OLD TRAVANCORE KINGDOM AND KERALA PHOTOS


  


Coat of arms




TRAVANCORE Flag
Red Ensign in Travancore



OLD TRAVANCORE SEAL
[Travancore]
[ensign flag to show Travancore as vassal or subordinate state to Britain]




COVERED BULLOCK CART-USED MAINLY FOR HEAVY LOADS-[BEFORE TRUCKS AND LORRIES CAME]

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-o08kbf0n580/T_cfYOzm8mI/AAAAAAAAT6c/WADsCm8HcvM/s1600/1900+photo_vallarpadm+island.jpg


pic taken by Travancore Palace Photographers at Vallarpadam Island.[COVERING BREAST WAS NOT FASHION THEN]click and read:-upper cloth revolt:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_cloth_controversy

View with stone bridge, AlleppeyDescription: Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the stone bridge in the town of Alleppey, in the erstwhile Travancore. . The town owes its origin to Raja Kesava Das, the illustrious Dewan in the latter part of the 18th century. Often called the 'Venice of Travancore', it is almost surrounded by sea and backwaters and the many canals that intersect the town, carrying 'vallams' or country-craft laden with merchandise. The port was opened in 1762, when Kesava Das built three ships for trade with Calcutta and Bombay, and was chosen


Alleppey No.1Description: Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a canal scene in the town of Alleppey, in the erstwhile Travancore State. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. This town owes its origin to Raja Kesava Das, the illustrious Dewan in the latter part of the 18th c.



pic taken by Travancore Palace Photographer of Bolgatty Palace, the Chief Residency of Hon. British Resident to Cochin[Trivandrum residence is near model school Trivandrum]


VIEW NEAR CHAVRAY [?CHAVARA].DESCRIPTION: TAKEN FROM THE CURZON COLLECTION, 'ALBUM OF SOUTH INDIAN VIEWS', THIS  PHOTOGRAPH WAS TAKEN BY ZACHARIAH D'CRUZ C.1900 AND SHOWS A CANAL, SET AMIDST A COCONUT PLANTATION, ALTHOUGH THE LOCATION IS UNIDENTIFIED IT IS PROBABLY AT CHAVARA, NORTH OF QUILON (SEE MAP ACCOMPANYING THE TRAVANCORE STATE MANUAL (1906)). GEORGE NATHANIEL CURZON WAS UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE AT THE FOREIGN OFFICE BETWEEN 1895-98 AND VICEROY OF INDIA BETWEEN 1898-1905.



BISON HUNT BY WHITE RULERS



History of Travancore from the earliest times(click and read on line)
By P. Shungoonny Menon:-http://archive.org/stream/ahistorytravanc00menogoog#page/n6/mode/2up

1877-TRAVANCORE STATE[NOW KERALA] AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES----[BEFORE POLITICS INVADED AGRICULTURE ACTVITIES]


HAND PULLED RICKSHAWS WERE COMMON IN THE TOWNS OF TRAVANCORE AND COCHI N
Oh Riksha Vala ... (Odayil Ninnu - 1965)



coal -gas bus .coal is converted into coal gas ,by cranking the handle for about 15 minutes .the coal gas was used to run the buses in 1940-1945 during 2nd world war ,due to non availability of petrol

Pics: Coimbatore Car Show-08012009159.jpg
A TYPICAL CHEVROLET BUS OF 1940-1960 ,USED WITH PETROL ENGINE OR WITH COAL GAS ENGINE ,DIESEL,C.N.G,AND L.P.G WERE UNKNOWN THEN, ||below typical Travancore bus stand 1950 with ford,Chevrolet,Fargo buses and a ford wooden body van
File:Old photo of KSRTC Bus Station.jpg

open side buses were common in interior Travancore-official name "charabanc"but popularly called 'chatak'-
hand operated petrol pumps
PETROL PRICE IN 1950:-1 GALLON=3.78 LITER =RS 15
1 LITER PETROL 4 RUPEES 
After nationalising the oil industry in the 1970s by Indira Gandhi,Hindustan Petroleum H.P.Corporation Limited came into being from erstwhile Esso;and B.P.and Shell.(british petroleum ) became Bharat petroleum
 
below -petrol bunk ;to show handle for pumping petrol at back of the pumps















Trivandrum - Kollam route The first bus service was started in 1908 by a public company by name Meenachil Motor Association
The Classic Commercial Vehicles (Bus, Trucks etc) Thread.-f.jpg


"charabanc' bus of 1940-50-

TAXI-NEW YORK -1920-30-Taxi experience in New York City-


BELOW-STARTING CAR BY HAND CRANK -A USUAL SCENE ON TRAVANCORE STREETS 1940'S



INDIAN CARS AND BUSES WERE FIRST PRODUCED AROUND 1950

THE FIRST INDIAN MADE CAR -HINDUSTAN-1950'S
In 1949, the Morris 10, made by HM's British partner Nuffield, was driven out of the Birlas' Uttarpara plant near Kolkata as the Hindustan 10. In the next decade and a bit, its evolution (see box) into the Ambassador

HINDUSTAN ON WHEELS: THE MANY AVATARS OF THE AMBASSADOR
1949: Hindustan 10 and 14
The Hindustan Motors plant began rolling out cars modelled on the Morris cars of Britain. For instance, the Hindustan 14.


BELOW-1954: Landmaster
Looked like the Amby from the front but had a different back. Introduced the "trafficator"; 74 per cent market share.
1957: Mark I
The Ambassador finally arrived as a sort of sleeker, souped up Landmaster. It defined the Ambassador's size for the next half-century.
1963: Mark II
First of the upgraded Ambassadors. Followed by Mark III (1975), IV (1979), Nova (1990) and Classic (1999).
Most Indians couldn't tell the difference though.
Premier Automobiles Ltd (PAL) was promoted by Walchand Hirachand, in collaboration with the Chrysler Corporation of the US. In March 1947, the company began assembling Chrysler products: Dodge, De Soto, and Plymouth cars and Dodge, De Soto and Fargo trucks. Indigenistion started in 1949 with the manufacture of radiators, mufflers, springs, propeller shafts, shock absorbers, etc.

In 1950 PAL entered into a collaboration with Fiat, SpA of Italy and started assembly of Fiat 1100 cars. In 1953, following the Tariff Commission report, the Government of India granted protection to the automobile industry, thus enabling Premier Automobiles to step up its manufacturing program with full vigour and, in 1954, the first Indian-made ‘Fiat 1100’ cars rolled out.

In the early years of the automotive industry, more attention was paid to manufacturing cars than buses and trucks. The progressive manufacture of Tata-Mercedes-Benz diesel trucks and buses in India began in Poona in October 1954, after Tata Motors and Daimler-Benz had tied up. And the next year Ashok Leyland began manufacture of its Comet trucks. Fords and General Motors, not confident of indigenising production, may have pulled out, but the Indian manufacturers confidently forged ahead. And the Indian Automobile Industry had by the late 1950s put down firm roots.
Tata's commercial vehicles
1954 Collaboration with Daimler Benz AG, West Germany, for manufacture of medium commercial vehicles. The first vehicle rolled out within 6 months of the contract.
1977 First commercial vehicle manufactured in Pune.
Attached Images

[
SANJAY GANDHI WITH HIS FIRST MARUTHI DESIGN 1973[SANJAY'S PLANE CRASH] read:- http://blogs.hindustantimes.com/capital-closeup/2010/06/23/the-day-sanjay-gandhi-died/

some vehicles,carts kerala 1900 -2000 -- click and SEE:---http://pazhayathu.blogspot.in/2012/02/hand-pulled-rickshaws-were-common-in.html
Mrs.Gandhi at the launch of the first Maruti car.1983[NEW CAR 50,000/-RUPEES][IN SANJAY GANDHI'SMEMORY] :- 
 Sanjay Gandhi had a dream :-CLICK AND READ:-http://www.autocarpro.in/contents/markettrenddetails.aspx?markettrendid=25

TRAVANCORE RUPEE

The rupee was the currency of the State ofTravancore. Unlike the Indian rupee issued by the British, the rupee of Travancore was subdivided into 7fanam, each of 4 chukram or 64 cash. The Travancore currency was issued until 1949 before being replaced by the Indian rupee.

