TRAVANCORE--The Rajas of Venad--1000A.D. to 1947 A.D. {1} [The Kulasekhara Dynasty-from internet]


CHERA KINGS FROM 430 BC TO 2011 AD&TRAVANCORE--The Rajas of Venad--1000A.D. to 1947 A.D. [The Kulasekhara Dynasty-from internet]











                                 Queen Kumaradevi and KingChandragupta I, depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta, 335–380 CE.

                               


                                       CHERA KINGS OF Karur:-350BC TO 380 AD



"The rulers of Travancore trace their descent from the great dynasty of Chera kings whose exploits are recorded in the old literary monuments of India, the Ithihasas and thePuranas and the works of the Sangam period of ancient Tamil literature. They have a long and continuous history beginning from a period earlier than the commencement of the Christian era. Kulasekhara Alwar, one of the early kings of the Vanchi used the significant title, Keralachudamani The Chera descent of the Maharajas of Travancore is warranted by the indisputable evidence of inscriptions discovered in various parts of south India. A later inscription, one of the Paranthaka Pandya, (12th century A.D) discovered at Cape Comorin makes specific mention of the Chera king of Travancore"



Karur (கரூர்)

  



The names of the early Chera kings who ruled from Karur, have been
 
found in the rock inscriptions in Aaru Nattar 
 
Epigraphical, numismatic, archaeological and literary evidence have proved beyond doubt that Karur was the capital of early Chera kings of Sangam age. It was called Karuvoor or Vanji during Sangam days. There has been a plethora of rare findings during the archaeological excavations undertaken in Karur. These include mat-designed pottery, bricks, mud-toys, Roman coins, Chera Coins, Pallava Coins, RomanAmphorae, Rasset coated ware, rare rings, etc. Karur may have been the center for old jewellery-making and gem setting (with the gold imported mainly from Rome), as seen from various excavations. In 150 Greek scholar Ptolemy mentioned “Korevora” (Karur) as a very famous inland trading center in Tamil Nadu.
Karuvoor Thevar born in Karur, is one among the nine devotees who sung the divine Music Thiruvichaippa, which is the ninth Thirumurai. He is the single largest composer among the nine authors of Thiruvichaippa. He lived during the reign of the great Raja Raja Chola I. In addition to the famous Siva temple, there is a Vishnu temple at Thiruvithuvakkodu suburb of Karur, sung by famous Kulasekaraazhvaar [7-8th century AD]. The same temple is presumably mentioned in epic Silappadikaram as Adaha maadam Ranganathar whose blessings CheranSenguttuvan sought before his north Indian expedition



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Rulers



Karur was ruled by different Chera kings. Kongu Cheras (capital:Karur (Vanji), ruling nearly the whole of old Kongu - lineage unclear- Cheran kootam


Kongu Chera Coins
Kongu Chera Coins





Vanavan @ Vanavaramban [430-350 BC].

Kuttuvan Uthiyan Cheralathan [350-328 BC] ruled for 22 years.
Imayavaramban Neduncheralathan [328-270 BC] ruled for 58 years.
Palyaanai Chelkezhu Kuttuvan [270-245 BC] ruled for 25 years.
Kalangaikanni narmudicheral [245-220 BC] ruled for 25 years.
Perumcheralathan [220-200 BC] ruled for 20 years.
Kudakko Neduncheralathan [200-180 BC] ruled for 20 years.
Kadal Pirakottiya Velkezhu kuttuvan [180-125 BC] ruled 55 years.
Adukotpattuch Cheralathan [125-87 BC] ruled 38 years.
Selvak kadungo Vazhiyathan [87-62 BC] ruled 25 years.
Yanaikatchei Mantharanj Cheral Irumborai [62-42 BC] ruled 20 years.
Thagadoor Erintha Perum Cheral Irumborai [42-25 BC] ruled 17 years (unification of Upper and lower Kongu).
Ilancheral Irumborai [25-19 BC] ruled 16 years.
Karuvur Eriya Koperumcheral Irumborai [9-1 BC].
Vanji Mutrathu tunjiya Anthuvancheral [BC 20 – 10 AD].
Kanaikal Irumborai [20-30 AD].
Palai Padiya Perum kadungko [1-30 AD].
Kokothai Marban [30 –60 AD].

