TRAVANCORE--The Rajas of Venad--1000A.D. to 1947 A.D. {1} [The Kulasekhara Dynasty-from internet]







Queen Kumaradevi and KingChandragupta I, depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta, 335–380 CE.








CHERA KINGS OF Karur:-350BC TO 380 AD
"The rulers of Travancore trace their descent from the great dynasty of Chera kings whose exploits are recorded in the old literary monuments of India, the Ithihasas and thePuranas and the works of the Sangam period of ancient Tamil literature. They have a long and continuous history beginning from a period earlier than the commencement of the Christian era. Kulasekhara Alwar, one of the early kings of the Vanchi used the significant title, Keralachudamani The Chera descent of the Maharajas of Travancore is warranted by the indisputable evidence of inscriptions discovered in various parts of south India. A later inscription, one of the Paranthaka Pandya, (12th century A.D) discovered at Cape Comorin makes specific mention of the Chera king of Travancore"
Karur was built on the banks of river Amaravathi which was called Aanporunai during the Sangam days. According to the Hindu mythology,Brahma began the work of creation here, which is referred to as the "place of the sacred cow." The names of the early Chera kings who ruled from Karur, have been found in the rock inscriptions in Aaru Nattar Malai close to Karur. The Tamil epic Silapathikaram mentions that the famous Chera King Senguttuvan ruled from Karur








The names of the early Chera kings who ruled from Karur, have been
 
found in the rock inscriptions in Aaru Nattar 
 
Epigraphical, numismatic, archaeological and literary evidence have proved beyond doubt that Karur was the capital of early Chera kings of Sangam age. It was called Karuvoor or Vanji during Sangam days. There has been a plethora of rare findings during the archaeological excavations undertaken in Karur. These include mat-designed pottery, bricks, mud-toys, Roman coins, Chera Coins, Pallava Coins, RomanAmphorae, Rasset coated ware, rare rings, etc.[1] Karur may have been the center for old jewellery-making and gem setting (with the gold imported mainly from Rome), as seen from various excavations. In 150 Greek scholar Ptolemy mentioned “Korevora” (Karur) as a very famous inland trading center in Tamil Nadu.
Karuvoor Thevar born in Karur, is one among the nine devotees who sung the divine Music Thiruvichaippa, which is the ninth Thirumurai. He is the single largest composer among the nine authors of Thiruvichaippa. He lived during the reign of the great Raja Raja Chola I. In addition to the famous Siva temple, there is a Vishnu temple at Thiruvithuvakkodu suburb of Karur, sung by famous Kulasekaraazhvaar [7-8th century AD]. The same temple is presumably mentioned in epic Silappadikaram as Adaha maadam Ranganathar whose blessings CheranSenguttuvan sought before his north Indian expedition.



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Rulers


Karur was ruled by different Chera kings. Kongu Cheras (capital:Karur (Vanji), ruling nearly the whole of old Kongu - lineage unclear- Cheran kootam)










Kongu Chera Coins
Kongu Chera Coins
Vanavan @ Vanavaramban [430-350 BC].
Kuttuvan Uthiyan Cheralathan [350-328 BC] ruled for 22 years.
Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan [328-270 BC] ruled for 58 years.
Palyaanai Chelkezhu Kuttuvan [270-245 BC] ruled for 25 years.
Kalangaikanni narmudicheral [245-220 BC] ruled for 25 years.
Perumcheralathan [220-200 BC] ruled for 20 years.
Kudakko Neduncheralathan [200-180 BC] ruled for 20 years.
Kadal Pirakottiya Velkezhu kuttuvan [180-125 BC] ruled 55 years.
Adukotpattuch Cheralathan [125-87 BC] ruled 38 years.
Selvak kadungo Vazhiyathan [87-62 BC] ruled 25 years.
Yanaikatchei Mantharanj Cheral Irumborai [62-42 BC] ruled 20 years.
Thagadoor Erintha Perum Cheral Irumborai [42-25 BC] ruled 17 years (unification of Upper and lower Kongu).
Ilancheral Irumborai [25-19 BC] ruled 16 years.
Karuvur Eriya Koperumcheral Irumborai [9-1 BC].
Vanji Mutrathu tunjiya Anthuvancheral [BC 20 – 10 AD].
Kanaikal Irumborai [20-30 AD].
Palai Padiya Perum kadungko [1-30 AD].
Kokothai Marban [30 –60 AD].
Cheran Chenguttuvan [60-140 AD].
Kottambalathu tunjiya Maakothai [140-150 AD].
Cheraman mudangi kidantha Nedumcheralathan [150-160 AD].
Cheraman Kanaikkal Irumborai [160-180 AD].
Cheraman Ilamkuttuvan [180-200 AD].
Thambi Kuttuvan [200-220 AD].
Poorikko [220-250 AD].
Cheraman Kuttuvan Kothai [250-270 AD].
Cheraman Vanjan [270-300 AD].
Mantharanj Cheral [330-380 AD] found in Allahabad inscriptions of Samudragupta.

 The archaeological excavations undertaken in Karur

These include mat-designed pottery, bricks, mud-toys, Roman coins, Chera Coins, Pallava Coins, RomanAmphorae, Rasset coated ware, rare rings, etc. Karur may have been the center for old jewellery-making and gem setting (with the gold imported mainly from Rome), as seen from various excavations. In 150 Greek scholar Ptolemy mentioned “Korevora” (Karur) as a very famous inland trading center in Tamil Nadu.












there is a Vishnu temple at Thiruvithuvakkodu suburb of Karur, sung by famous Kulasekaraazhvaar [7-8th century AD]. The same temple is presumably mentioned in epic Silappadikaram as Adaha maadam Ranganathar whose blessings Cheran Senguttuvan sought before his north Indian expedition




South India in AD 300
Pandiya mean old country.
Chera means hill country
and
Chola means new country,
in Sangam Tamil lexicon.





After the Sangam Cheras, Kongus (Gangas), a Chera related native clan ruled Karur. The history of modern Kongu Nadu dates back 
to the 8th century. The name Kongu Nadu originated from the term "Kongu", meaning nectar or honey. 
Kulasekhara known as Kongar Kon (the king of the Kongu people) ruled Kongu Nadu from Karur during this  
period.
The arch rivals Cholas conquered Karur and ruled it for forty years. The Kongus (Gangas) again conquered Karur as vassals of 
Hoysalas. Malik Kafur ended the Hoysalas & Vijayanagara empire absorbed Karur

File:Travancore.jpg



                               Kingdom of Travancore






The 4th Royal Coat of Arms of Kingdom of Travancore till 1948.