16 CASH=I CHUCKRAM
4 CHUCKRAM =1 PANAM
7 PANAM =1 RUPEE

TRAVANCORE -ONE RUPEE

India. Travancore. Rama Varma IV gold Sovereign 1881 ME1057, K Travancore. Rama Varma IV gold Sovere

1/2 Rupee Travancore (1102–1949)
TRAVANCORE- HALF RUPEE

ONE PANAM- TRAVANCORE



ONE CHUCKRAM -TRAVANCORE

EIGHT CASH-TRAVANCORE= 1/2 CHUCKRAM

ID PEOPLE WERE CALLED "KAASINU

ONE CASH -TRAVANCORE
RUPEE -BRITISH INDIA -1940
One British Rupee was 28 and a half chakkaram and one sarkar ( Travancore Government) rupai was 28 chakarams. One chakaram was 16 kasu.
ONE British rupee was made up of 16annas and

one anna was equal to 12 pices:-.

BRITISH RUPEES
British Nickel 1 Rupee, 1/2 Rupee & 1/4 Rupee (Obverse & Reverse)
British Annas
British 4 Annas, 2 Annas - Nickel & 1 Anna (Obverse & Reverse):- ABOVE
BRITISH 1/4 Anna, 1/2 Pice :- BELOW
BRITISH 1/4 Anna, 1/2 Pice & 1/12 Anna OR 1 Pie (Obverse & Reverse)
God Save The King- BRITISh Anthem [TILL 1947 INDIA'S ALSO]

BRITISh Anthem

God Save The King Lyrics

God save our gracious king
Long live our noble king
God save the king
Send h
im victorious
Happy and glorious
Long to reign over us
God save the king






Image : Rupees One Hundred
Rupees One Hundred
Image Rupees One Thousand
Rupees One Thousand
Image : Rupees Ten Thousand




God Save The King, the British national anthemn ,BELOW


Ariancavoo [Ariyankavu] Temple

Title:

Ariancavoo [Ariyankavu] TempleDate: [1900] ;c. 1900Creator: Photographer : D'Cruz, ZachariahDescription: Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Shastha temple, Aryankavu in the erstwhile Travancore State. The photograph shows a general view looking down onto the temple buildings at Aryankavu, situated a few miles west of Shencottah in Tamilnadu. It is a small village on the ghat section of what was the Travancore railway, overlooking the mountain pass zigzagging from Madura and Tirunelveli to Travancore through the hills and the forests. The temple dedicated to the deity 'Shasta', the guardian of the hills, was very close

TAME ELEPHANTS USED TO HUNT AND CATCH WILD ELEPHANTS 1876

ELEPHANTS PULLING A STALLED RAILWAY STEAM ENGINE

Travancore branches of the South Indian Railway started in 1899-1900.
The railway line from Kollam to Punalur was opened for train services in 1904.
Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram line work was completed in 1917 and the line opened in 1918
first railway line was laid between Beypore and Tirur IN 1861
The Shoranur-Ernakulam line, opened in 1902 as a metre gauge line, was converted into broad gauge in 1934.

PEOPLE SCARED BY THE SOLAR ECLIPSE,NORTH KERALA


Tellicherry in the 1850.The British established their presence in Kerala in 1682, when they obtained permission from the Vadakkilamkur Prince of Kolattunad to settle at ThalasseryCricket

Sir Arthur Wellesly, later Duke of Wellington introduced cricket in thalassery, sometime during the last decade of the eighteenth century.[1790-1800] He did not have enough players in his establishment. He got his persons, dhobies who washed his clothes near the well in one corner of the Thalassery stadium, fisherfolk from their colony and many others to make up the numbers. It took more than half a century (1860) for the first cricket club, Tellicherry Town Cricket Club, to be formed.

Cricket Stadium
File:Thalassery fort.JPG
Duke of Wellington[ Sir Arthur Wellesly]Tellicherry fort





Pazhassi Kudeeram-a memorial for Pazhassi Raja at his burial spot in Mananthavadi, Wayanad, Kerala

RELATED READINGS(ON LINE):-WAR BETWEEN-[1]

Arthur Wellesley VS PAZHASSI RAJA

[2]War: Arthur Wellesley vs Napoleon:-


ONE OF THE EARLIEST Cricket ClubS IN INDIA:-was formed in 1860 at Tellichery, keralaThe Calcutta Cricket and Football Club is known to be in existence by 1792, but was possibly founded more than a decade earlier.Sir Arthur Wellesly, later Duke of Wellington introduced cricket in thalassery, sometime during the last decade of the eighteenth century.[1790-1800]
In 1799, another club was formed at Seringapatam(SREE RANGA PATTNAM) in south India after the successful British siege and the defeat of Tipu Sultan. In 1864, a Madras v. Calcutta match was arguably the start of first-class cricket in India.


View of the Fort, Cannanore, from the Bay-1820

Anglo-Vernacular School, Mavelikkara, Travancore-1865

Aiyor [Ayur] Temple

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a general view of the Ayur temple largely concealed by trees of the Kottarakara taluq in the erstwhile Travancore State. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a river scene, the Kallar in erstwhile Travancore. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The Kallar is a tributary of the Pamba river, one of the finest rivers of Travancore. The Kallr rises in the valley

Backwater, Travancore.-1900 [BEFORE ARRIVAL OF TOURISM INDUSTRY AND HOUSE BOATS]


Syrian church at Kottayam, Travancore State Artist: Bateman1835

Chengannur River [Travancore]--1900

1898-1905. The Kallar is a tributary of the Pamba river, one of the finest rivers of Travancore. The Kallr rises in the valley north of Chempazhakkara joins the main river a little above Ranni and the combined river now called Ranni leaves the forest area as a powerful stream 200 yards broad. It then runs west for about 30 miles when it is joined by the Manimala river and 6 or 8 miles lower down the Kulakkada river joins it and after a course

1872-TRAVELLING BY OPEN PALANQUIN

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the Normal School, Trivandrum in the erstwhile Travancore State.The school was two storeyed with pitched roof and projecting dormers of carved wood in local style. When the Government of Travancore first established English schools it obtained teachers from outside. In 1894 a Normal School Institution was established in Trivandrum in the name of English Normal School. It consisted of three classes in which those who had passed the Lowers Secondary, Matriculation and F. A. Examinations were trained. The Government sanctioned two Normal Schools during 1883-84, one at Trivandrum and the other at Kottar for the training of teachers for Vernacular schools. The services of a duly qualified and trained teacher from Madras were secured to start the Normal School at Trivandrum. The School at Kottar was abolished in 1894, and the one at the Capital was amalgamated in 1900 with the English Normal School established in 1894.

Kowdiar Palace, of the Travancore Royal Family
http://ogimages.bl.uk/images/019/019PHO000430S45U00019000%5BSVC2%5D.jpg
Distant view of the Kannakacunoo Palace [Trivandrum]
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Kanakakunnu Palace, Trivandrum in the erstwhile Travancore State. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.

http://ogimages.bl.uk/images/019/019PHO000430S45U00024000%5BSVC2%5D.jpg
Description:

Dewan's official Residence [Trivandrum]Description:Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the Dewan's official residence.. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The Dewan is the Prime Minister of the Princely State


Travancore police

below:-"Boys of the Salvation Army Home in Trivandrum ;South India"1920

photo
The Maharaja and Maharani of Travancore with the Governor of Madras, Lord Erskine, and Lady Erskine at Travancore House, in Adyar, on March 4, 1937, where the Maharaja hosted a party for the Governor. The Dewan of Travancore, Sir C.P. Ramaswamy Aiyer, is seen standing second from left.
The Maharaja and Maharani of Travancore with the Governor of Madras, Lord Erskine, and Lady Erskine at Travancore House, in Adyar, on March 4, 1937, where the Maharaja hosted a party for the Governor. The Dewan of Travancore, Sir C.P. Ramaswamy Aiyer, is seen standing second from left.
Residency [Trivandrum]
Residency [Trivandrum]
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the British Residency, Trivandrum. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. It shows a general view of the two-storey building from the garden, with porte-cochère in the foreground

Colonel John Munro1812-1814 A.D History has recorded that Colonel John Munro was the greatest British Administrator of Travancore and Cochin in 150 years of British Dominion.John Munro went back to his birth place in Teaninich, Ross Shire in Scotland and lived there until he died in 1858.
Munro Island[MUNROE THURUTH] IS NAMEDAFTER HIM


MUNROE ISLAND
http://ogimages.bl.uk/images/019/019PHO000430S45U00010000%5BSVC2%5D.jpg

Industrial School of Arts [Trivandrum]Description:Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Industrial School of Arts, Trivandrum.George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. A 'School of Arts' was established by the Travancore Government in Trivandrum in 1862-63. In 1872-73, a small establishment of carving in ivory under the direction of a Brahmin. In 1890, the School was named an 'Industrial School' and secured the services of two potters from the Madras School of Arts. A separate building was provided for the School. Later painting and photography was added to the Arts branch and a smithy to the Industrial br..