Cheran Chenguttuvan [60-140 AD].
Kottambalathu tunjiya Maakothai [140-150 AD].
Cheraman mudangi kidantha Nedumcheralathan [150-160 AD].
Cheraman Kanaikkal Irumborai [160-180 AD].
Cheraman Ilamkuttuvan [180-200 AD].
Thambi Kuttuvan [200-220 AD].
Poorikko [220-250 AD].
Cheraman Kuttuvan Kothai [250-270 AD].
Cheraman Vanjan [270-300 AD].
Mantharanj Cheral [330-380 AD] found in Allahabad inscriptions of Samudragupta.

The archaeological excavations undertaken in Karur

These include mat-designed pottery, bricks, mud-toys, Roman coins, Chera Coins, Pallava Coins, RomanAmphorae, Rasset coated ware, rare rings, etc. Karur may have been the center for old jewellery-making and gem setting (with the gold imported mainly from Rome), as seen from various excavations. In 150 Greek scholar Ptolemy mentioned “Korevora” (Karur) as a very famous inland trading center in Tamil Nadu.


here is a Vishnu temple at Thiruvithuvakkodu suburb of Karur, sung by famous Kulasekaraazhvaar [7-8th century AD]. The same temple is presumably mentioned in epic Silappadikaram as Adaha maadam Ranganathar whose blessings Cheran Senguttuvan sought before his north Indian expedition



South India in AD 300

Pandiya mean old country.


 Chera means hill country and



Chola means new country,



in Sangam Tamil lexicon.



After the Sangam Cheras, Kongus (Gangas), a Chera related native clan ruled Karur. The history of modern Kongu Nadu dates back 
to the 8th century. The name Kongu Nadu originated from the term "Kongu", meaning nectar or honey. 
Kulasekhara known as Kongar Kon (the king of the Kongu people) ruled Kongu Nadu from Karur during this  
period.
The arch rivals Cholas conquered Karur and ruled it for forty years. The Kongus (Gangas) again conquered Karur as vassals of 
Hoysalas. Malik Kafur ended the Hoysalas & Vijayanagara empire absorbed Karur



Chera kings 400 AD TO 8OO AD


UNKNOWN



The Kalabhras dynasty ruled over the entire ancient Tamil country between the 3rd and the 6th 

century in an era of South Indian history called theKalabhra interregnum


Kalabhras
The Dark Age of South India
Kalabhras Dynasty
 250–600 

 
Kalabhras Territories
CapitalKaveripattinam
Language(s)Tamil
ReligionBuddhism
Hinduism
Jainism
GovernmentMonarchy
Maharaja
 - 5th centuryAchchutavikranta
 - ?Tiraiyan of Pavattiri
 - ?Pulli of Vengadam orTirupati
Historical eraClassical India
 - Third Centurycirca 250
 - Sixth Centurycirca 600


Coins of the Kalabhras
KALABHRA COINS


Kaveripattinam
—  city  —


enter>


Kaveripattinam
Location of Kaveripattinam
in Tamil Nadu and India
Coordinates12°25′N 78°14′ECoordinates12°25′N 78°14′E
CountryIndia
StateTamil Nadu

. The Kalabhras displaced the kingdoms of the early Cholas, Pandayas and Chera dynasties. Little is known 

about the Cheras between the two dynasties. Mostly, they were the allies of the powerful Pallavas, against 

the Pandyas andAys.



South India in AD 700
The Kalabhras were defeated around the 6th century with the revival of Pallava and Pandya power. 

A Pandya ruler, Maravarman Rajasimha I (c. 730 – 765 AD), mentioned in a number of 

Pandya copper-plate inscriptions, was a prominent ruler during the early 8th century CE. He claims 
to have defeated a prominent Chera king. The name of the Chera king is not known, however from 
the details of the battles between the Pandya and the Chera, the Chera territory ceded seems to 

have included the entire Kerala and the Southern Pandya country 

from Kanyakumari to Thirunelveli, with capital at Karur.

 Mahodayapuram Chera Kingdom or Kulasekhara kingdom 

800 CE–1102 CE

Kulasekhara kingdom, an approximate representation
CapitalMahodayapuram(NearMuziris),Kulashekarapuram
Language(s)TamilMalayalam
ReligionHinduism
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraMiddle Ages
 - Coronation of Kulasekhara Varman800 CE
 - Chola attacks underKulothunga Chola I1102 CE

                                                             Map of Kerala just after the fall of the Later Chera kingdom

another Pandya monarch. Ayyan Atikal Tiruvatikal, who issued the famous Tharisapalli plates(Third Quilon copper plate, Tharissapalli Deed I or Kottayam plate) of 849 AD for the Later Chera king to Isodatta Virai for Tharissapalli (church) at Curakkeni Kollam, was the governor of Venad under Sthanu Ravi Varman.










