THE history OF INDIA FROM THE CLOSE OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.
The historical events connected with the history of India from the closing years of the fifteenth century, when, by the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1487, by Bartholomew de Diaz, and the opening of a direct sea route to the East, the Portuguese began to contend for the exclusive commerce of India. European interest in India was thus stimulated and led to the opening of all the south of Asia to the know- ledge and commerce of the West. The enumeration of events is carried down in the following pages from 1492 to the Viceroyalty of the Earl of Elgin and Kincardine, 1894
1499 --July 8. Vasco da Gama, with three or four ships, sails fromBelem. Nov. 22, doubles the Cape, and on the voyage suppresses a mutiny on board.Jan. II. Vasco da Gama leaves Natal; March 2, reachesMozambique ; April 14, is hospitably received at Malindi ; May 29, anchors at Kappatt, and on the 27th at Pantalayini Kollam, off Calicut ;Vasco da gama and ManavikramanZamorin by Maurício José do Carmo Sendim (1786-1870)May 28, received in audience by the Zamorin, but harshly treated by the Moorish traders. Diogo Diaz and other Portuguese detained as prisoners in Calicut, for which Da Gama detains eighteen natives on board. The agent having been released, Da Gama sets sail (August 28) with six of the hostages still on board. He reached Lisbon in September 1499.Sept. 13. Pedro Alvarez Cabral, with thirteen ships and a rich cargo, arrives at Calicut ; a treaty is concluded and a factory established, which was soon after destroyed by the Mappillas, and fifty persons massacred, whereupon Cabral bombards Calicut. Seizing ten of the Zamorin's ships, he sails for Cochin. December, a factory is established and a peaceful alliance made with the Cochin Raja.Jan. 10. The Portuguese fleet leaves Cochin, touching at Can- nanor on Jan. 15, and reaching Lisbon July 21.Pope Alexander VL grants to the Portuguese king a Bull constituting him " Lord of the Navigation, Conquest, and Trade of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and Lidia." Feb. 10 (according to Correa, March 25). A fleet of ten ships under Vasco da Gama leaves Portugal. A settlement is arranged with the Kolattiri and Cochin, but the Zamorin re- mains hostile. Da Gama loots a Moorish pilgrim vessel and puts the crew and pilgrims to death, defeats and burns the Calicut fleet ; and, Dec. 28, sails for Europe.March 31. The Zamorin of Calicut, with an army of 50,000, marches to Repelim (Eddapalli) to expel the Cochin Raja Tirumumpara who, with the resident Portuguese, retires to Vypin or Baypin island.ept. 2. Alphonso de Albuquerque arrives at Cochin. The Calicut garrison after a battle evacuates Cochin ; Tirumumpara is re-established and a factory founded. This is the first European fortress in India. Factories are next established at Kollam(North Quilon) FORT at thangasseryCOCHIN PORTUGESE FORTJan. 12. The Portuguese fleet sails from Cochin, leaving a factor and a priest. Francisco de Albuquerque concludes a treaty with the Zamorin, broken by the seizure of a Calicut boat. Jan. 25, Alphonso de Albuquerque sails. Feb. 5, his cousin Francisco sails with cargo, but is lost on the way home. Duarte Pacheco beats off an attack on the fortress by the Zamorin.Sept. 14. A fleet of fifteen sail under Lope Suarez, sent by King Manuel, arrives at Cochin, having intimidated the Zamorin at Calicut by a two days' bombardment.1505,July 6Lope Suarez burns the town of Cranganor.March 2A fleet of twenty-two sail, under Dom Francisco de Almeida, leaves Portugal to consolidate the Indian and other Eastern conquests.Oct. 24, the fleet arrives at Cochin with the new Viceroy. Cochin is made the seat of government, and forts erectedThe Cannanor-fort[ st angelo 1505][Fort Anjediva, built on the Anjadip Island, off the coast of the Indian