File:Ayilyam Thirunal and Madhava Rao.JPG

Maharajah Ayilyam Thirunal of Travancore (center) with the first prince(left) and Dewan Sit T. Madhava Rao (right [SIR T.MADHAV RAO'S STATUE IS OPPOSITE TRIVANDRUM SECRETARIAT BUILDING .AND IS KNOWN AS STATUE JUNCTION]
Statue of Raja Sir T. Madhava Rao
This is one of the most popular Statues in Trivandrum located at the Statue Junction just in front of the Secretariat. Raja Sir Tanjore Madhava Rao, KCSI ( 1828 to April 4, 1891), also known as Sir Madhava Rao Thanjavurkar, Indian Statesman, born at Cambaconum in Madras Presidency, son of a Dewan of Travancore. Sir Madhava Rao administered Travancore with so much skill as justly to entitle him to be considered the Turgot of India. He found Travancore when he went there in 1858 in the lowest state of degradation. He has left it a Model State.
Museum+of++Trivandrum+-+1900
Photographer: Zacharias D'Cruz


View of the Public Offices in Trivandrum, in the erstwhile Travancore.

The Cantonment [Palayam], the Public Offices, the residence of the upper classes, European as well as native, are all beautifully located on small eminences, commanding beautiful scenery all round. This later became the centre of rule of Kerala after independence. The Legislative Assembly was housed here until a new building was made near Palayam.


East entrance  Gopura of Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple, Trivandrum, in the erstwhile Travancore

This 9th Century Hindu temple is one of the greatest of Kerala and was the center of rule by the Travancore Kings for 291 years starting from 1700s. The temple Sreekovil, enshrines a large image of Vishnu, spread over three doors, and is built in the typical Kerala style. The surrounding walls and towers are similar to those of the Dravidian architecture of Tamil Nadu. The imposing gopura or entrance gateway consists of ascending storeys ending with a vaulted roof and reflect the contemporary Nayaka style of architecture.
KEROSENE STREET LIGHT CAN BE SEEN IN THE TEMPLE PHOTO
STEET LAMP LIGHTER
Lamplighter lighting a gas streetlight in Sweden, 1953. By this time remaining gas lamps were rare curiosities.

WHAT I SAW:-
THERE IS A SECRET PASSAGE GOING DOWN FROM THE;FIRST FLOOR ; WESTERN END; OF KUTHIRA MAALIKA PALACE(SWATHI THIRUNAL MAHARAJAH'S PALACE).THE DIRECTION OF THIS SECRET TUNNEL IS TOWARDS PADMANABHA SWAMI TEMPLE -TO THE NORTH WEST DIRECTION .THIS SECRET TUNNEL WAS SHOWN TO ME AND OTHER VISITORS AS AN EMERGENCY ESCAPE TUNNEL.

IS IT GOING INTO THE TEMPLE? IS IT CONNECTED WITH THE GOLD HORDE IN THE TEMPLE?NOBODY SEEMS TO KNOW!!

  • 536 kg of gold coins: 16 kg each of East India Company sovereigns and Travancore gold coins, 106 kg of Travancore Raasi coins and 3 kg of Napolean-era gold coins.
  • Three sets of crowns, including a centuries-old diamondand-emerald-studded golden crown, believed to be the crown of Kulasekhara Perumal.
  • Parts of a huge sacred drum made of pure gold,

  • Gold KashuMala Necklaces
  • in which the kings would bathe as part of Hiranya Garbham (coronation rituals).
  • An 18-ft Sarappoli golden chain, with 12 layers weighing 10.5 kg, studded with rare rubies and emeralds.
  • Over 1,000 Sarappoli chains and 2 kg of golden waist and wrist bands, and 100 kg of other gold chains and necklaces.
  • A Mahavishnu idol studded with over 1,000 diamonds and valued at over Rs 500 crore.
  • One tonne of paddy-shaped gold trinkets and numerous miniatures of golden elephants.
  • Belgian diamonds and rare Indraneelams (blue sapphires), emeralds and diamond-studded plates.
  • A golden broom weighing 5.5 kg, supposed to sweep flowers showered on the 18-ft gold-covered idol of Lord Padmanabha. Numerous golden coir ropes, one kg of golden human shapes and gold bars.
  • A 55-kg golden face mask and a golden idol of Lord Krishna weighing over 5 kg.
  • Day-to-day puja utensils in gold worth thousands of crores, including a huge golden hood, two golden lamps each weighing over 15 kg, a diamond-studded, golden thread and gold---plated-coconut shells to serve food to the GoD


Padmanabhaswamy temple Diamonds, Emeralds, Rubies,
Padmanabhaswamy Temple Diamonds, Emeralds, Rubies,
www.swathithirunal.in/

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ARAATTU PROCESSION TRIVANDRUM 1940'S
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AARAATTU PROCESSION TRIVANDRUM 1940'S-Nair pattalam=soldiers


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AARAATTU PROCESSION TRIVANDRUM 1940'S



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1940'S TRIVANDRUM WELCOMING THE KING


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TRAVANCORE{THIRU VITHAM KOOR KINGDOM]
PEOPLE ARE SUPPOSED TO REMOVE THE CLOTH COVERING THE HEAD(HEADDRESS OR TURBAN), AND TIE IT AROUND THEIR WAIST BEFORE KING COMES
WHEN KING COMES ALL ARE SUPPOSED TO BEND DOWN, FROM THEIR WAIST DOWN ,TILL THE HEAD COMES DOWN TO THE LEVEL OF THE WAIST-- AND--PUT THEIR RIGHT HAND OVER THEIR MOUTH AND COVER MOUTH;AS A SHOW OF RESPECT

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TRAVANCORE KING AND THE TRAVANCORE SOLDIERS-TRIVANDRUM
shanghumugham beach


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THE KING SALUTING WHILE DEWAN STANDS NEAR-PLEASE NOTE THE PALACE SOLDIERS STANDING WITH RIGHT HAND OVER THE LOWER FACE , IN SIDE ,TO SHOW THEIR RESPECT


[photo taken at 'palayam' Trivandrum where the soldiers were stationed 1861]-NAIR PATTALAM(SOLDIER) UNDER BRITISH OFFICERS

[photo taken at 'palayam' Trivandrum where the soldiers were stationed 1861]

[NNNNNAIR.jpg]

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Gold Coins(A) Gold Pagoda Early issue 1678-1740








(B) Arcot Gold Mohur

(C) Gold Pagoda 1808-1815AD series, ND

(D) Mohur 1819


(E) ½ Mohur, ND (1819), 5 Rupees, ND (1820) and ¼ Ashrafi, ND (1819)
(F) Double Pagoda, ND (AD 1809-1815) : 18 Stars type

(G) 5 Rupees, Gold, ND (AD 1820)

(H) Star Pagoda


(I) 3 Swami Pagoda


Travancore. 2 Pagodas, 1877.
(j) AIN Pagoda



Karimani Mala
Nagapada Thali - 2
Karimani Mala
Karimani Mala
Mullamottu Mala
Mullamottu Mala



Manga Mala - 1
Manga Mala - 1
Manga Mala - 2
Manga Mala - 2
Kazhuthila
Kazhuthila



Cheruthali
Cheruthali
Avilmala
Avilmala
Kandassaram
Kandassaram



Kingini
Kingini
Kuzhiminni
Kuzhiminni
Pulinakhamala
Pulinakhamala



Kumbilmala
Kumbilmala
Pathakkam
The monetary system :

golden fanam(panam)