800 to 1122 AD


VENAD CHERA COINS










LIST OF KULASEKHARA KINGS (CHERAMAN PERUMALS)

  1. Kulashekhara Varman (800-820 AD)
  2. Rajashekhara Varman (820- 844 AD)
  3. Sthanu Ravi Varman (844- 885 AD)
  4. Rama Varma Kulashekhara (885- 917 AD)
  5. Goda Ravi Varma (917- 944 AD)
  6. Indu Kotha Varma (944- 962 AD)
  7. Bhaskara Ravi Varman I (962- 1019 AD)
  8. Bhaskara Ravi Varman II (1019- 1021 AD)
  9. Vira Kerala (1021- 1028 AD)
  10. Rajasimha (1028- 1043 AD)
  11. Bhaskara Ravi Varman III (1043-1082 AD)
  12. Ravi Rama Varma (1082-90 AD)
  13. Rama Varma Kulashekhara (1090- 1102 AD, 1102-c. 1112 AD)


1102 Raja Sri Rama Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Mentioned in the 

Rameswarathukoil 

Inscription as the founder of Venad as an independent state. He d. 1102, having had 

issue, a son:1) Raja Sri 

Kotha Varma Marthandam, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.
 



sons: 1) Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma I, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see 

below.2) Raja Sri Vira Ravi 

Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad – see below.
 

1125 – 1145      Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma I, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, 

eldest son of Raja Kotha 

Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death 

of his father, 1125. A 


great religious benefactor, responsible for the rebuilding of Padmanabhaswamy 


Temple and the 

endowment 


of Suchindram Temples. He d. 1145. 
 

1145 – 1150 Raja Sri Kodai Kerala Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad
 .

1161 – 1164 Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, second 

son of Raja Kotha 

Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded ca 1161. He d

1164.


1164 - 1167 Raja Vira Kerala Varma II, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, third son 

of Raja Kotha Varma, 

Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his 

elder brother, 1164. 

He d. 1167


1167 – 1173      Raja Vira Aditya Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, fourth 

son of Raja Kotha 

Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. He d. 1173?


1173 – 1192      Raja Vira Udaya Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of 

Venad, youngest son of 

Raja Kotha Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, educ. privately. Succeeded on 

the death of his 

elder brother, 1167. He established his seat at Kulikkod and allied himself to the 

Pandya Kings. He d. at 

Kolidaikuru, 1192, having had issue, a daughter



1192 – 1195      Raja Sri Devadaram Vira Kerala Varma III, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja 

of Venad. Fl 1192. 

He d. December 1195. 1) Raja Sri Vira Manikantha Rama Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara 

Perumal, Raja of 

 Venad – see below.1) Rani Madhavi. She had issue, a son


1195 -               Raja Sri Vira Manikantha Rama Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, 

Raja of Venad. From 

Kilapperur Illam. Mentioned in the Vellayani inscriptions. Succeeded December 1195. 


1209 – 1214    Raja Sri Vira Rama Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja 

of Venad. He d. 1214, 

having had issue, a daughter:

1214 – 1240      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja 

of Venad. Mentioned in 

the Kandiyoor inscription in 1218, and the Manalikara inscription of 1236. m. Rani 

Unniachi, responsible for 

the Subramanyaswamy shrine, near Suchindram Temple.

1240 – 1252      Raja Sri Vira Padmanabha Martanda Varma Tiruvadi, Kulasekhara 

Perumal, Raja of Venad. 

The Pandya kings asserted their dominance over Venad during his reign.

Fl 1266-1267    Raja Sri Jayasimha Deva, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, from 

the Yadu family of the 

Lunar race. He became a powerful ruler, who succeeded in bringing the whole of Kerala 

under his control.

 He esrablished his seat at Quilon, the surrounding areas becoming known as 

Jayasimhanad or 

Desinganad. m. Rani Umma Devi, Rani of Venad, of the Kupaka family, probably joint 

ruler with her husband. 

He d. at Quilon, leaving several sons who quarrelled with his nephews over the 

succession, causing a long

 and disruptive civil war. He had issue:1) Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, 

Sangramadhiran 

Trikshatra Chudamani, Raja of Venad – see below.