-            The Kulasekhara Dynasty




The predecessors of the Travancore Rajas reigned at Venad for more than 500 years. Although their names are known from inscriptions on monuments and temples, their precise relationships and reign dates are not accurately recorded. What follows is based on the best available sources and constitute a considerable revision of the succession lists published by Menon and the Travancore State Manuals. Both these sources seem to suffer from a certain eagerness to co-opt every distinguished personality from the family into the list, without much regard as to whether or not they were actually rulers of Venad. The rulers from the middle of the sixteenth century onwards, begining with  Raja Sri Aditya Varman (d. January 1544) were carefully derived through extensive investigations using palace sources and published by the Royal historian, M. Rajaraja Varma Raja, in “Some Travancore Dynastic Records” 1928-1931. It is clear from the records he presents of accession, coronations and temple ceremonies, of land grants and adoptions, that the lists in Menon and the State Manual can be dismissed.


 [430-350 BC].


Vanavan @ Vanavaramban
Kuttuvan Uthiyan Cheralath[3an 50-328 BC] ruled for 22 years.
Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan [328-270 BC] ruled for 58 years.
Palyaanai Chelkezhu Kuttuvan [270-245 BC] ruled for 25 years.
Kalangaikanni narmudicheral [245-220 BC] ruled for 25 years.
Perumcheralathan [220-200 BC] ruled for 20 years.
Kudakko Neduncheralathan [200-180 BC] ruled for 20 years.
Kadal Pirakottiya Velkezhu kuttuvan [180-125 BC] ruled 55 years.
Adukotpattuch Cheralathan [125-87 BC] ruled 38 years.
Selvak kadungo Vazhiyathan [87-62 BC] ruled 25 years.
Yanaikatchei Mantharanj Cheral Irumborai [62-42 BC] ruled 20 years.
Thagadoor Erintha Perum Cheral Irumborai [42-25 BC] ruled 17 years (unification of Upper and lower Kongu).
Ilancheral Irumborai [25-19 BC] ruled 16 years.
Karuvur Eriya Koperumcheral Irumborai [9-1 BC].
Vanji Mutrathu tunjiya Anthuvancheral [BC 20 – 10 AD].
Kanaikal Irumborai [20-30 AD].
Palai Padiya Perum kadungko [1-30 AD].
Kokothai Marban [30 –60 AD].
Cheran Chenguttuvan [60-140 AD].
Kottambalathu tunjiya Maakothai [140-150 AD].
Cheraman mudangi kidantha Nedumcheralathan [150-160 AD].
Cheraman Kanaikkal Irumborai [160-180 AD].
Cheraman Ilamkuttuvan [180-200 AD].
Thambi Kuttuvan [200-220 AD].
Poorikko [220-250 AD].
Cheraman Kuttuvan Kothai [250-270 AD].
Cheraman Vanjan [270-300 AD].
Mantharanj Cheral [330-380 AD] found in Allahabad inscriptions of Samudragupta.

chera kings 400 AD TO 8OO AD

UNKNOWN


The Kalabhras dynasty ruled over the entire ancient Tamil country between the 3rd and the 6th century in an era of South Indian history called the Kalabhra interregnum

Kalabhras
The Dark Age of South India
Kalabhras Dynasty
 250–600 

 
Kalabhras Territories
CapitalKaveripattinam
Language(s)Tamil
ReligionBuddhism
Hinduism
Jainism
GovernmentMonarchy
Maharaja
 - 5th centuryAchchutavikranta
 - ?Tiraiyan of Pavattiri
 - ?Pulli of Vengadam orTirupati
Historical eraClassical India
 - Third Centurycirca 250
 - Sixth Centurycirca 600

Coins of the Kalabhras
KALABHRA COINS

Kaveripattinam
—  city  —


enter>

Kaveripattinam
Location of Kaveripattinam
in Tamil Nadu and India
Coordinates12°25′N 78°14′ECoordinates12°25′N 78°14′E
CountryIndia
StateTamil Nadu

. The Kalabhras displaced the kingdoms of the early Cholas, Pandayas and Chera dynasties. Little is known about the Cheras between the two dynasties. Mostly, they were the allies of the powerful Pallavas, against the Pandyas and Ays.

South India in AD 700
The Kalabhras were defeated around the 6th century with the revival of Pallava and Pandya power. A Pandya ruler, Maravarman Rajasimha I (c. 730 – 765 AD), mentioned in a number of Pandya copper-plate inscriptions, was a prominent ruler during the early 8th century CE. He claims to have defeated a prominent Chera king. The name of the Chera king is not known, however from the details of the battles between the Pandya and the Chera, the Chera territory ceded seems to have included the entire Kerala and the Southern Pandya country from Kanyakumari to Thirunelveli, with capital at Karur.

 

File:Kulasekhara kingdom.jpg
800 a.d. to 1102 AD -The Second Chera empire-







Venad chera coins


 Venad was one of the eighteen kingdoms of the ancient Cheran empire.

Following is the list of Cheraman Perumals who ruled Kerala during the Second Chera empire-

  1. Kulashekhara Varman (800- 820 A.D)- also called Kulashekhara Alwar.
  2. Rajashekhara Varman (820- 844 A.D)- also called Cheraman Perumal (Nayanar)
  3. Sthanu ravi Varman (844- 885 A.D)- contemporary of Aditya Chola
  4. Rama Varma Kulashekhara (885- 917 A.D)
  5. Goda Ravi Varma (917- 944 A.D)
  6. Indu Kotha Varma (944- 962 A.D)
  7. Bhaskara Ravi Varman I (962- 1019 A.D)
  8. Bhaskara Ravi Varman II (1019- 1021 A.D)
  9. Vira Kerala (1021- 1028 A.D)
  10. Rajasimha (1028- 1043 A.D)
  11. Bhaskara Ravi Varman III (1043-1082 A.D)
  12. Rama Varma Kulashekhara (1090- 1102 A.D)

