attacked by the Enemy, who opened a very smart fire of Musquetry from the Tops of Trees on both our Flanks – and from an old House in our Front – Company of the 77th. under Lt. Lawrence was sent to dislodge them from the latter, which was immediately accomplished, and a few Platoons being fired at the Trees on our Flanks soon drove the Enemy from them, forcing them to cross the Canote river about half a mile in our front; but they no sooner crossed it than they again commenced a very galling fire from along the Banks of it from Tops of Trees on our whole Line. — The Advanced Guard, however, having moved rapidly on and forded the River, advanced to storm the fortified Pagoda of Canote, close to the Banks of the River, and from which the Enemy kept up a smart fire on our Line whilst we were fording the River; but we had no sooner crossed it than they abandoned the Pagoda and fled into the Jungle, and the Advanced Guard took Possession of it without further molestation before the Right Column had crossed the River.
In this affair Brigade Major Batchelor was killed, besides Eight Noncommissioned Officers & Soldiers killed and wounded in the Advanced Guard; there were also a few of our Followers, and some of our Auxilliary [sic] Troops killed and wounded on this occasion.
Capt. Batchelor had come up to the Head of the Advanced Guard to deliver me some orders from Colonel Dow, and whilst he was in the act of speaking to me and standing close to me, he received shot through the Head, and fell dead instantly. — He was a smart and gallant good officer, and deservedly much regretted by the Army. —
After Canote Pagoda and all the Houses in the Neighbourhood of it were destroyed (–the Nambiar of Canote being a most active noted Rebel–), the Army proceeded to Cherwancherry, a large and Populous well cultivated District, lying about 5 miles in a Southwest Direction from Canote. — Here we halted during the Night of the 12th., having burnt and destroyed all the Houses in this and the Neighbouring Villages. — Our Auxilliary [sic] Troops (–the irregular Corps of friendly Nairs and Mopillas–) are famous for this cruel work of Destruction and devastation, and were accordingly employed on it to great good purpose. — But in the fighting way they were of no use to us at all, as we never could prevail on them to go on in front on any account after the first day. —
May 13.
Friday [sic] — There being no certain accounts of the lurking Place of the Pyche Rajah, the Rains being now set in, and some of the principal objects of the Expedition having been already accomplished as far as the present advanced stage of the Season would admit, Colonel Dow determined to return to our former Camp, in order to get the Troops Cantoned before the Rains set in more seriously, — The Army marched accordingly early this morning from Cherwancherry, and at Two O'Clock arrived at Cottiangurry, where we Encamped on our old Ground, to wait the further orders of the commander in Chief at Tellicherry. —
May 14.
Saturday! [sic] — Colonel Dow this day received orders to remain here with the Troops until all our Out–Posts in the Cotiote District are reinforced and supplied with 4 months Provisions for the Rains; after which the different Corps and Detachments are to be marched into their respective Garrisons and Cantonments during the Monsoon; but to be told that they are to be ready to take the Field again as soon as the Season will admit of carrying on active operations against the Rebellious Rajah and his Adherents, should they not surrender before the Rains are over – and which it is generally supposed they will do, in consequence of what they have seen and experienced in the course of this short but successful little Campaign in the Jungle – which must have proved to them that our Troops can penetrate through every part of their Country – however difficult of access – and their Troops must now be fully sensible that they never can stand us in the Field, even in their own extraordinary mode of warfare and Monkey–like–way of Fighting from the Tops of Trees! — It is true we cannot say to a certainty that we have killed many of them on this last Service – nor could we possibly ascertain what number of them have been killed or wounded, which are never seen, as they are instantly carried off the moment they fall. — But if we may judge from the dreadful Yellsand Screams of the Enemy every time our Troops fired at them into the Jungle, tho' generally at random, there must have been a considerable number of them killed and wounded on this last Service. —
May 18.
Thursday! — In consequence of orders received from Genl. Stuart, the Commander in Chief, the Camp at Cottiangurry broke up this morning, and the several Corps marched off for their respective Quarters and Cantonments. The 77th. Detachment, under my Command, marched from Cottiangurry at 10,O'Clock a.m. – and arrived at their Monsoon Quarters in Tellicherry Fort at 2,O'Clock in the afternoon, where I dismissed them, after thanking the Officers and Soldiers for their gallant and very regular exemplary good conduct in the field. — I then waited on General Stuart to make my report, and afterwards went to pay my respects to Governor Duncan in company with my friend Colonel Dunlop. — The Governor asked us to dine with him, which we did accordingly, and there met with Genl. Stuart and his Suite. — Both the Governor and General received Colonel Dunlop and myself in the kindest manner, and thanked us for our exertions in the Field. —
My worthy good friend General Stuart reminded me the moment he saw me of my Engagement to live with him and make one of his Family as long as he remained on the Coast, and which Invitation I very readily accepted. — He apologized for not being able to give me a Room in his own House, there being none to spare; but this was no inconveniency as I had the offer of a Room in a House close in the Neighbourhood of the General from my friend Mr. Forbes Mitchell which I accepted accordingly. —
Genl. Stuart's Family consists at present of the following Gentlemen besides himself: – Vizt. —
Capt. Robt. Gordon Dy. Adjt. Genl.
Capt. Walker – Military Secry.
Capt. Morley – Aide de Camp
Lieut. Campbell – Aide de Camp
In all six, including the General and myself. —
May 19.
Friday! — I resigned this day the command of the 77th. Detachment to Capt. Mc.Pherson the next Senior Officer, and resumed my own Situation on the General Staff as Major of Brigade to the King's Troops. —
May 21.
Sunday — Colonel Dunlop having resigned his Situation as Military Secretary to Governor Duncan, and Lt. Colonel Whitelocke being about to return to Europe and now at Bombay for that purpose; has resolved on joining the 77th. Regt. at Cochin, and Commanding it there, set out this morning for that place accordingly – being in yesterday's General Orders appointed to the Command of that Garrison. —
I took a ride along with my friend Colonel Dunlop as far as Mahe. — He has very kindly promised me to recommend my Nephew–in–law Mr. Thomas Scott, for an Ensigncy in one of the King's Regiments in India, as soon as he assumes the Command of the 77th. Regiment, when he can with more propriety write to the Commander in Chief on the Subject. —
I have asked Colonel Dunlop to do me this favor in consequence of a Letter from my Sister in law Mrs. Scott to my Angelic Jane, which came to hand after her demise, and in which she tells her beloved Sister that she wishes to get a Commission in the Army in India for her eldest son Thomas in case I can obtain it for him. — I therefore feel it a duty incumbent upon me to do all I can to procure one for him accordingly –; as, I know it would be the wish of my Angelic Jane that I should do so if she were now in being – for she had always the greatest affection for her Sister Mrs. Scott.
May 22.
Monday! — I was obliged to lay myself up today to take medicine in consequence of a most severe Bowel Complaint and Fever. — I have been unwell ever since my return from the Jungle; the great fatigue I was obliged to undergo there, and being so much exposed to the Sun, having brought on this Complaint. — But I was in hopes I should be able to get over it, without confining myself to the House, until this morning when I found myself very unwell indeed. —
[End of entries for 1797]
Index
Source
Macquarie, Lachlan. Journal No. 3: 29 December 1794 – 27 September 1799.
Original held in the Mitchell Library, Sydney.
ML Ref: A769 pp.225 – 260 [mis–numbered 361] [Microfilm Reel 


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