1299 – 1313      Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Sangramadhiran 

Trikshatra Chudamani, Raja of 

Venad. b. 1266, son of Raja Sri Jayasimha Deva, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad, 

by his wife, Rani 

Umma Devi, Rani of Venad, educ. privately. Adopted by the childless Rani Aavani 
Amma 

Thampuran of 

Attingal. Succeeded to the throne of Kerala, at Kolambapuram (Quilon) 1299 (in his 

33rd year). He asserted 

his independence in 1310 and claimed the Pandyan throne after marrying a Pandyan 

princess, ultimately 

defeating Jatavarman Vira Pandya, the illegitimate son of Maravarman Kulasekhara I, 

twice and assuming 

control of his realm. The garrisons established in the Tamil country by the Muslim 

invader, Malik Kafur, were 

expelled by him. He established his rule over most of the southern countries between 

Kanyakumari and 

Madras, and as far north as Nellore. Crowned at Madurai, 1312 (in his 46th year). He 

then defeated the 

Cholas and was crowned as Chakravathi on the banks of the Vegavati River, at 

Coonjevaram 

(Kanchipuram), 1314. During his reign, Quilon rose to great prominance as a centre of 

trade and 

international commerce. Author of “Pradyumnabhudayam”. m. before 1310, a daughter 

of the Pandya ruler 

Maravarman Kulasekhara. He d. at Quilon, 1313.


The reign of Ravi Varma Kulaśēkhara,1299 (FROM INTERNET)-CLICK AND READ:-http://pazhayathu.blogspot.com/2011/07/reign-of-ravi-varma-kulasekhara1299-ad.html


1313 – 1333      Raja Sri Vira Udaya Martanda Varma, Vira Pandya Deva, Raja of 

Venad. Succeeded on the 

death of his cousin, 1313. Subjugated by King Ravi Varma Kulasekhara Perumal in 

1316. He d. 1333, having 

adopted two daughters of the Kolathunad family, whom he installed as Attingal Mootha 

Tampuran (Senior 

Princess of Attingal) and Attingal Elaya Tampuran (Junior Princess of Attingal) in 1305 

AD. The Senior 

Princess of Attingal being the ancestress of the branches of the ruling house settled at 

Quilon and 

Trivandrum. The younger princess being the ancestress of the Elayadathu Swarupam of 

Kottarakara and 

the Peraka Thavazhi branch of Nedumangad.


But till 1314 the Venad rulers practised Patriarchy and spoke only Tamil. After the invasion of Malik 

Kafur in 1310 all the Tamil dynasties of Kerala were replaced by Matriarchal dynasties. Kolathiri the 

Tulu Bunt ruler of Kannur send two princes called Attingal and Kunnumel Ranis to replace the last 

Tamil ruler Udayamarthanda Varma in 1314 AD

1333 – 1335      Raja Sri Aditya Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad.
1335 – 1342      Raja Sri Vira Rama Udaya Martanda Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad. b

1307, eldest son of 

the Senior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately. Senior Tiruvadi of Chiravay. Succeeded 

1335. Crowned, January 

1336. He d. July 1342.

1342 – 1363      Raja Sri Vira Kerala Varma Tiruvadi, Raja of Venad.

1363 – 1366      Raja Sri Vira Martanda Varma III, Raja of Venad. Ascended 

the gadi October 1363. He d. at Trivandrum Fort, September 1366 AD.

1366 – 1382      Raja Sri Vira Rama Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. b. 1338, eldest 

son of the Senior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately. Installed with full ruling powers, 

1366. He d. at Trivandrum, 1382.

1383 – 1416      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta 

Tiruvadi (Kilapperur)

416 – 1417      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta 

Tiruvadi.

1383                   Raja Sri Vira Kerala Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of 

Vanad. b. 1366, elder 

twin son of the Junior Rani of Attingal, educ. privately. Trippappur Mutta 

Tiruvadi (Kilapperur). Succeeded 

on the death of his maternal uncle, 1382. Reigned for three months before his death.


1383 – 1444      Raja Sri Chera Udaya Martanda Varma, Vira Padya Deva, Kulasekhara 

Perumal, Raja of 

Venad. b. 1366, younger twin son of the Junior Rani of Attingal, educ

privately.  Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi

He enjoyed the longest reign in Travancore history. He d. at the Chera Mahadevi 

Palace, 1444, aged 78 

years

1444 – 1458      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad [“Venad Mootha Raja”=“the 

First Prince of 

Venad”)]. He d. 1458.

1458 – 1468      Raja Sankhara Sri Vira Rama Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, 

Raja of Venad.  From 

the Trippappur princely house. Jayasimhanad Mutta Tiruvadi. Ruled until October 1468.