    52 1/2 Fanam=1 Pagoda





NAPOLEON GOLD COINS IN THE TEMPLE
India. Travancore. Rama Varma IV gold Sovereign 1881 ME1057, K Travancore. Rama Varma IV gold Sovere

Travancore. Rama Varma IV gold Sovereign 1881 ME1057,

TRAVANCORE COINS WITH THE HEAD OF TRAVANCORE KING SRI CHITHIRA THIRUNAL MAHARAJA


click and listen to -TravancoreNATIONAL              ANTHEM:-http://www.tmcgulf.com/National.Anthem.html

THIS TYPE OF COVERED BULLOCK CARTS WERE USED FOR TRAVEL AND BAGGAGE
Ox carts, Bagan
THE BULLOCK CART DRIVER SLEEPS THE WHOLE DISTANCE ,IF THE ROUTE IS KNOWN TO THE BULLOCK.BULLOCKS KNOWS HOW TO KEEP TO THE LEFT SIDE -MUCH BETTER THAN MANY OF THE DRUNK HUMAN DRIVERS[THEN AND NOW] .THE LEADING CART DRIVER HAS TO KEEP AWAKE ONLY IF THE ROUTE IS NOT KNOWN TO THE BULLOCK..THE CARTS BEHIND DRIVERS ALSO ROUTINELY SLEEP BECAUSE ALL FOLLOW THE LEAD CART.
TO THE WEEKLY MARKETS-
TO THE WEEKLY MARKETS-FILM-Phagun(1958)-Sun Jaa Pukaar (Asha Bhonsle)TO SHOW HOW FARMERS TRAVELED TO WEEKLY MARKETS-IN LONG LINE OF CARTS IN KERALA AND INDIA

[2]During the Travancore-Cochin elections,

POSTER PHOTO SHOWS NEHRU;BELOW- POSTER BELOW SHOWS BOX WITH BULLOCKS - WAS CONGRESS PARTY'S,CAN SEE IN THIS PHOTO,THE POVERTY AND DRESS ,MODE OF TRAVEL OF PEOPLE OF TRAVNCORE-AT TRIVANDRUM CITY 1950'S
similar long line of bullock carts could be seen on the mud roads of Travancore ,going to weekly markets,traveling upto 30 km distance ,in about 4 hours time.each cart used to be loaded up with agriculture products for sale

SIMILAR STEAM (ENGINE) ROLLER USED FOR THE ROADS


OLD CARD TICKET OF INDIAN RAILWAY


A metre gauge steam locomotive pulling into a station in Cochin-ON THE WAY TO KTYM-KOTTAYAM 1966

Douglas C-47 im Nachkriegs-Einsatz bei Air-India
MADRAS(NOW CHENNAI) TO TRIVANDRUM(THIRUANANDAPURAM)- 1950 IN 3 HOURS- THE FASTEST PLANE BEFORE JET PLANES CAME IN 1960'S-( 'DAKOTA'PLANE ) .THE ONLY FLIGHTDAILY; FROM THE ONLY AIRPORT OF KERALA IN 1950;STARTING FROM TRV: AROUND 12 NOON AND REACHING MADRAS/CHENNAI PAST 3 P.M (COCHIN NAVAL AERODROME WAS NOT FOR CIVILIAN USE THEN)
DAKOTA PLANE-TAKE OFF-
DAKOTA PLANE -NIGHT LANDING




above-'miles merlin' plane for Bombay Trivandrum flight 1933

Mumbai toTrivandrum with a six-seater Miles Merlin.
In 1939, the Travancore Royal house acquired an air craft of its own ,a dakota
Tata Airlines launched its longest domestic flight -



One of the Herons from the fleet of aircraft owned by The Hindu from 1963 to deliver copies of the paper to various destinations in Karnataka and the districts of Coimbatore, Madurai, Ramnad, Tirunelveli, Tiruchi and Thanjavur. Readers in these places got copies of their paper at about the same time as readers in Madras due to this pioneering scheme.
The Hindu-daily Madras -Trivandrum flight -
The Hindu's first step towards reaching out to a larger readership had been taken by Srinivasan when his faith in the aeroplane had him using the world's and India's fledgling air services to transport The Hindu. Kasturi built on this and, in 1962, The Hindu became the first newspaper in India to charter a plane to deliver its newspapers - an Indian Airlines Dakota flew a Bangalore-Coimbatore-Madurai route and the cities and their hinterland got a morning edition. The next year, The Hindu made history when it bought four Herons. It became the first newspaper in the world operating its own fleet of aircraft to reach copies to readers over an extensive region. On September 29, 1963, the low-key newspaper, on one of those rare occasions in its existence, patted itself on the back with a front page picture and a vivid description of the "unique event in the history of world journalism."
When The Hindu in 1964 augumented its fleet with Dakotas, it was able to distribute the paper by air to Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Trivandrum and Cochin. By the middle of 1965, the newspaper was able to stop its dak edition. This was made possible by a splendid Circulation Department exercise linking air, rail and road transport to ensure that the morning edition of The Hindu penetrated deeper into the southern States, reaching the target areas no later than noon on the day of publicationThe cost of supplying readers their daily newspaper using the newspaper's own aircraft was, however, far too high. Weather conditions, especially the monsoons, made deliveries erratic at times. A better way of serving readers across South India had to be found. With technology making rapid strides in a world capitalising on wartime inventions, new means of transmission were being developed in the 1960s. The Hindu decided to replace its airfleet with new methods of inter-city transmission in the late 1960s. Kasturi, who spent much time on his trips abroad taking a look at developing newspaper technology, was in the forefront of taking The Hindu into the hi-tech age. The breakthrough answer was the facsimile mode of transmission.
A TYPICAL DAKOTA PLANE WHICH USED TO HAVE ONCE A DAY SERVICE TO MADRAS(NOW CHENNAI) FROM TVM AIRPORT


ABOVE-THE EAST FORT,THIRU ANANTHA PURAM
The first Malayalam feature film

Vigathakumaran
(The Lost Child)

A scene from the film
Directed byJ. C. Daniel
Produced byJ. C. Daniel
Written byJ. C. Daniel
StarringJ. C. Daniel
Rosie
Johnson
Sundar Raj
CinematographyJ. C. Daniel
Editing byJ. C. Daniel
StudioTravancore National Pictures
Release date(s)November 7, 1928
CountryIndia
LanguageMalayalam



OLD-HAND CRANKED FILM PROJECTOR ,USED IN KERALA

  1. Doordarshan's Signature Tune and Montage (1974) ~ [HD]

    It all started 52 years ago, on 15 September 1959. With a humble beginning and a little support from All India Radio. Doordarshan ...
    • HD
  2. All India Radio Signature Tune

    This is the tune which used to hear in all the homes, a decade ago..




 The Baroda Broadcasting station was set up in 1939.v The Maharaja of Travancore set up a transmitter at Trivandrum in the same year. When India became independent in 1947 the AIR network had only six stations (in Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Lucknow, and Tiruchi)v All India radio renamed as `Akashwani` since August 15th, 1957 At first malayalam news had started broadcasting from delhi AIR division in the year 1949 and later in 1957 an independent radio station has started in Trivandrum solely for keralites. .At first there was only one news bullettin and one station,in a small building behind present MLA hostel,later shifted to the present building in Trivandrum.1950-1990
Radio era:- INDIA had no music channel and LISTENED TO 'BINACA GEET MALA'FROM RADIO CEYLON(NOW SREE LANKA)TILL 1957



,WHEN INDIAN CHANNEL 'VIVIDH BHARATHI'STARTED
Radio era-1950 to 1990



DD-Doordarshan - Vande matram
REGULAR TV SHOWS STARTED IN 1970'S,THERE WAS ONLY ONE-GOVERNMENT  CHANNEL TILL 1991 WHEN MANY FORIEGN PVT: TV CHANNELS WERE ALLOWED IN INDIA

A distant view of the Central Jail in Thiruvananthapuram

Central Jail building before the occupation of being a jail served as the barracks for the Nayar Brigade, where prisoners serving short-terms were confined. These prisoners were locked up at night and guarded by Jail warders and brigade sepoys. A large number of them were employed in the making and repairing of roads both at Trivandrum and at Quilon (Kollam). Others in small groups, were made to work day to day for garden work in the Palaces, Hospitals, Sirkar buildings and Public Gardens. There was also a hospital in a seperate building, attached to the jail premises.