state of Karnataka]Portuguese fort at Anjidiva [Moors put to defeat their ships are burnt.1506Lorenzo de Almeida concentrates his ships at Can- nanor against the fleet of the Zamorin, and defeats the combined fleet of Turkish and Moorish allies. Lorenzo sails south, and reaches Ceylon, where a treaty is concluded.April 18.Da Cunha leaves Lisbon with Alphonso de Albu- querque as Viceroy elect. He visits the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, where some captains mutiny and proceed straight to India. He now defeated the Zamorin, founded and fortified a settlement at Goa ; then sailed to the Straits of Malacca, and took the city in Feb. 1510; reduced the Molucca and Banda islands, and in 1 5 14 reduced Ormuz, the chief port in the Persian Gulf. Thus in twelve years he had acquired for Portugal all the chief trading ports from the Cape to China — extending to 12,000 miles of coast.April 27. De Brito besieged in Cannanor by the Kolattiri, the Zamorin and the Moors, but a fleet under Da Cunha arrives from Europe and raises the siege. Peace is concluded.A combined fleet of Turks and Gujaratis, under Malik Ayaz, the Amlr-ul-Umara, Governor of Diu, attacks the Portuguese off Chaul, each side claiming the victory. Nov. 27. Almeida, with the fleet, destroys Ponnani, the Zamorin's port. Dec. 6. The Portuguese fleet sails for Europe.A large fleet prepared in Egypt, under Mir Husain, having on board 500 Mamluks and the Zamorin's ambassador. Mayimama Marakkar, engages the Portuguese fleet at Chaul, The Commander, Lorenzo de Almeida, and his crew are killed. Nov. 12. His father, Francisco de Almeida, in revenge, sends a fleet which burns some Calicut ships and arrives at Cannanor on Nov. 25. Dec. 12, the fleet pursues Mir Husain and enters Dabhol on Dec. 30. He takes the town and massacres the inhabitants.Dec. 14. Albuquerque, the Viceroy, is unable to eject Almeida. Both send despatches under this date to Dom Manuel. Jan. 5. The Portuguese fleet sails from Dabhol. Jan. 21, lands at Mahim. Feb. 3, engages and defeats the Musalman fleet under Mir Husain in the harbour of Diu. March 8, Almeida enters Cochin in triumph. Albuquerque is now a prisoner. Oct. 29, Dom Fernando Coutinho arrives from Portugal with orders to instal Albuquerque as Governor-General, and (Nov. 5) he is proclaimed Viceroy at Cochin,Jan. 4. Albuquerque and Coutinho arrive at Calicut, burn the Zamorin's palace, and destroy the place ; but the natives rallying, Coutinho is attacked in the palace and killed, with eighty men, and Albuquerque escapes with a wound. He then withdraws with the fleet to Cochin.Friar Luiz sent as ambassador to Vijayanagar, to seek help against the Zamorin.June. In order to ruin Muslim trade with China, Albuquerque strikes at Malacca, and takes the city on July 26, slaughtering the natives. A fort called "A Famosa " is erected, and rebellion crushed. Dec, Albuquerque leaves Malacca, but loses rich booty by shipwreck.1513Feb. 10. Dom Garcia de Noronha reports the Zamorin of Calicut willing to make peace. An embassy is unsuccessful, but the Zamorin is poisoned by his brother, who concludes peace and grants a site for a factory, which was at once erected.July. Attempts made by Albuquerque to plant a factory at Ormuz. He exacts tributePortuguese factory at Hormuz under muscat sultan 1550Duarte Barbosa travels in India — visits Vijayanagar, 1504-15.vijay nagar in ruinsAn expedition to China is undertaken by Perez, a Portuguese,The Portuguese governor concludes a treaty with the Queen of Quilon (Kollam), and a new factory is erected.John de Sylveyra enters the port of Chittagaon, and the Arakanese invite the Portuguese to trade with them.Soarez makes an expedition to Ceylon, with soldiers and artizans. Sept. 18: He arrives at Point de Galle, obtains tribute and a site for a fortress, which when completed is put in charge of Joao de Sylveyra.Portuguese prisoner of war making a fort near Kandy in Ceylon[sri Lanka]Albuquerque is recalled, and the Portuguese power in the East from this time begins to decline.Fort Thomas at Tangasseri[kollam] is besieged by the Muhammadans.1520An expedition to Sumatra undertaken by Jorge de Albuquerque, who storms Pachim, restores a friendly Raja, and erects a fort. An attack on Bintang is repulsed, the Portuguese losing heavily.Portuguese fort at Sumatra -indonesiaDec. 