1468 – 1484      Raja Sri Vira Kodai Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. From 

Kilapperur. Jayasimhanad Mutta 

Tiruvadi and Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi. He established his capital at Kallidaikurichi. A 

religious minded and 

learned ruler who devoted his time to artistic pursuits, charitable and public works. 

He d. at Kallidaikurichi, 

1484 

1484 – 1503      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad. Trippappur Mutta 

Tiruvadi. Established his 

capital at Padmanabhapuram, ca. 1500. His rule witnessed a growing enmity with the 

rulers of Vijayanagar 

and the arrival of the Portuguese. He d. 1504


1503 – 1504      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. He d

1504.
1504 – 1528      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Kerala Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. 

Succeeded 

as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi and as ruler of Venad 1504. He d. 1528.


1528 – 15xx      Sri Vira Muttavar Sankaranarayana Venrumankonda Bhutalavira 

Udaya 

Martanda Varma 

Raja Jetunganadu Mutta Tiruvadi. Succeeded on the death of his maternal uncle 

as Trippappur Mutta 

Tiruvadi 1528. He conquered most of Tirunelvelly from the Pandyas and assumed the 

title 

of Venrumankonda Bhutalavira in commemoration of that victory. The Vijayanagar 

generalissimo, 

Salakaraja 

Chinna Tirumalayyadeva subsequently defeated him in battle near  Tamraparni 1535. 

Forced to surrender all 


the Pandya territories that he had previously won, and reduced to the position of a 

vassal of the Vijayanagar


 Empire. Fl 685 ME, 688 ME, 707 ME and 722 ME. m. Cholakulavalli, a princess from the 

Chola dynasty. He d

1560.

15xx – 1544      Raja Sri Aditya Varman, Raja of Venad. He d. January 1544.

1544 – 1554      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. From the Chiravay princely . 

Succeeded as ruler of 

Venad and installed on the same day at Vilavur Madom, Attur, Kulkulam, 6th January 

1544. 

1554 – 1575      Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. From Vanchi. Ascended 

the gadi, at the Tiruvitancode

 Temple, Kulkulam, 9th March 1554. He d. at Keralapuram Palace, Attur, Kalkulam, 

25th March 1575.

1575 – 1577      Raja Sri Ravi Varma, Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Succeeded 

and installed on the 

same day at Attur, 25th March 1575. Installed at the Tiruvattar Shrine, 3rd June 1575.  

He d. at Keralapuram 

Palace, Attur, Kalkulam, 19th January 1577, having adopted a princess and a prince 

from the Attingal Royal 

Family into the Chiravay Swarupam 1575, including:1) Prince Cheriya Rama Varma, of 

Manalikkara, in 


Kalkulam, a nephew of the Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi.1) Princess ...

1577 – 1578      interregnum? 
1578 – 1592      Raja Sri Martanda Varma, Raja of Venad. Assumed the headship of the 
Chiravay Swarupam 

as Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi 18th November 1578. Ascended the gadi as ruler of Venad, 19th November 1578.

 Assumed the headship of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta 

Tiruvadi 1587 

and formally 

installed as such at the Trippappur Mahadevar Temple, 26th October 1588. He d. June 

1592, having adopted 

three princes into the Venad family.

1592 – 1609      Raja Sri Vira Ravi Ravi Varma [Kettai Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, 

Raja of Venad, son of 

Rani Umayammai. A prince of from the Kilapperur Illam of the Trippappur Swarupam. 

Succeeded as ruler of 

Venad and ascended the gadi, 19th June 1592. Assumed the headship of the

 Trippappur 

Swarupam 

as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi in 1605. He d. at Toniman Palace, Tiruvattar, 30th March 

1609.

1609 – 1610      Raja Sri Rama Varma, Raja of Venad. From Iraniel (the traditional 

appanage of the Heir 

Apparent). Adopted into the Chiravay Swaruppam by Raja Sri Martanda Varma, at the 

Kulittura Palace, April 

1579. Succeeded on the death of his adoptive brother, as ruler of Venad, 30th March 

1609. He d. eleven 

months later, at the Karuppu Palace, Trivandrum, 28th February 1610.

1610                 Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad. Adopted into the Chiravay 

Swaruppam by Raja Sri 

Martanda Varma, at the Kulittura Palace, April 1579. Succeeded on the death of his 

adoptive brother as ruler 
of Venad, 28th February 1610. He d. at the Pullikkottu Palace, Trivandrum, 13th May 

1610.