A view of the Chief Engineer's Office, Trivandrum in the erstwhile Travancore State.[LATER
The College of Engineering, Trivandrum, . Founded in 1939, FUNCTIONED IN THIS PREMISES TILL IT SHIFTED OUT]


Christ Church and cemetry in Trivandrum in the erstwhile Travancore State
The Church, belonged to the London Missionary Society and is situated in the Cantonment area Palayam.

Christ Church-at palayam- interior [Trivandrum]--Photographer: D'Cruz, Zachariah Medium: Photographic print Date: 1900

{Note:-.the long [ photo taken before electricity came to trivandrum city in 1929. it shows kerosene lanters and hand pulled punkah(fan)which can be seen on both sides as a long strip of cloth}


Christ Church interior [Trivandrum]

for a Fan Moved by Mechanism, 27 November 1830.A PUNKAH[HAND PULLED FAN] PULLER IS EMPLOYED TO PULL THE PUNKAH CORD ,FROM OUT SIDE THE WINDOW .THE MECHANISM IS SIMPLE:- HE PULLS THE CORD ENOUGH TO MAKE THE MADE OF, MAT FAN ;ALL THE WAY TO THE WINDOW AND THEN HE LET GO THE CORD TILL THE FAN GOES BACK AUTOMATICALLY TO THE ORIGINAL POSITION.

Punkha Boy[FAN CORD PULLER BOY]


Jost Electric FanTerry Fisher's Jost Fan


FANS WHICH WORK ON KEROSENE-USED BEFORE ARRIVAL OF

  • KEROSENE FLAME REFRIGERATION BEFORE ELECTRICITY CAME 1926
Electric Supply and Telephone:
Application was made to the British Government in 1081 M.E. (1905-06) for sanction to install a line of telephone communication connecting Pehipppara with and Telephone. other principal stations in south Travancore. This line was taken over from the British Indian Telegraph Department towards the close of 1086 M.E. (1910-11) and a new station opened at Chellanthuruthi. It is now run on the one-line system.

the phone handle is to be cranked by hand for 2 minutes before it gets connected to the lady in the exchange;who in turn ask you to wait for her return call after contacting your desired customer .the whole process was tedious and time consuming





Manual exchange, 1955. Photo courtesy Marvin Hodges.The photo gives an idea just how large (and crowded) a manual exchange could be in terms of numbers of staff.
 

Till 1953 trivandrum telephone exchange
was old magneto system where the phone handle is to be cranked by hand for 2 minutes before it gets connected to the lady in the exchange;who in turn ask you to wait for her return call after contacting your desired customer .the whole process was tedious and time consuming

1951 The first commercial computer, named "First Ferranti MARK I," at the Manchester University.


The first commercial computer, named "First Ferranti MARK I,--1951


Lytax camera by Apparatebau, Freiburg, Germany[made of wood]
There is very little information available about this camera of around 1920

[crank the handle for cine films]
click and see:-http://youtu.be/d50yon3iXqM

ELECTRICITY IN 1926
The Trivandrum Electric Supply Scheme was put into execution in 1103 M.E. Mr. K. P. P. P. Menon, Industrial Engineer, was put on special duty from 1-1-1103 M.E. as an Electrical Engineer in the P.W.D. The Electrical Installation of the Trivandrum town including the major portion of the distribution mains was completed in 1104.M.E. On the evening of the 25th February 1929,
Click to see more restoration hardwareClick for Switch Mounting Blocks c. 1907 antique 1000 amp massive copper three pole no fuse knife switch
Mounting Blocks for Brass Switches
Fluted Toggle Switch
Porcelain Based
the Silver Jubilee of the Sri Mulam Popular Assembly, the then Dewan, Mr. M.E. Watts, in the presence of a distinguished gathering, switched on the supply and informally opened the Power House. On the 8th March 1929 the supply to the town commenced with 541 street lights and two consumers.[MAHARAJA AND JUNIOR RAJA]
Missionary%27s+wife+with+indigenous+Christians,+Trivandrum,+India,+ca.1900-1910Missionary's wife with indigenous Christians, Trivandrum, India, ca.1900-1910
photo Description
"Our Christian lepers in Trivandrum. Government Leper Asylum. Photo taken receiving their Christmas gifts and partaking of the Holy Communion which is always a great pleasure for me to share with them. (Bessie Osborne)." Bessie Osborne was the wife of LMS missionary, William Davey Osborne. They served together in India from 1893 to 1914, at Trivandrum until 1900 when they moved to Attingal.


Trivandrum. Government Leper Asylum.1900

Photograph of the Palace, Trivandrum taken by an unknown photographer in the 1900s. The photograph is from an album containing views of various locations in India, formerly in the collection of Horatio Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum and Broome, (1850-1916), who was Commander in Chief of India between 1902 and 1909.
Thiruvananthapuram, also known as Trivandrum is a large city situated on a series of low densely forested hills in the south of India on the edge of the Arabian Sea. From 1750 until 1956 the city was the capital of the kingdom of Travancore until the state of Kerala was created. The name is derived from thiru-anantha-puram or ‘the holy city of Anatha’ which is the coiled snake on which the god Vishnu reclines.
Chalai bazar,;{OPPOSITE FORT AND SRI PADMANABHA SWAMI TEMPLE-KNOWN AS 'KIZHAKKE KOTAH' AT TRIVANDRUM CITY) photograph taken on 1880-SHOWS ONLY RESIDENTIAL HOUSES .THE SAME AREA IS NOW ONLY SHOPS
photo

Trivandrum in the 1930s ;SHOWING BATHING TANK IN FRONT OF THE TEMPLE AND KIZHAKKE KOTAH(FORT GATE ) .FURTHUR EAST CAN SEE THE CHALAI BAZAR ROAD. .THE MAIN ROAD(NOW NAMED M.G. ROAD) IS TO THE LEFT OF THE PHOTO AND CANNOT BE SEEN

PHOTO OF BEACH 1930'S

MALAYALAM NUMERALS AND ALBHABETS


Malayalam Numerals





lone woman student going to college .dressed in typical christian fashion of chatta(white blouse) and kachamuri(white mundu).streets deserted as there were no city service buses ; cars very few; population itself was very low compared to now,no unions,no strikes. founded in the year 1834 by the Government of Travancore during the reign of His Highness Sri Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma, the building was completed in 1870 by His Highness Sri Ayilyam Thirunal Rama Varma Maharaja of Travancore. John Ross of the Edinburgh University was the Principal. This building still stands as the main block of the University College.
TRAVANCORE[NOW KERALA STATE] NATIVE TEACHERS-1872

SCHOOL BOYS AND MASTER-FEW BOYS GOT BOOKS IN HAND ; WHILE OTHERS ARE READING FROM'OLA'-PALM LEAF


OLA'-PALM LEAFCLICK AND READ ON PALM LEAF WRITING:- http://pazhayathu.blogspot.in/2011/11/palm-leafola-fiscal-documents.html

Maharajah Chithira Thirunal Rama Varma.TITLES:- Major-General His Highness Sri Patmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Sir Bala Rama Varma III, Kulasekhara Kiritapati Manney Sultan Maharaja Raja Ramaraja Bahadur, Shamsher Jang, Maharaja of Travancore, GCSI, GCIE



Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Travancore Maharaja's State Carriage in Trivandrum.. It was drawn by a team of six horses. In the background can be seen the gopuram of the Padmanabha Swamy temple.

The Public Gardens [Trivandrum]

Title: The Public Gardens [Trivandrum]

The Public Gardens [Trivandrum]Description:Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Public Gardens in Trivandrum. The idea of establishing a Public Garden in Trivandrum was sanctioned by the Maharaja in 1859 and was to be accomplished under the direction of John Allan Broun, the Government Astronomer. Several interesting botanical specimens were reared in the garden from seeds and cuttings procured from Bangalore and other cities. In 1879, the Curatorship was abolished and the management of the museum and the gardens was placed under a Committee consisting of t...