22. Dom Duarte de Menezes takes office as Governor at Goa,1523Dabhol -fort maharashtra -indiais made tributary to the Portuguese ; and Malik Ayaz is compelled to quit Chaulfort at chaul near bombay. Revolts at Ormuz are occasioned by the insolence of the Portuguese officials.April. The Portuguese confirm Isma'il 'Adil Shah in possession of the Goa mainland.Portuguese expeditions to Malacca, Pahang, Java, and Banda are attended with loss.They establish a strong fort at Cranganor, which they enlarged in 1565.fort at cranganore[kodungalloor-kerala]indiaHeytor da Sylveira becomes master of Aden, which is made an open port for Portuguese vessels. The king maltreats a crew and seizes the cargo.ancient sirah fort at Aden1525-26Sept. 25. Vasco da Gama, Conde de Vidigueyra, arrives at Calicut as Viceroy, to supersede Menezes. He appoints able officers and reorganises the administration.Dec. 24. Vasco da Gama dies at Cochin. The Royal Despatch is found to appoint Dom Henrique de Menezes as successor, with Lopo Vaz de Sampayo as interim governor.vasco da gama's original grave site at cochin-keralaFeb. The Zamorin attacks the Portuguese factory at Calicut, on which Menezes attacks and storms Ponnani, burns the ships at Calicut, and destroys the native settlements and shipping at Dharmapattam and Mahe.portuguese factory and fort near pondicherry -indiaF'rom June 13 till Oct. 31 the Zamorin besieges the Calicut fort, which is abandoned.portuguese fort at Tallassery-keralaMany of the Malay kings make peace with the Portuguese.MALACCA FORT -MALAYA-PORTUGUESEFeb. 21. Dom Henrique de Menezes, Governor at Goa, dies at Cannanor. Lope Vaz de Sampayo acts, pending the arrival of the next nominee. Goa, Cochin, and Cannanor are fortified against an expected Turkish invasion. At Tidor, Dom Garcia Henriques, by disarming and firing the town to settle disputes, brings the Portuguese into disrepute. On Dec. 31 a Spanish ship arrives there, and the Spaniards join the natives in expelling the Portuguese.CORJUEM FORT-GOAAGUADA FORT -GOAFeb. 28. Pedro Mascarenhas, Governor-elect of Goa, returning from Malacca, is wounded at Cochin and imprisoned at Goa, Lope Vaz refusing trial. Arbitration is resorted to, and on Dec. 26 Lope Vaz de Sampayo is acknowledged governor.The Gujarat fleet defeated by the Portuguese off Chaul.Oct. 15. Lope Vaz de Sampayo takes Porca (Purakkat), defended by the natives.MAP OF TRAVANCORE;COCHI AND MALABAR AREAS OF KERALA -1606]The Portuguese side with Nizam-ul-i-Mulk against Bahadur Shah. Chaul is strengthened and the Gujarat fleet pursued, and in an action off Bandra 73 out of 80 Gujarat ships are captured.The Molucca Islands transferred from Spain to Portugal for a large sum.PORTUGUESE ATTACK ON MAKKASAR-INDONESIALATER ATTACK BY DUTCH COLONIZING ARMYFeb. 7 With a large armament Nuno da Cunha takes Syal or Syalbet, on the coast of Kathiawar, by the sword. Feb. 16, he attacks Diu, but finds it impregnable. He leaves Antonio de vSaldanha with sixty ships to plunder the Khambay ports, and on the way south he destroys Balsar, Tarapur, Kelva-Mahim, and Agashi.PORTUGUESE FORT AT DIU GUJERATMarch. The Portuguese drive the natives from Mangalor and Daman. The commander of Chaul, defeated by a Gujarat force, is deprived of office. The Portuguese are driven by the natives from Ternate.FORT AT DAMAN BY PORTUGUESEFort of Korjuem,built in 1705,when the inland portuguese expansion began. In the eighteenth century