1610                 Raja Sri Ilaya Rama Varma, Raja of Venad. From the Manalikkara 

branch of the family in 

Kalkulam. Succeeded 13th May 1610. He d. at the Tikkurichi Palace, Kalkulam, 

6th September 1610. 


{The 35 Naads (Principalities) in Malabar were: Kottayam, KadathanadKurumbranad, Tamarasseri-Wynad, North Parappanad, South Parappanad, Valluvanad, Vadamalapuram, Tenmalapuram, Kolathunad (All ruled by Samanta Kshatriyas); Polanad, Payyanad, Ramanad, Cheranad, Nedunganad, Naduvattam, Kuttanad, Chavakkad, Chetwai, Eranad, Neeleswaram, Konad, Kodikkunninad, Vettattnad, Kakkad, Beypore, Talapilli, Chirakkal, Kumbala, Kollamkode, Punnathur (All ruled by Samanthan Nairs); Kavalapara, Kurangott, Kuthiravattath, Payyurmala & Pulavai (All ruled by Moopil Nayars).}







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1610 – 1662         Raja Sri Vira Ravi Varma [Revati Tirunal], Kulasekhara Perumal, Raja of Venad. Succeeded on the death of his adoptive uncle as head of the Trippappur Swarupam as Trippappur Mutta Tiruvadi and as ruler of Venad, 6th September 1610 (relinquished 1620?). Assumed the headship of the Chiravay Swarupam as Chiravay Mutta Tiruvadi 1628 (relinquished 1647). He went on pilgrimage to Rawamswaram in 1620. Faced with a contest for the throne throughout his reign. Adopted into the Pokam Tavazhi Senior branch by its Head Vira Kerala Varma Moolam Tirunal, at Pullikottu Palace, Trivandrum, January 1622. Adopted into Kunnummel Elayadam Swarupam (Kottarakkara) by Vira Kerala Varma Pooyam Tirunal, at Karuppu Palace, Trivandrum, July 1623. He d. at the Sri Padam Palace, Trivandrum, 11th August 1662 .

1662 – 1671      Raja Sri Rama Varma, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Princess Lakshmi Amma Pantarattil [Lakshmi Nambirattiyar Ammai], from the Vellarapalli Kovilakam of Cochin Royal Family. Adopted by the Senior Rani of Attingal, Pooram Tirunal, at the Attingal Palace,  June 1630. Succeeded 1651 or 827ME. Succeeded on the death of his uncle, 11th August 1662. Assumed the Headship of Jayatunganad (Quilon) 1667. He d. at the Kalkulam Fort Palace, 13th September 1671.

1671 – 1677      Raja Sri Aditya Varma, Raja of Venad, eldest son of Princess Lakshmi Amma Pantarattil [Lakshmi Nambirattiyar Ammai], from the Vellarapalli Kovilakam of Cochin Royal Family. Adopted by the Senior Rani of Attingal, Pooram Tirunal, at the Attingal Palace, June 1630. Succeeded on the death of his elder brother, 13th September 1671. Opposed by the pillamar, who conspired to burn the palace and cause him to flee the capital. He was k. (poisoned by the Yogakkars) at the Darbhakkulangara Palace, Kalkulam, between 28th January/25th February 1677.

1677 – 1678      Raja Sri Ramaraja Ravi Varma, Raja of Venad (first time) – see below.

1678 – 1681      Raja Sri Kerala Varma, Raja of Venad, elder son of the Princess of Nedumangadu, of the Perakat Tavazhi, educ. privately. Succeeded as Prince of Nedumangadu on the death of his uncle. Adopted into the Kyamkulam branch of the Cheraway Swarupam, 1677. He claimed that his mother had been adopted into the Trippappur Swarupam of the Venad Royal House, at the same time as his uncle, by Raja Ravi Varma in 1621. Consequently, declared the adoption of 1671 as invalid and claimed the throne for himself. He then joined forces with the discontented pillamars, defeated Rani Ummayamma Aswathi Tirunal in late 1677 and opened negotiations with her mother. The old Rani Makayiram Tirunal having expired before the negotiations were complete, he seized the Royal regalia and proclaimed himself ruler in 1678. Defeated and expelled from Trivandrum in 1681 by Prince Kerala Varma, the Second Tampuran of Iranyal. He subsequently made peace with Rani Ummayamma but failed to secure recognition as Second Tampuran of Venad. He d. 1693.