Lake in the Public Gardens No.2 [Trivandrum]


Lake in the Public Gardens No.2 [Trivandrum]Description: Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Public Gardens in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The idea of establishing a Public Garden in Trivandrum was sanctioned by the Maharaja in 1859 and was to be accomplished under the direction of John Allan Broun, the Government Astronomer.Several interesting botanical specimens were reared in the garden from seeds and cuttings procured from Bangalore and other cities. In 1879, the Curatorship was abolished and the management of the museum and the gardens was placed under a Committee consisting of the ...

Lake in the Public Gardens No.1 [Trivandrum]




Lake in the Public Gardens No.1 [Trivandrum]Description: Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Public Gardens in Trivandrum.. The idea of establishing a Public Garden in Trivandrum was sanctioned by the Maharaja in 1859 and was to be accomplished under the direction of John Allan Broun, the Government Astronomer.Several interesting botanical specimens were reared in the garden from seeds and cuttings procured from Bangalore and other cities. In 1879, the Curatorship was abolished and the management of the museum and the gardens was placed under a Committee consisting of the ..
Band Stand in the Public Gardens [Trivandrum]

The Band-Stand in the Public Gardens in Trivandrum

The idea of establishing a Public Garden in Trivandrum was sanctioned by the Maharaja Uthram Thirunal in 1859 and was to be accomplished under the direction of John Allan Broun, the Government Astronomer. Several interesting botanical specimens were reared in the garden from seeds and cuttings procured from Bangalore and other cities. In 1879, the Curatorship was abolished and the management of the museum and the gardens was placed under a Committee consisting of the British Resident and three European members. In 1897-98, the institutions were placed under an officer called "Director of the Government Museum and Public Gardens". The Band-Stand shown here was re-built in the early 1900s.

Band Stand in the Public Gardens [Trivandrum]

BAND AT BANDSTAND -THIS WAS THE ONLY MUSIC AVAILABLE FOR PUBLIC BEFORE RADIO ,TV AND RECORD PLAYER WERE DISOVERED.USUALLY IT WAS THE POLICE/NAIR SOLDIER BAND .SOMETIMES SALVATION ARMY BAND ALSO PLAYED AT MUSEUM BAND STAND

Homemade Salvation Army Band (descreened)

 Salvation Army Band 1920

National Geographic 1920,  "A Home-Made Salvation Army Band in India: The Salvation Army...


HAND CRANK GRAMAPHONE:-1907 -1940







River along the village of Kerala.




Varkala.Description: Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Varkala Canal, in the erstwhile Travancore. Varkala near Trivandrum is known for the temple of great antiquity dedicated to Janrdanaswami and for its mineral waters. Springs gush out of the cliffs that rise abruptly on the beach. There are two tunnels close to the temple constructed at a great cost by the Travancore Government. One of them is nearly half a mile in length, bored through the cliffs linking the waterways on either side and establishing through-water communication bet.

Varkala Canal northen view.Description: Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Varkala Canal, in the erstwhile Travancore during Lord Curzon's visit to the State. . Varkala near Trivandrum is known for the temple of great antiquity dedicated to Janrdanaswami and for its mineral waters. Springs gush out of the cliffs that rise abruptly on the beach. There are two tunnels close to the temple constructed at a great cost by the Travancore Government and opened in 1881. One of them is nearly half a mile in length, bored through the cliffs linking the waterways on either side and establishi..

Varkala Cliffs. No.1Description: Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Varkala beach with the cliffs, in the erstwhile Travancore. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. Varkala near Trivandrum is known for the temple of great antiquity dedicated to Janrdanaswami and for its mineral waters. Springs gush out of the cliffs that rise abruptly on the beach. There are two tunnels close to the temple constructed at a great cost by the Travancore Government. One of them is nearly half a mile in length, bored through the cliffs linking the waterways on either side and establishing through-water c...


Varkala Beach or Papanasam Beach in Kerala India



Varkala Tunnel.Description: Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Varkala Tunnel, in the erstwhile Travancore.. Varkala near Trivandrum is known for the temple of great antiquity dedicated to Janrdanaswami and for its mineral waters. Springs gush out of the cliffs that rise abruptly on the beach. There are two tunnels close to the temple constructed at a great cost by the Travancore Government and opened in 1881. One of them is nearly half a mile in length, bored through the cliffs linking the waterways on either side

Peermede--Photographer: D'Cruz, Zachariah Medium: Photographic print Date: 1900Peermede [Pirmed]
Peermade was used as a sanatorium and hill-station by the European community in Travancore. A major centre of coffee and tea industry, it is believed to have been the residence of a Muhammadan saint, Peer Mohammed from whose name, Peermade takes its name.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the water falls at Courtallam, part of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views'. This waterfall is situated in a very picturesque scenery in the Western Ghats and is said to have medicinal properties. The main cascade is formed by a three-stage drop 91 metres high. The site takes it names from the Kuttalanatha temple, a Shiva temple which attracts many pilgrims.



Jubilee Town Hall [Trivandrum]

photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer

Jubilee Town Hall [Trivandrum]

Zacharias D'Cruz of the Victorai Jubilee Town Hall in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.
History of legislative bodies in Kerala-- Sri Mulam Popular Assembly:-http://keralaassembly.org/history/popular.html

The first meeting of the Assembly took place at 11 a. m. on October 22, 1904 at the Victoria Jubilee Town Hall in Thiruvananthapuram better known as the VJT Hall. Subsequent meetings were to be held in the Capital every year soon after the Maharajan's birthday
.LATER ASSEMBLY WAS SHIFTED TO THE HALL IN SECRETARIAT AT
TRIVANDRUM
OLD ASSEMBLY HALL INSIDE SECRETARIAT BUILDING.
NOW AGAIN SHIFTED TO THE NEW BUILDING IN PALAYAM;BUILT OVER THE OLD PALAYAM(MILITARY BARRACKS)
Membership was limited to representatives of landlords and merchants. The objective was "solely to give the people an opportunity of bringing to the notice of the Government their requirements, wishes or grievances on the one hand, and on the other, to make the policy and measures of the Government better known to the people so that all possible grounds of misconception in regard to the action of Government may be removed."The members of the Assembly were chosen by the Division Peishkars (District heads) from among landholders who pay an annual land revenue of not less than Rs. 100 and landholders or traders whose net annual income was Rs. 6000 or above. Each taluk got two representatives.. A landmark change took place a year later when more than two thirds of the representatives were elected from among the people. The regulation granting the people the privilege of electing their representatives was issued on May 1, 1905. Of the 100 members, 77 were to be elected and rest nominated.However, franchise was limited to persons who paid on their account an annual land revenue of not less than Rs. 50 or whose net income was not less than Rs. 2000. Graduates of recognised university with not less than ten years of standing and having their residence in the taluk were also eligible to vote. There were general and special constituencies for this purpose.
,


Central Jai[Trivandrum]

Central Jail [Trivandrum]
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a distant view of the Central Jail in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' part of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98

Golf Pavilion [Trivandrum]

Golf Pavilion [Trivandrum]
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a general view of golf links. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. View looking towards golf pavilion, with landscaped terraces and fountain in foreground. The pavilion has a roof designed in local style.


Alleppey[AALAPPUZHA] 1900- {NO HOUSE BOATS,NO MOTOR BOATS,NO TOURISTS}

The Ernakulam Boat Jetty circa 1950


Tiruvattur Temple interior

Tiruvattur Temple interior

Photograph, taken about 1900 by the Government photographer Zacharias D'Cruz, of the Tirvattar temple in the erstwhile Travancore State.The Adikesava Perumal temple pictured here is considered to be of equal sanctity to that at Trivandrum dedicated to Sri Padmanabha, though it is much older. The God Adikesava is said to have taken his rest at Tiruvattar after having killed an Asura, who had been the cause of immense misery to the world. He is represented as Vishnu seated, in contrast to the lying posture of Sri Padmanabha at Trivandrum. The temple is one of the largest in Travancore and with its large corridors adorned with rows of stone-pillars and excellent sculptures it forms a magnificent piece of ancient Dravidian architecture. It is situated on a high level and flights of steps lead up to its precincts from all sides.
Chakay
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a general view of the canal at Chakay, Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905

Chakay[THIRU ANANDA PURAM BOAT YARD]




Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a general view north from the bridge, Quilon
View east of the [Golf] Pavilion, No.2 [Trivandrum]

View east of the [Golf] Pavilion, No.2 [Trivandrum]

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Golf Links, Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' from the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.