                         1102 A.D TO 2011AD
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 1102 Raja Sri Rama Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Mentioned in the Rameswarathukoil Inscription as the founder of Venad as an independent state. He d. 1102, having had issue, a son:1) Raja Sri Kotha Varma Marthandam, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers 
1102 – 1125      Raja Sri Kotha Varma Marthandam, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, son of Raja Sri Rama Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1102. He conquered Kottar and Nanjanad from the Pandyas. He d. 1125, having had issue, including four sons: 1) Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma I, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.2) Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers 
1125 – 1145      Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma I, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1125. A great religious benefactor, responsible for the rebuilding of Padmanabhaswamy Temple and the endowment of Suchindram Temples. He d. 1145.Copyright© Christopher Buyers 
1145 – 1150 Raja Sri Kodai Kerala Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad.Copyright© Christopher Buyers 
1161 – 1164 Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, second son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded ca 1161. He d. 1164.Copyright© Christopher Buyers 
1164 - 1167 Raja Vira Kerala Varma II, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, third son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 1164. He d. 1167.opyright© Christopher Buyers 
1167 – 1173      Raja Vira Aditya Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, fourth son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. He d. 1173?Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1173 – 1192      Raja Vira Udaya Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, youngest son of Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 1167. He established his seat at Kulikkod and allied himself to the Pandya Kings. He d. at Kolidaikuru, 1192, having had issue, a daughter:Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1192 – 1195      Raja Sri Devadaram Vira Kerala Varma III, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Fl 1192. He d. December 1195. 1) Raja Sri Vira Manikantha Rama Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.1) Rani Madhavi. She had issue, a son:Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1195 -               Raja Sri Vira Manikantha Rama Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. From Kilapperur Illam. Mentioned in the Vellayani inscriptions. Succeeded December 1195.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1209 – 1214    Raja Sri Vira Rama Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. He d. 1214, having had issue, a daughter:Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1214 – 1240      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Mentioned in the Kandiyoor inscription in 1218, and the Manalikara inscription of 1236. m. Rani Unniachi, responsible for the Subramanyaswamy shrine, near Suchindram Temple.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1240 – 1252      Raja Sri Vira Padmanabha Martanda Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. The Pandya kings asserted their dominance over Venad during his reign.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
Fl 1266-1267    Raja Sri Jayasimha Deva, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, from the Yadu family of the Lunar race. He became a powerful ruler, who succeeded in bringing the whole of Kerala under his control. He esrablished his seat at Quilon, the surrounding areas becoming known as Jayasimhanad or Desinganad. m. Rani Umma Devi, Rani of Venad, of the Kupaka family, probably joint ruler with her husband. He d. at Quilon, leaving several sons who quarrelled with his nephews over the succession, causing a long and disruptive civil war. He had issue:1) Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Sangramadhiran Trikshatra Chudamani, Raja of Venad – see below.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1299 – 1313      Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Sangramadhiran Trikshatra Chudamani, Raja of Venad. b. 1266, son of Raja Sri Jayasimha Deva, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, by his wife, Rani Umma Devi, Rani of Venad, educ. privately. Adopted by the childless Rani Aavani Amma Thampuran of Attingal. Succeeded to the throne of Kerala, at Kolambapuram (Quilon) 1299 (in his 33rd year). He asserted his independence in 1310 and claimed the Pandyan throne after marrying a Pandyan princess, ultimately defeating Jatavarman Vira Pandya, the illegitimate son of Maravarman Kulasekhara I, twice and assuming control of his realm. The garrisons established in the Tamil country by the Muslim invader, Malik Kafur, were expelled by him. He established his rule over most of the southern countries between Kanyakumari and Madras, and as far north as Nellore. Crowned at Madurai, 1312 (in his 46th year). He then defeated the Cholas and was crowned as Chakravathi on the banks of the Vegavati River, at Coonjevaram (Kanchipuram), 1314. During his reign, Quilon rose to great prominance as a centre of trade and international commerce. Author of “Pradyumnabhudayam”. m. before 1310, a daughter of the Pandya ruler Maravarman Kulasekhara. He d. at Quilon, 1313.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers
File:Kerala in 15th century.jpg