this fort protected the portuguese from the Marahtas,Bhonsles and Rane Rajputs.This fort is situated 4km north of Pomburpa, alongside the Mapusa river near the village of AldonaMormugão Fort,in ruins today.Its work started in 1624. It covered an area of six miles in circumference, contained towering bulwarks, three magazines, five prisons, a chapel and quarters for the guard. It had 53 guns and a garrison with 4 officers, and was an important fortress on the western coast. Unfortunately, except the chapel and a portion of the boundary wall, little is left of this fort.The major fort called Forto Novo de Tivim was built by the Count of Linhares in 1635.On March 5, 1739, Khem Sawant (Bhosle) scaled the walls of Colvale fort and captured it. A more terrible fate awaited the military officials at the Tivim Fort, which the Bhosle army captured in October 1739 in a bloody battle.Fortaleza de S.Tiago,Banastarim:Mozambique fort-AFRICA--Ibo Fortress, (North)Forte of Jesus,Mombassa,Kenia Fort Jesus was built after the Portuguese had been masters of the East African coast for nearly an hundred years.Zanzibar,the Portuguese "Old Fort". Spice island of Zanzibar lies off the coast of Tanzania,portuguese until c1700West Africa,S Miguel Fortress It is the first defensive edification built in Angola, and Paulo Dias de Novais, the first Governor of Angola who unshiped in Luanda in 1575An old map : "The struggle for colonial dominion,1700-1763" The British,Dutch,Portuguese,Spanish and French possessions around the world.Portuguese Uniforms from XVIII centuryUniform of the Portuguese infantry in the city of Goa (Índia)Cavalry Regiment of Évora in 1764Viceroy Guard in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in 1764Infantry Regiment of Braga in 17831532Turks arrive in Gujarat, under Mustafa RiimT, and Bahadur assigns them a dwelling at Diu. Several Lodi chiefs find refuge at Bahadur's court, which offends the Emperor Humayun. Oct., Bahadur conquers and garrisons the Bagar country.The Portuguese under Da Cunha burn all the towns from Bassein to Tarapur, and levy contributions from Thana and Bombay.PORTUGUESE FORT VASAI -BOMBAYFORT AT TARAPUR NORTH OF BOMBAYNuno da Cunha takes Bassein from a garrison of 12,000 men, and razes the fortifications, and an attempt is made to take Daman.1535The Zamorin of Calicut, after being defeated in six battles, ceases hostilities.The Portuguese attack and take Cranganor, and build a fort. A citadel built at Diu is cut off from the town by a wall erected by Bahadur.The Zamorin, assisted by Pate Marakkar, a wealthy merchant,A sketch of Marakkar Fort found in a Portuguese document.The staircase captured from a Portuguese Ship on the event of one of Marakkar’s victory over Portuguese. Madonna can be seen engraved on it. It is kept in the Kottakkal juma masjid and used as a platform during the ‘juma’ prayer.ancestral home of Kunhali Maraikkarmakes sporadic attacks on the Portuguese and also on the King of Ceylon.Goa is made an episcopal see by Pope Paul III., and put under the Metropolitan of Funchal. The first bishop was Dom Francisco de Mela. The Portuguese found a settlement at Hugh near the old site of SatgaonFeb. 15. Martin Affonso defeats a fleet under Pate Marakkar at Bandala, rescues Portuguese prisoners, and captures twenty- three barques. He raises the siege of Colombo, where the king's brother, Madune Pandar, vvas in revolt.Sept. A Turkish expedition arrives to exterminate the Portu- guese in India, and bombards Diu for twenty days. The expected arrival of a new Viceroy and fleet causes the armada to retire on Nov. 25.Sept. 24. Dom Garcia de Noronha reaches Goa as Viceroy. The new Viceroy, Dom Garcia de Noronha, visits Dili, and on Feb. 26 concludes a treaty with Khwaja Zafar, granting Mahmud Shah two-thirds of the revenue. The peace of Diu causes hostilities elsewhere to cease.Jan. A treaty is concluded by the