A TYPICAL KERALA HOME 1950--A WHEEL USED FOR MAKING ROPE CAN BE SEEN UNDER THE COCONUT TREE,WHILE THE WHEEL SEEN ON THE VERANDAH, IS- PROBABLY- A WATER PADDLE USED TO EMPTY WATER FROM RICE FIELDS ;;BY FOOT POWER(FOOT PADDLE PUMP)
PICKING NITS-WAS A DAILY SIGHT IN INDIA-PICKING NITS WAS A SORT OF SOCIAL GATHERING SIMILAR TO A MODERN WOMEN,S CLUB ;AT THE SAME TIME SAFE FROM THE CRUEL DICTATORIAL MOTHER INLAW/SISTERINLAW AND HUSBAND


MAKING:-BraidING/ Or WeavING COCNUT Leaves ,FOR THATCHING THE ROOF

Coir Industry Kerala

Crafts demonstration, Kochi




Water lifting devices
Paddle-wheel or tread-wheel-used to pump out or pump in water into paddy fields,before electricity came to Travancore
These devices are, in effect, rotary versions of the simple scoop; however instead of one scoop being moved back and forth, a number are set around the periphery of a wheel,. Like the scoop a paddle wheel is only useful for very low lift pumping, such as flooding paddy fields at no more than about 0.5m height above the water source.
The simplest version is the paddle-wheel in which an operator walks directly on the rim, turning it so that it continuously and steadily scoops up water and deposits it over a low bund, . In its basic form the paddle wheel is not very efficient since a lot of the water lifted flows back around its edges. Therefore an improved version involves encasing the wheel in a closely fitting box which not only reduces the back-leakage of water but also slightly increases the head through which the device can operate.
Paddle wheels have been mechanized in the past, although they are unusual as water lifting devices today.



-

TYPICAL TRAVANCORE CANAL TRANSPORT [THOSE DAYS -THERE WERE NO MOTOR BOATS, HOUSE BOATS OR TOURISTS; ALL OF WHICH CAME AFTER 1950]
MOST TRADE AND TRAVEL TOOK PLACE BY THESE VALLAMS/BOATS AND IT USED TO TAKE MANY DAYS TO COVER DISTANCES
BUT THERE WERE NO POLLUTION OF AIR NO NOISE POLLUTION, NO ACCIDENTS,NO TENSIONS OF TRAVEL

MAHATMA GANDHI IN TRAVANCORE 1937
( MAHATMA Gandhi at vaikom satyagraha)



When God's doors were thrown open to all(CLICK AND READ):http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/article2619107.ece

Role of Pathanamthitta in freedom struggle
The district can be proud of its rich contribution to the struggle for freedom.When Mahatma Gandhi visited the erstwhile Travancore in 1937, he asked his follower Khadar Das T.P. Gopala Pillai to spread the message of Khadi and Charka. Inspired by Gandhiji he founded the 'Mahatma Khadi Ashram' at Elanthoor 1941.He launched a scheme for mobilizing funds for khadi activities known as 'ek paise fund' in order to ensure the participation of the whole people in the khadi movement.


Azad Hind soldiers under subhash chandra Bose,marching against British army-2nd world war



Rani of Jhansi Regiment 1943 –45.[WITH CAPTAIN LAXMI SWAMINATHAN AND BOSE]

CLICK AND READ:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rani_of_Jhansi_Regiment

[BOSE WAS NOT A FASCIST OR NAZI SYMPATHIZER]

HITLER WITH BOSE DURING 2ND WORLD WAR

. BOSE WITH HIMMLER

Hitler's secret Indian army-CLICK AND READ:-http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1399564/posts[Indische Freiwilligen-Legion 1950]


DIE WAFFEN-SS INDISCHE LEGION/ THE WEAPONS-SS INDIAN LEGION




The crew of the Japanese submarine I-29 after the rendezvous with the German submarine U-180 300 sm southeast from Madagascar. bottom 2nd left is the Subhas Chandra Bose. Date : 28 April 1943 ;and below Bose and Members of the Azad Hind Fauj in 1943's

Bose giving speech at Tokyo---- BELOW-Military parade of the INA at the Padang on 5 July 1943File:Tokyo Boys.JPG

[1]AZAD HIND:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azad_Hind(READ)

below:-
pamphlets distributed from bomber planes by japanese army -&"death or surrender"-dropped down from Japanese bomber planes over India
[2]

click and read:-Battle of Imphal-



INA SOLDIERS ENTERED INDIA AT IMPHAL 1944-
click-


BELOW:-subash chandra bose  his speech to nation in 1930

click andread]:-SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE, THE INDIAN NATIONAL ARMY, AND THE WAR OF INDIA'SLIBERATION:--reAD;-HTTP://LIBRARY.FLAWLESSLOGIC.COM/BOSE_2.HTM

PATRIOTIC SONGS ; DURING 2ND WORLD WAR 1939-1945 AGAINST BRITISH RULE

Sare Jahan Se Acha Hindustan Hamara- India Patriotic songs!!!!!



File:Azadhindpostage.jpg
100 Rupees note of Azad Hind Bank of India

BELOW-
OTHER PATRIOTIC SONGS OF 1940 ERA SUNG EVERY WHERE FILM Kismet `1942

In the patriotic song, Door hato O Duniya walon ("Go away outsiders, India is ours"), penned by 'Kavi Pradeep',

a negative reference to Japan was used, Tum na kisike aage jhunkna, German ho ya Japani, this allowed it to get pass through heavy British censorship of the time though the people understood the hidden meaning and the song; backed by the uplifting score by Anil Biswas, it became an instant hit, amidst the atmosphere of rising nationalistic fervour , though the British authorities, soon realised their mistake, and wanted to ban the film, and an arrest warrant was issued for the film's lyricist, Pradeep, who had to immediately go underground, to avoid arrest
(In travancore also  this song was sung; by a freedom fighter; who jumped on a drama stage and sung but escaped before arrest)

[CLICK AND SEE MOVIE -KISMAT-1942]






Coat of arms - Kingdom of Cochin

Coat of arms - Kingdom of Cochin

The 'Coat of arms' of erstwhile 'Kingdom of Cochin', seen at the front arch of Sakthan Thampuran Palace - a major landmark of Thrissur, Kerala's cutural hub. Thrissur was one of the capitals of Cochin Kings, who ruled for centuries before merging with the Union of India.






















  • subhash chandra bose taking salute of Azad Hind(INDIAN) soldiers at singapore -1943

    INDIAN PATRIOTIC SONG -SUNG ABOUT AZAD HIND (INDIAN)SOLDIERS


    1
    SUBHASH CHANDRA BOSE IN SINGAPORE -DURING SECOND WORLD WAR




    HITLER and CHAMPAKARAMAN pillai
    Champakaraman Pillai-(September 15, 1891–May 26, 1934)-Kerala( Thiruvananthapuram) born Indian revolutionary;
    got a written apology from Hitler
    for saying Indians are incapable of self rule;killed in revenge by Hitler later-


    {Hitler said that Indians were still incapable of ruling themselves,1930’s he had become upset with Hitlers attitude about Indians, comments about color and other principles, especially those expressed in speeches and his book. Hitler had stated that Indians deserved to be ruled by the British and stated that they were not Aryans due to the color. Finally he chose to protest, in 1931, writing a complaint to him with a deadline for an answer. While many say the letter was addressed to the fuehrer, it was actually sent to the Reich Chancellor The reply of apology apparently came one day later than Pillai required. Pillai first wanted to send the letter dated 10/12/1931 to Hitler direct, after listening to his press conference words at otel Hotel Kaiserhof in Dec 1931,
    File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R99514, Berlin, Wilhelmplatz, Hotel "Kaiserhof".jpg
    but then changed his mind and sent it to the Reich Chancellor

    {Heinrich Brüning ( 1885 – 1970) was Reich Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1932.}