The reign of Ravi Varma Kulaśēkhara,1299 (FROM INTERNET)-CLICK AND READ:-http://pazhayathu.blogspot.com/2011/07/reign-of-ravi-varma-kulasekhara1299-ad.html
1313 – 1333      Raja Sri Vira Udaya Martanda Varma, Vira Pandya Deva, Raja of Venad. Succeeded on the death of his cousin, 1313. Subjugated by King Ravi Varma Kulasekhara Perumal in 1316. He d. 1333, having adopted two daughters of the Kolathunad family, whom he installed as Attingal Mootha Tampuran (Senior Princess of Attingal) and Attingal Elaya Tampuran (Junior Princess of Attingal) in 1305 AD. The Senior Princess of Attingal being the ancestress of the branches of the ruling house settled at Quilon and Trivandrum. The younger princess being the ancestress of the Elayadathu Swarupam of Kottarakara and the Peraka Thavazhi branch of Nedumangad.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1333 – 1335      Raja Sri Aditya Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1335 – 1342      Raja Sri Vira Rama Udaya Martanda Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad. b. 1307, eldest son of the Senior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately. Senior Tiruvadi of Chiravay. Succeeded 1335. Crowned, January 1336. He d. July 1342.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1342 – 1363      Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1363 – 1366      Raja Sri Vira Martanda Varma III, Raja of Venad. Ascended the gadi October 1363. He d. at Trivandrum Fort, September 1366 AD.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1366 – 1382      Raja Sri Vira Rama Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. b. 1338, eldest son of the Senior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately. Installed with full ruling powers, 1366. He d. at Trivandrum, 1382.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1383 – 1416      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi (Kilapperur)
.yright© Christopher Buyers1416 – 1417      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi.oight© Christopher Buyers
1383                   Raja Sri Vira Kerala Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Vanad. b. 1366, elder twin son of the Junior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately. Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi (Kilapperur). Succeeded on the death of his maternal uncle, 1382. Reigned for three months before his death.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1383 – 1444      Raja Sri Chera Udaya Martanda Varma, Vira Padya Deva, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. b. 1366, younger twin son of the Junior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately.  Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi. He enjoyed the longest reign in Travancore history. He d. at the Chera Mahadevi Palace, 1444, aged 78 years.opyright© Christopher Buyers
1444 – 1458      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad [“Venad Mootha Raja”=“the First Prince of Venad”)]. He d. 1458.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1458 – 1468      Raja Sankhara Sri Vira Rama Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad.  From the Trippappur princely house. Jayasimhanad Mutta Tiruvadi. Ruled until October 1468.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1468 – 1484      Raja Sri Vira Kodai Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. From Kilapperur. Jayasimhanad Mutta Tiruvadi and Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi. He established his capital at Kallidaikurichi. A religious minded and learned ruler who devoted his time to artistic pursuits, charitable and public works. He d. at Kallidaikurichi, 1484.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1484 – 1503      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi. Established his capital at Padmanabhapuram, ca. 1500. His rule witnessed a growing enmity with the rulers of Vijayanagar and the arrival of the Portuguese. He d. 1504.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1503 – 1504      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. He d. 1504.Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1504 – 1528      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Kerala Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Succeeded as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi and as ruler of Venad 1504. He d. 1528.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1528 – 15xx      Sri Vira Muttavar Sankaranarayana Venrumankonda Bhutalavira Udaya Martanda Varma Raja Jetunganadu Mutta Tiruvadi. Succeeded on the death of his maternal uncle as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi 1528. He conquered most of Tirunelvelly from the Pandyas and assumed the title of Venrumankonda Bhutalavira in commemoration of that victory. The Vijayanagar generalissimo, Salakaraja Chinna Tirumalayyadeva subsequently defeated him in battle near  Tamraparni 1535. Forced to surrender all the Pandya territories that he had previously won, and reduced to the position of a vassal of the Vijayanagar Empire. Fl 685 ME, 688 ME, 707 ME and 722 ME. m. Cholakulavalli, a princess from the Chola dynasty. He d. 1560.
Copyright© Christopher BuyersCopyright© Christopher Buyers
15xx – 1544      Raja Sri Aditya Varman, Raja of Venad. He d. January 1544.Copyright© Christopher Buyers 
1544 – 1554      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. From the Chiravay princely . Succeeded as ruler of Venad and installed on the same day at Vilavur Madom, Attur, Kulkulam, 6th January 1544.Copyright© Christopher Buyers 
1554 – 1575      Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. From Vanchi. Ascended the gadi, at the Tiruvitancode Temple, Kulkulam, 9th March 1554. He d. at Keralapuram Palace, Attur, Kalkulam, 25th March 1575.Copyright© Christopher Buyers 
1575 – 1577      Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Succeeded and installed on the same day at Attur, 25th March 1575. Installed at the Tiruvattar Shrine, 3rd June 1575.  He d. at Keralapuram Palace, Attur, Kalkulam, 19th January 1577, having adopted a princess and a prince from the Attingal Royal Family into the Chiravay Swarupam 1575, including:1) Prince Cheriya Rama Varma, of Manalikkara, in Kalkulam, a nephew of the Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi.1) Princess ...
Copyright© Christopher Buyers 
1577 – 1578      interregnum?Copyright© Christopher Buyers 
1578 – 1592      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. Assumed the headship of the Chiravay Swarupam as Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi 18th November 1578. Ascended the gadi as ruler of Venad, 19th November 1578. Assumed the headship of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi 1587 and formally installed as such at the Trippappur Mahadevar Temple, 26th October 1588. He d. June 1592, having adopted three princes into the Venad family.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1592 – 1609      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma [Kettai Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, son of Rani Umayammai. A prince of from the Kilapperur Illam of the Trippappur Swarupam. Succeeded as ruler of Venad and ascended the gadi, 19th June 1592. Assumed the headship of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi in 1605. He d. at Toniman Palace, Tiruvattar, 30th March 1609.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1609 – 1610      Raja Sri Rama Varma, Raja of Venad. From Iraniel (the traditional appanage of the Heir Apparent). Adopted into the Chiravay Swaruppam by Raja Sri Martanda Varma, at the Kulittura Palace, April 1579. Succeeded on the death of his adoptive brother, as ruler of Venad, 30th March 1609. He d. eleven months later, at the Karuppu Palace, Trivandrum, 28th February 1610.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1610                 Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. Adopted into the Chiravay Swaruppam by Raja Sri Martanda Varma, at the Kulittura Palace, April 1579. Succeeded on the death of his adoptive brother as ruler of Venad, 28th February 1610. He d. at the Pullikkottu Palace, Trivandrum, 13th May 1610.
Copyright© Christopher Buyers
1610                 Raja Sri Ilaya Rama Varma, Raja of Venad. From the Manalikkara branch of the family in Kalkulam. Succeeded 13th May 1610. He d. at the Tikkurichi Palace, Kalkulam, 6th September 1610
fter the failure of the senior Kolatbunad matrilineal line, two sisters were adopted from the Kolathunadu house in 1749. In the following genealogy, those princes and princesses of the Travancore Royal family are presented with their star names suffixed with Tirunal. Those who remained with the House of Kolathunadu, or adopted into other princely families, have their star names suffixed by Nal. Regretably, it has not always been possible to obtain the personal names of several individuals.