Portuguese with the Zamorin for thirty years. Trade facilities and su[)port in time of war are provided. Treaties are also concluded with the Kings of Bijapur and Ahmadnagar.1542Jan. A Portuguese expedition leaves Goa for Suez, and on the way several cities are sacked, and ships captured. July. The fleet arrives at Goa. This year a Portuguese galleonwith cargo is captured by the French off the Azores.May 6. Francis Xavier lands at Goa as the first Jesuit missionary.Sept. Martin Affonso da Sousa succeeds Estevao da Gama as governor. He reduces the pay of the soldiers, and compels the Queen of Bhatkal to pay tribute. The entire customs of Ormuz are relinquished by the king. A Portuguese expedition to China discovers Japan.1542Sept. I. Dom Joao de Castro, with a fleet of six sail, arrives at Goa to succeed Martin Affonso de Sousa. Friar Vincent of the Franciscan Ordercommences a mission at Cranganor among the Syrian Christians. Failing in this, he is assisted by the Viceroy and Bishop of Goa in erecting a college, but the native Church refuses to recognise the orders of the students ordained there. Nov. 4. By a treaty with the Spaniards, Tidor is regained for the Portuguese, the Spaniards receiving Ternate.Renewed incursions made by the Portuguese on the coast towns of Gujarat, towns and ships being burnt.April II. The Portuguese governor, having settled Diu, returns to Goa, and finding Salsette and Bardes still occupied by the Bijapur troops, proceeds to eject them. Treaties are now concluded with the Kings of Vijayanagar(Sept. 19) and Ahmad- nagar (Oct. 6), constituting a triple league against Bijapur.Many converts to Romanism made in Ceylon by Antonio del Padrou, first Commissary of St Francisco in India. Gabriel de Ataide, a Portuguese priest, digging the foundations for a church at the little Mount, Mailapur, professed to find a cross stained with the blood of St Thomas. The place was occupied by the Order of the Pelerino about 1551.The Portuguese defeat the King of Achln, Sumatra, in a naval battle.Mahmud Shah of Gujarat concludes a peace with the Portu- guese much in their favour.1551July. Garcia da Sa dies. Aug. 11, Jorge Cabralsucceeds as six- teenth governor at Goa. The Zamorin and the chief of the pepper district defeat the Portuguese and the Cochin Raja at Bardela.Nov.The Zamorin,with eighteen princes, invades Cochin. The Viceroy forbids an attack, and allows the army to retreat.In Ceylon the Portuguese lose 800 men in defending the Kings of Kotta and Kandy. The Viceroy visits Ceylon, ostensibly to relieve the friendly King of Sitawakka, but really to capture his treasure.Chamba territory ravaged by the Portuguese in revenge for the detention of the homeward bound fleet. Maskat lost to the Portuguese, also Ormuz town.Aug. 15. Gil Fernandez de Carvalho, with an expedition fitted out at his own cost, drives off the Turkish fleet from Ormuz.Dec. 2. Francis Xavier, Jesuit missionary to India, dies near Macao. Canonised at Goa 1622.The Portuguese burn the chief towns of the "Pepper Country," whereupon the chief sues for peace. The natives at Dm are ordered to leave and the castle is demolished. Diogo de Noronha is beaten back with loss. Aug. 26. Fernando de Noronha captures six Turkish vessels. Seven are later driven into Surat.1555The Queen of Olala (Ullala), 2 miles south from Mangalor refuses tribute to the Portuguese ; they ravage her territory and exact tribute by force.Insurrections break out in Ceylon,many of Xavier's converts being put to death. The Portuguese attack and take Palandu.1557The Zamorin of Calicut appeals to Bijapur and Ahmadnagar for help against the Portuguese.Pope Paul V.makes Goa a metropolitan see, promoting the second bishop, Juan de Albuquerque to be first archbishop ; and at the same time sets up the Inquisition at Goa.Sept. Dom Constantino de Braganza succeeds Baretto as twentieth Viceroy of Portuguese India.1564