Copyright© Christopher BuyersThe Princess of Kolathunadu (unnamed), who had issue, three daughters:1) Srimathi Mahaprabha Amma [Chathayam Nal] Tampuratti, of Mavelikara. Ancestress of the Houses of Mavelikara, Prayikara and Ennakad. She had issue, five daughters:a) Princess Pooyam Tirunal. Adopted into the Royal House of Travancore in 1747. She d.s.p.b) Rani Uthradam Tirunal, Senior Rani of Attingal. Adopted into the Royal House of Travancore in 1747. m. at Attingal, 1748, a Kochi Koil Tampuran of Tattara Kovil. She had issue, two sons:i) Prince Rama Varma [Aswathi Tirunal], Elaya Raja of Travancore. b. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, ca. 1756, educ. privately. Invested as Heir Apparent with the title of Eliya Raja, 1786. He d. at Trivandrum, 1788ii) Prince Bala Rama Varma [Anizham Tirunal]. b. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, ca. 1757.
The following represents the best guess at the relationships between family members at this period in history. However, the practice of cross adoption between the various branches of the family at this time, make relationship discriptions very difficult to follow. People described as brother and sister within one branch of the family may be described as uncle and niece in another branch, and then turn out to be first cousins in their natural birth family.
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An example of the complexity may be gleaned from the adoption that occurred at Pullikottu Palace on 9th Tai 797 ME. Raja Ravi Varma of Venad (of the Trippappur Swarupam), Martanda Varma Anusham Tirunal of Chiravay, and two junior princesses of Attingal (Atham Tirunal and Ayilyam Tirunal) were adopted into the Pokam Tavazhi Senior branch by its Head Vira Kerala Varma Moolam Tirunal and Aditya Varma Makayiram Tirunal. The latter were both adopted on the following day into the Trippappur Swarupam.
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The Senior Rani Pooram Tirunal of Attingal (unnamed but possibly the same as Nambirattiyar Ammai, recorded as Senior Rani of Attingal in 1610). She had issue or adopted a son and a daughter: 1) Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma [Revati Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.1) Rani Chhitra Tirunal, Senior Rani of Attingal. She had issue or adopted two sons and two daughters: a) Prince Martanda Varma Anusham Tirunal, Prince of Chiravay Swarupam. Adopted into the Pokam Tavazhi Senior branch by its Head Vira Kerala Varma Moolam Tirunal, at Pullikottu Palace, Trivandrum, January 1622. Adopted into the Kunnummel Elayadam Swarupam (Kottarakkara) by Vira Kerala Varma Pooyam Tirunal, at Karuppu Palace, Trivandrum, July 1623. Succeeded as Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi on the resignation of his uncle, Raja Vira Ravi Varma, 1647. Copyright© Christopher Buyersb) Prince Rama Varma Swathi Tirunal, of Chiravay Swarupam. Adopted into the Kunnummel Elayadam Swarupam (Kottarakkara) by Vira Kerala Varma Pooyam Tirunal, at Karuppu Palace, Trivandrum, July 1623. He d. before 1631op
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1610 – 1662         Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma [Revati Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Succeeded on the death of his adoptive uncle as head of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi and as ruler of Venad, 6th September 1610 (relinquished 1620?). Assumed the headship of the Chiravay Swarupam as Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi 1628 (relinquished 1647). He went on pilgrimage to Rawamswaram in 1620. Faced with a contest for the throne throughout his reign. Adopted into the Pokam Tavazhi Senior branch by its Head Vira Kerala Varma Moolam Tirunal, at Pullikottu Palace, Trivandrum, January 1622. Adopted into Kunnummel Elayadam Swarupam (Kottarakkara) by Vira Kerala Varma Pooyam Tirunal, at Karuppu Palace, Trivandrum, July 1623. He d. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum, 11th August 1662 .
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1662 – 1671      Raja Sri Rama Varma, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Princess Lakshmi Amma Pantarattil [Lakshmi Nambirattiyar Ammai], from the Vellarapalli Kovilakam of Cochin Royal Family. Adopted by the Senior Rani of Attingal, Pooram Tirunal, at the Attingal Palace,  June 1630. Succeeded 1651 or 827ME. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, 11th August 1662. Assumed the Headship of Jayatunganad (Quilon) 1667. He d. at the Kalkulam Fort Palace, 13th September 1671.
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1671 – 1677      Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Princess Lakshmi Amma Pantarattil [Lakshmi Nambirattiyar Ammai], from the Vellarapalli Kovilakam of Cochin Royal Family. Adopted by the Senior Rani of Attingal, Pooram Tirunal, at the Attingal Palace, June 1630. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 13th September 1671. Opposed by the pillamar, who conspired to burn the palace and cause him to flee the capital. He was k. (poisoned by the Yogakkars) at the Darbhakkulangara Palace, Kalkulam, between 28th January/25th February 1677.
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1677 – 1678      Raja Sri Ramaraja Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad (first time) – see below.
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1678 – 1681      Raja Sri Kerala Varma, Raja of Venad, elder son of the Princess of Nedumangadu, of the Perakat Tavazhi, educ. privately. Succeeded as Prince of Nedumangadu on the death of his uncle. Adopted into the Kyamkulam branch of the Cheraway Swarupam, 1677. He claimed that his mother had been adopted into the Trippappur Swarupam of the Venad Royal House, at the same time as his uncle, by Raja Ravi Varma in 1621. Consequently, declared the adoption of 1671 as invalid and claimed the throne for himself. He then joined forces with the discontented pillamars, defeated Rani Ummayamma Aswathi Tirunal in late 1677 and opened negotiations with her mother. The old Rani Makayiram Tirunal having expired before the negotiations were complete, he seized the Royal regalia and proclaimed himself ruler in 1678. Defeated and expelled from Trivandrum in 1681 by Prince Kerala Varma, the Second Tampuran of Iranyal. He subsequently made peace with Rani Ummayamma but failed to secure recognition as Second Tampuran of Venad. He d. 1693.

                                                       


Kingdom of Travancore
Flag of Travancore
Marthanda Varma
1729-1758
1758-1798
1798-1810
1810-1815
1815-1829
1829-1846
1846-1860
1860-1880
1880-1885
1885-1924
1924-1931
1931-1949
‡ Regent Queens
Capitals
1729-1795
1795-1949
Palaces
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1758 - 1798 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa
 Vanchipala Rama Varma II [Kartika Tirunal] Dharmaraja, Kulasekhara Perumal, Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. b. 1724, as Prince Vanchi Bala Martanda Rama Varma, elder son of Rani Parbathi Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband, M.R.Ry. Sri Kerala Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Kilimanur, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his uncle as adhinam of the Trippappur Swarupam and as ruler of Travancore, 7th July 1758. Attacked by Tipu Sultan in 1790, the Raja withstood the invasion for six months, defeated Tipu twice then appealed to the British for assistance. Signed a Treaty of friendship and protection with the HEIC, 17th November 1795. Granted the hereditary titles of Manney Sultan, Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Bahadur, and Shamsher Jang, in reward for his services against Tippu Sultan. 

                                           Tippu Sultan, 1792


Removed his capital from Padmanabhapuram to Tiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum) in 1795. He made the pilgrimage to Rameswaram in 1784, to which he had already made considerable donations, improved the roads leading to it from Travancore and policing the jungles through which they passed. A distinguished patron of the arts and literature, who mastered Sanskrit, Persian, Hindustani, Tamil, Portuguese, and Dutch. He was also responsible for the restoration of the Sri Padmabha Swami Temple. Musician and composer of Kritis and Kathakali plays. Author of "Abhinaya Darpana" and "Balarama Bharatha". m. (first) a lady from the Arumana House. m. (second) Vadasseri Ammachi Panapilla Srimathi Kali Amma Nagamani Amma. m. (third) a lady from the Nagercoil House. m. (fourth) a lady from the Thiruvattar House. He d. at the Puttan Malika, Trivandrum Fort, 17th February 1798, having had issue, including a daughter by his fourth wife:




1798 - 1810 H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Bala Rama Varma II [Avitam Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. b. at Quilon, 1782, only surviving son of Rani Attham [Chadayam Tirunal], of Attingal, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, 17th February 1798. He d. at Trivandrum Fort, 7th November 1810.
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1810 - 1813 H.H. Sri Padmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bayi [Ayilyam Tirunal], Senior Rani of Attingal and Rani Regent of Travancore. b. 1791, elder daughter of Rani Parvati Bayi [Attam Tirunal], by her husband, a Koil Tampuran of Changanasseri from the Parappanad Royal House, educ. privately. Installed on the death of her brother as Rani Regent and interim ruler of Travancore 7th November 1810 (pending the birth of a son and heir). Ceased to enjoy that position on the birth of her eldest son, 16th April 1813. Continued as Regent until her death. She was one of the most distinguished rulers of Travancore, instituting many reforms and advances in administration, education, and welfare. m. M.R.Ry. Sri Raja Raja Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Changanasseri (d. December 1845), eldest son of Princess Injanji Amma Tampuratti of Changannasseri, youngest daughter of Princess Kunjikutti Tampuratti of the Parappanad Royal House, who fled to Travancore with her three sons and five daughters when Hyder Ali invaded Malabar. She d. at Kanni, 18th August 1815, having had issue, two sons and two daughters:


1) H.H. Rani Gouri Parvathi Bayi [Uttirattadi Tirunal], Senior Rani of Attingal. b. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 1802, educ. privately. She d. young.2) H.H. Rani Gouri Rukmini Bayi [Ayilyam Tirunal], Senior Rani of Attingal. b. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 1809, educ. privately. Succeeded her sister as Senior Rani of Attingal. A gifted musician who composer of over 150 krittis (devotional songs) in praise of Padmanabha. m. at Trivandrum, 25th May 1819, M.R.Ry. Sri Rama Varma [Punartham Tirunal], Koil Tampuran of Tiruvalla. She d. June 1837, having had issue, eight children, including five sons and two daughters:
    1813 - 1846  H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Rama Varma III [Swati Tirunal],




    Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. b. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 16th April 1813, elder son of H.H. Sri Padmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband M.R.Ry. Sri Raja Raja Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Changanasseri, from the Parappanad Royal House, educ. privately. Succeeded at birth and formally installed on the gadi, 29th July 1813. Reigned under the regencies of his mother and his aunt until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers, 21st April 1829. A learned man fluent in six languages and a famous composer of Indian classical music, lyricist and scholar. Encouraged the learning of English with the establishment of the first English school in 1834. He also founded a charity hospital and observatory, two yeers later. m. (first) a lady who died young. m. (second) at Trivandrum Fort, 1829, Thiruvattar Ammachi Panapilla Amma Srimathi Narayanipilla Kochamma, a commoner adopted from the Aaikutty family of Kollam into the Thiruvattar Ammaveedu shortly before her marriage. m. (third) at Trivandrum Fort, 1843, Thanjavoor Ammachi Panapilla Amma Srimathi Sundaralakshmi Kochamma (d. 1856), née Suganda Parvathi Bayi [Sugandhavalli], a Bharatanatyam dancer who came to his court with the famous Guru Vadivelu, adopted into the Vadasseri Ammaveedu in 1843 and raised to the status of a consort or Ammachi in 1845 when the new house of Thanjavoor Ammaveedu was created for her, daughter of a mudaliyar from Tanjore. He d. at the Puttan Malika Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 27th December 1846 (succ. by his younger brother), having had issue, a son:1) Chempakaraman Sri Thiruvattar Ananda Padmanabhan Tampi [Chitra Nal] (s/o Narayani).
      Swathi Thirunal:-[PHOTOS OF KING SWATHI]-http://www.swathithirunal.in/photogallry.htm


      Swathi Thirunal:http://www.swathithirunal.in/life.htm


      Swathi Thirunal:-[MUSIC BY KING SWATHI]http://www.swathithirunal.in/compositions_ind.htm



      1846 - 1860  H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Martandra Varma II [Uthram Tirunal], Kulasekhara Bhageodaya Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. b. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 26th September 1814, younger son of H.H. Sri Padmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband M.R.Ry. Sri Raja Raja Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Changanasseri, from the Parappanad Royal House, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 27th December 1846. Installed at Trivandrum Fort, 26th February 1847. m. Thiruvattar Ammachi Panapilla Amma Srimathi Madhavipilla Kochamma (d. at Trivandrum in 1860, on the night of a special durbar held in honor of a gift of a jewelled belt sent by Queen Victoria), younger sister of the second wife of his predecessor, a commoner adopted from the Aaikutty family of Kollam into the Thiruvattar Ammaveedu in 1829. He d. at the Puttan Malika Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 18th August 1860 (succ. by his nephew), having had issue, a daughter:1) Thiruvattar Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmipilla Kochamma. m. at Trivandrum, 1854, as his first wife, H.H. Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Bala Rama Varma IV [Ayilyam Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore, GCSI, CIE (b. at Trivandrum Fort, 14th March 1832; d. at Trivandrum Fort, 30th May 1880), eldest surviving son of H.H. Rani Gouri Rukmini Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband, M.R.Ry. Sri Rama Varma [Punartham Tirunal], Koil Tampuran of Tiruvalla. She d. before 18th August 1860 – see below.
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        1860 - 1880  H.H. Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Bala Rama Varma IV [Ayilyam Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore, GCSI (12.2.1866), CIE (1.1.1878). b. at Trivandrum Fort, 14th March 1832, eldest surviving son of H.H. Rani Gouri Rukmini Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband, M.R.Ry. Sri Rama Varma [Punartham Tirunal], Koil Tampuran of Tiruvalla, educ. privately. Invested as Heir Apparent with the title of Eliya Raja at Trivandrum Fort, 26th February 1847. Succeeded on the death of his maternal uncle, 18th August and ascended the gadi, 7th September 1860. Installed at a Public Durbar, at Trivandrum Fort, 19th October 1860. Received a sanad of adoption, 11th March 1862. Granted the hereditary title of Maharaja, 6th August 1866. A distinguished musician, reformer and administrator. He expanded education by building several English, Tamil and Malayalam schools, and the first university college in 1873. He also opened a modern hospital, a lying-in hospital and lunatic asylum. Rcvd: the Serangapatam gold medal (31.12.1866), Prince of Wales's gold medal (1875), and KIH gold medal (1877). m. (first) at Trivandrum, 1854, Thiruvattar Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmipilla Kochamma (d. before 18th August 1860), a daughter of his maternal uncle, H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Martandra Varma II [Uthram Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore, by his wife, Thiruvattar Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Madhavipilla Kochamma.  m. (second) at Trivandrum, 1862, Nagercoil Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmipilla Kalyanikuttypilla Kochamma (b. at Mukundapuram, near Thrissur, Cochin, 1839; d. at Trivandrum, 1909), educ. privately by the Church of England Zenana Missionary Soc, poetess and author of “Rasakrida”, “Ambarishacharitram”, “Pativratya Panchakam” and “Satya Panchakam”, adopted in 1865 into the Nagercoil Ammaveedu from the Mathiripally (or Mathripillil) family of Cheranallur, daughter of Sri Nadavarambath Kunju Krishna Menon, Valia Sarvadhikariakar of Cochin state, by his wife, Srimathi Lakshmi Amma. He d.s.p. at Trivandrum Fort, 30th May 1880 (succ. by his younger brother), having adopted the daughter of a cousin of his second wife, Srimathi Kunjulakshmi Amma, of the Mathiripally (or Mathripillil) family of Cheranallur:
        Copyright© Christopher Buyers
        1880 - 1885  H.H. Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Patmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Rama Varma V [Visakham Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore, GCSI (23.5.1882). b. at Trivandrum Fort, 19th May 1837, youngest son of H.H. Rani Gouri Rukmini Bayi, Senior Rani of Attingal, by her husband, M.R.Ry. Rama Varma [Punartham Tirunal], Koil Tampuran of Tiruvalla, educ. privately. Invested as Heir Apparent with the title of Eliya Raja at Trivandrum Fort, 19th October 1860. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 30th May 1880. Installed at a public Durbar, at Trivandrum Fort, June 1880. A great scholar, science writer and journalist, who translated a number of important works from English and other European languages into Malayalam. Patron of agriculture, education and the arts. Founder and Patron of H.H. The Maharaja's School of Arts  in 1881 (now the College of Fine Arts Trivandrum). Fellow of the Royal Geographical Soc (FRGS), Linnean Soc, Statistical Soc (London), and Madras Univ (FMU). Mbr Royal Asiatic Soc (MRAS) (London), and Soc etude colonial a maritime (Paris). Patron Poona Gayan Samaj Music Soc, etc. Rcvd: the Prince of Wales's silver medal (1875), and KIH silver medal (1877), Officer of the Order of Public Instruction of France. m. at Trivandrum, 1859, Arumana Ammachi Panapillai Amma Srimathi Lakshmipilla Kochamma (b. at at Trivandrum, 1850; d. there, 1885), educ. privately by the Church of England Zenana Missionary Soc, daughter of Arumana Ammachi Srimathi Bharathipilla Kochamma, and a descendant of H.H. Maharaj Raja Ramaraja Sri Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Bala Rama Varma I [Avitam Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Raja of Travancore. He d. at the Ananthavilasam Palace, Trivandrum Fort, 


        4th August 1885 (succ. by his maternal nephew), having had issue, one son and three daughters:2) Arumana Ammaveetil Shrimathi Rukminipilla Kochamma. b. at Arumana Ammaveedu, Trivandrum, 1876. m. M.R.Ry. Sri Kerala Varma Thirumulpad. She d. 1938, having had issue, six sons and two daughters:a) Sri Arumana Padmanabhan Tampi [Madhavan]. b. at Trivandrum, 1891. He had issue, a daughter:c) Sri Arumana Velayudhan Tampi [Raghavan]. b. at Trivandrum, 1896. m. (first) Shrimathi Madhavi Thankachi [Rajamma] (d. 1925). m. (second) Shrimathi Lakshmipilla Thankachi (d. 1958). He had issue, a daughter by his first, and two sons and two daughters by his second wife:i) Sri V. Surendran Tampi. b. at Trivandrum, 1933 (s/o Lakshmipilla). m. Shrimathi Ratnam. He had issue, one son and one daughter:3) Arumana Ammaveetil Shrimathi Bhageerathipilla Kochamma. b. at Arumana Ammaveedu, Trivandrum, 1877. m. M.R.Ry. Sri Rama Varma Avargal, Raja of Poonjar. She d. 1940, having had issue, three sons and three daughters, including the elde





        1924 - [1991] Major-General H.H. Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Patmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Bala Rama Varma III [Sri Chithira Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore, GCSI (1.1.1946), GCIE (3.6.1935). b. at Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum, 7th November 1912, eldest son of H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Maharani Setu Parvati Bayi, Junior Maharani of Travancore, by her husband M.R.Ry. Ravi Varma Avargal, Kochu Koil Tampuran of Kilimanur, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, 7th August 1924. Installed on the gadi, at the Durbar Hall of the Puthenkacheri, Trivandrum, 17th September 1924. Reigned under the Regency of his aunt until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers, 6th November 1931. Removed all restrictions on Hindus wishing to enter places of worship in 1936, including untouchables and outcastes. Signed the instrument of accession to the Dominion of India, 15th August 1947. Merged his state with Cochin and served as Rajpramukh of the Travancore-Cochin Union from 1st July 1949 until 31st October 1956. The GOI amended the Indian Constitution to remove his position as a "ruler" and his right to receive privy-purse payments, 28th December 1971. Hon Maj IA 12/1/1943, prom Hon Lieut-Col 11/7/1944, Hon Col 15/8/1945, and Hon Maj-Gen 15/10/1946. Hon Col 16th Light Cavalry, IA 3/3/1947, 12th (Malabar) Btn 3rd Madras Regiment (ITF) 1/9/1940, and 16th (Travancore) Btn The Madras Regiment 1/5/1954. Col-in-Chief Travancore State forces 1924-1949 and Travancore-Cochin State Forces 1949-1954. Chancellor Univ of Travancore 1937-1956. Hon D.Litt. Annamalai and Andhra Univs. Presdt Sri Mulam Club (Trivandrum). Patron-in-Chief Trivandrum Tennis Club (TTC) 1938-1991, Sri Swati Thirunal Sangita Sabha 1942-1991, and the Travancore Athletic Assoc. Patron Travancore Boy Scouts Assoc, Trivandrum Club, Trivandrum Friend-in-Need Soc, etc. Rcvd: Silver Jubilee (1935), Coron (1937) and Indian Independence (1948) medals. He dunm. at the at Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum, 19th July 1991 (succ. by his younger brother).



        KERALA COINS:-http://historicalleys.blogspot.com/2009/07/fanams-of-calicut.html




        [1991] Colonel H.H. Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Sri Patmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Martanda Varma III [Uthradom Tirunal], Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore. b. at Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum, 22nd March 1922, second son of H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Maharani Setu Parvati Bayi, Junior Maharani of Travancore, by her husband M.R.Ry. Ravi Varma Avargal, Kochu Koil Tampuran of Kilimanur, educ. privately and at Travancore Univ (BA). Became Heir Apparent with the title of Elaya Raja, at birth.  Succeeded on the death of his elder brother as the Head of the Royal House of Travancore and Supreme Guardian of the Sri Padmanabhaswami Temple, 19th July 1991. Hon Col Travancore Univ Labour Corps and Hon Lt-Col The Maharaja's Bodyguard in the Travancore-Cochin State Forces until 1954. Chief Scout Travancore Boy Scouts Assoc, Travancore-Cochin Boy Scouts Assoc and Kerala Boy Scouts Assoc. Patron-in-Chief Thiruvananthapuram Kendra Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. Chief Patron Sneham Super Speciality Hospital Project. Patron Sri Swati Thirunal Sangita Sabha since 1991, Shree Uthradom Tirunal Hospital (SUT), Muthalamada Sneham Charitable Trust, Trivandrum Tennis Club (TCC) since 1938, Trivandrum Club, Trivandrum Friend-in-Need Soc, etc. Rcvd: Silver Jubilee (1935), Coron (1937) and Indian Independence (1947) medals. m. (by puttam parivattavum) at Trivandrum, 5th September 1945, Panapilla Amma Shrimathi Radha Devipilla Kochamma (b. at Madras, 1927; d. at a private hospital in Chenai, 12th December 2005), a gifted jewellery and furniture designer, daughter of Lieutenant-Colonel Krishnan Gopinath Pandalai, MB, CM, FRCS, LRCP, late IMS, sometime Superintendant of the Government General Hospital, Madras. He had issue, one son and one daughter:1) Sri Anantha Padmanabhan Tampi.


                                           Kowdiar Palace, Trivandrum- Kerala-here the present rajah lives



        File:Travancore Maharaja's State Carriage .jpg

        Travancore Maharaja's State Carriage, IN FRONT OF SRI PADMANABHA SWAMI TEMPLE AT THIRUANANTHAPURAM 1900


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        - Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE
        -- Ochre Coloured Pottery culture 2nd millennium BCE
        -- Cemetery H culture From 1900 BCE
        -- Swat culture 1600–500 BCE
        Iron Age 1200–180 BCE
        Vedic Civilization 1500–500 BCE
        -Black and Red ware culture 1300–1000 BCE
        -Painted Grey Ware culture 1200–600 BCE
        -Northern Black Polished Ware 700–200 BCE
        Maha Janapadas • 700–300 BCE
        Magadha Empire • 684–424 BCE
        Nanda Empire • 424-321 BCE
                                                         [1] Chera Empire • 300 BCE–1200 CE
        Chola Empire • 300 BCE–1279 CE
        Pandyan Empire • 300 BCE–1345 CE
        Maurya Empire • 321–184 BCE
        Pallava Empire • 250 BCE–800 CE
        Sunga Empire • 185-73 BCE
        Kanva Empire • 75-26 BCE
        Kharavela Empire • 209–170 BCE
        Kuninda Kingdom • 200s BCE–300s CE
        Indo-Scythian Kingdom • 200 BC–400 CE
        Satavahana Empire • 230 BCE–220 CE
        Indo-Greek Kingdom • 180 BCE–10 CE
        Middle Kingdoms 1 CE–1279 CE
        Indo-Parthian Kingdom • 21–130s CE
        Western Satrap Empire • 35–405 CE
        Kushan Empire • 60–240 CE
        Indo-Sassanid Kingdom • 230–360 CE
        Vakataka Empire • 250–500 CE
                                                            [2]Kalabhras Kingdom • 400–600 CE
        Gupta Empire • 280–550 CE
        Kadamba Empire • 345–525 CE
        Western Ganga Kingdom • 350–1000 CE
        Kamarupa Kingdom • 350–1100 CE
        Vishnukundina Empire • 420-624 CE
        Huna Kingdom • 475-576 CE
        Rai Kingdom • 489–632 CE
        Chalukya Empire • 543–753 CE
        Harsha Empire • 590-647 CE
        Shahi Kingdom • 565-670 CE
        Eastern Chalukya Kingdom • 624-1075 CE
        Gurjara Pratihara Empire • 650–1036 CE
        Pala Empire • 750–1174 CE
        Rashtrakuta Empire • 753–982 CE
                                                                [3]second chera empire.800 AD to 1102 AD
        Paramara Kingdom • 800–1327 CE
        Yadava Empire • 850–1334 CE
        Solanki Kingdom • 942–1244 CE
        Western Chalukya Empire • 973–1189 CE
        Hoysala Empire • 1040–1346 CE
        Sena Empire • 1070–1230 CE
        Eastern Ganga Empire • 1078–1434 CE
        Kakatiya Kingdom • 1083–1323 CE
        Kalachuri Empire • 1130–1184 CE
        Muslim Period 1100–1800 CE
        Islamic Rulers 1206–1707 CE
        - Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526 CE
        - Deccan Sultanates 1490–1596 CE
        Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1646 CE
        Mughal Empire 1526–1803 CE
        Maratha Empire 1674–1818 CE
        Durrani Empire 1747–1823 CE
        Sikh Confederacy 1733–1805 CE
        Sikh Empire 1799–1849 CE
        Regional Kingdoms 1100–1800 CE
        Cochin Kingdom 1102–1949 CE
                                                       [4]Travancore Kingdom 1102–1949 CE
        Ahom Kingdom 1228–1826 CE
        Chitradurga Kingdom 1300–1779 CE
        Garhwal Kingdom 1358–1803 CE
        Mysore Kingdom 1399–1947 CE
        Keladi Kingdom 1499–1763 CE
        Thondaiman Kingdom 1650–1948 CE
        Madurai Kingdom 1559–1736 CE
        Thanjavur Kingdom 1572–1918 CE
        Marava Kingdom 1600–1750 CE
        Company rule in India 1757–1858 CE
        British India 1858–1947 CE
        Partition of India 1947 CE

        SOME PHOTOS OF THE ROYAL FAMILY
                                                                                    
                                                                                              
        Members of the royal family of erstwhile Travancore after the screening of the movie ‘Paadatha Painkili’  [THE KING IN WHITE AND WHITE DRESS,CENTER]




                                                                              
        A Garden Party - The Travancore Royal Family with The Nehrus[JAWAHARLAL NEHRU WITH WHITE CAP,INDIRA GANDHI IN SARI,AND THE BOY IS RAJIV GANDHI 
                                                                                                   
                                               Tribespeople offer ‘Thirumulkazhcha'

        Reminiscing:Members of the Kani tribe offering ‘Thirumulkazhcha'[PRESENTS TO KING] to the head of the royal family of erstwhile Travancore, Uthradom Tirunal Marthanda Varma, at the Levee Hall in the city  Members of the royal family Aswathy Tirunal Gowri Lakshmi Bai and Pooyam Tirunal Gowri Parvathy Bai are also seen
        Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple Gold Treasure worth 50,000 Crore