    Pillai's secret name:-Many of the Indians were on the English secret service watch lists, they were all entrusted with special tasks and Pillai worked under the assumed German East African name Abdullah Bin Manzur.
    Swadeshi movement
    In 1924, Dr Champakaraman Pillai organized the first exhibition of Indian Swadeshi goods at the international fair held at Leipzig.
    Free government of India 1915
    He had the privilege of being Prime Minister of the Provisional Government of India set up in Afghanistan in December 1915, with Raja Mahendra Pratap of Kabul

    as President. However, the defeat of the Germans in the war shattered the hopes of the revolutionaries.
    (Below, the first Provisional Indian Government-In-Exile December 1915.in Afghanistan ) Berlin Committee (Deutsche Verein der Freunde Indien)requested Von Zimmermann of the German Foreign ministry to get Pratap invited to Berlin


    Raja Mahendra pratap singh:-click and read:-http://www.rajamahendrapratap.net/freedom.htmhttp://www.rajamahendrapratap.net/freedom.htm
    Provisional_Government_of_India1915- read:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provisional_Government_of_India

    On the other hand, some documents list him actually as Foreign minister
    Pillai and the INA.Pillai was the forerunner of Rash Behari Bose and Subhas Chandra Bose in organizing an Indian Army abroad to strike against the enemies at home. In 1933, Dr Champakaraman Pillai met Subhash Chandra Bose, and they jointly conceived the idea of Azad Hind
    . But he fell a victim to the wrath of the Nazis. It is reported that the Nazis under orders from Hitler killed Chempakaraman by poisoning his food on May 26, 1934}Immediately before his death, he asked his wife to sprinkle his ashes in “Nanjilnadu” (Kanyakumari district) and the Karamana River in Thiruvananthapuram. His wish was fulfilled in September 1966.}The Indian Navy's warship, I.N.S. Delhi, flying the flag of Free India, brought Pillai's ashes to Cochin on September 16, 1966.
    IN CHENNAI THERE IS A STATUE OF CHAMPAKARAMAN .

    BUT BIRTH PLACE -KERALA /THIRUVANANTHAPURAM CITY; STILL HAS NO STATUE OR MEMORIAL; EVEN IN MODEL SCHOOL WHERE HE STUDIED -(IF I AM CORRECT.)

    http://maddy06.blogspot.in/2009/07/champaka-raman-pillai-forgotten-freedom.htmlhttp://maddy06.blogspot.in/2009/07/champaka-raman-pillai-forgotten-freedom.html

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    A BRAVE WOMAN PATRIOT FROM PALGHAT ,KERALA - Lt Col LAXMI Swaminathan of the Indian National Army-CLICK AND READ:->http://pazhayathu.blogspot.in

    Lakshmi Sahgal 24 October 1914 – 23 July 2012:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lakshmi_Sahgal ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ========================================================================--
    Veteran freedom fighter Captain Lakshmi Sehgal passes away- July 23, 2012

    Captain Lakshmi Sehgal
    Veteran freedom fighter Lakshmi Sehgal passed away at the age of 97.
    On Thursday, Sehgal was admitted to a hospital in Kanpur after she suffered cardiac arrest.
    A long time companion of Subhash Chandra Bose, she was a captain of Rani of Jhansi Regiment of Indian National Army. A doctor by profession, she was honoured with Padma Vibhushan in 1998.

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ==================================================================
    Tryst with Destiny was a speech made by Jawaharlal Nehru, the firstPrime Minister of independent India. The speech was made to theIndian Constituent Assembly, on the eve of India's Independence, towards midnight on 14 August 1947. It focuses on the aspects that transcend India's history. It is considered to be one of the greatest speeches of all time
    Jawaharlal Nehru's tryst with destiny speech
    above film:-India News Reel: Final British Soldiers Leaving India

    Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel speaks



    Travancore State Congress(23rd February 1938) and Utharavada bharanam [ Responsible government] Struggle-


    Founding members-Travancore State Congress
    Travancore State Congress [Working Committee: Pattom A. Thanu Pillai (President); Parur T. K. Narayana Pillai;C. Kesavan; A. J. John, Anaparambil; T. M. Varghese, Thandaneth; K. T. Thomas (Secretary); P. S. Nataraja Pillai (Secretary); P. K. Kunju; K. P. Neelakanta Pillai; M. R. Madhava Warrier; N. K. Padmanabha Pillai; Annie Mascarene; E. John Philipose, Elanjickal; P. J. Sebastian, Pullamkalam; K. M. Korah, Karuvelithara;Kumbalam P. Sanku Pillai; A. Narayana Pillai; V. K. Velayudhan; K. Kesavan; Kannara Gopala Panicker; R. Vasudevan Pillai; M. N. Parameswaran Pillai; K. N. Kunjukrishna Pillai]
    Ballot Boxes
    VOTE BOXES OF-'TRAVANCORE COCHIN'--(BEFORE KERALA STATE WAS BORN [1] P.S.P[PRAJA SOCIALIST PARTY][2] CONGRESS -[BULLOCK SIGN]AND ANOTHER PARTY SYMBOL OF LIGHTED LAMP--PROBABLY COMMUNIST PARTY WAS NOT VERY POPULAR AT THAT TIME?--AND THE VOTE GOES INTO P.S.P VOTE BOX--NOW P.S.P IS EXTINCT
    A hand places a vote into a ballot box during the Travancore-Cochin elections, Trivandrum, India, March 1954. (Photo by James Burke/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    General elections in Travancore, the first based on universal adult franchise in India (Feb. 1948)Total seats: 120; Indian National Congress: 97; Muslim league: 8; Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress:14; Independents: 1;Communist party: 0.

    It was in 1934 that EMS , along with other left-wing leaders of the Kerala Pradesh congress party like P. Krishnapillai, A.K Gopalan and Keraleeyan, formed the Congress Socialist Party (CSP) in Kerala. He was the All India Joint Secretary of the CSP from 1934 to 1940. he was one of the founder members of the Communist party in Kerala attending the Pinarayi - Parappuram Conference in 1939. He became a member of central committee of the Communist Party of India in 1941 and a member of the Polit Bureau in 1950. he was acting General Secretary of the party during 1953 - 56. Later he was the General Secretary of CPI(M) for 14 years.


    [THE COMMUNIST PARTY WAS NOT POPULAR THEN ]-because C.P.I. OPENLY supported AND COLLABORATED WITH BritishIndian rulers during 2Nd world war just because Britain was allied withRussia.TILL RUSSIA JOINED THE SECOND WORLD WAR ;IT WAS CALLED IMPERIALISTIC WAR BUT THE MOMENT RUSSIA JOINED THE WAR ON BRITISH SIDE ; IT WAS RENAMED AS PEOPLE'S WAR AND PATRIOTIC WAR BY C.P.I.
    whether similar secret arrangements:- Britain had with other minor Indian parties is not known but,R.s.s. the parent party of B.j.p. never took part in India's freedom struggle.;also Jinna's MUSLIM league never took part in India's freedom struggle .HINDU MAHASABHA NEVER TOOK PART IN INDIAN INDEPENDANCE STRUGGLE.DRAVIDA KAZAKAM PARTY OF E.V RAMASWAMI NAICKER (PARENT PARTY OF D.M.K. AND LATER A.I.A..D.M.K.) NEVER TOOK PART IN INDIAN INDEPENDANCE STRUGGLE.AND NOT JAILED;WHILE ALL CONGRESS LEADERS INCLUDING MAHATMA GANDHI WERE PUT IN JAIL BY BRITISH DURING SECOND WORLD WAR PERIOD 1940-1945
    Reasons unknown. 
    BRITAIN SUPPORTED THE FORMATION OF EXTREMIST MUSLIM AND EXTREMIST HINDU PARTIES WITH THE AIM TO CONTINUE THE "DIVIDE AND RULE"POLICY IN  INDIA .
    THIS FINALLY RESULTED IN THE FORMATION OF PAKISTAN IN 1947 WITH ACTIVE BRITISH SUPPORT 
       THE REMAINING EXTREMISTS, FORMED UNDER  BRITISH COLONIAL RULERS, BETWEEN 1900 TO 1940 PERIOD ;-BOTH HINDU AND MUSLIM- IN AND OUTSIDE  POLITICS ARE THE CAUSE OF PROBLEMS IN INDIA NOW.AS EVERY BODY KNOWS WHO THEY ARE ,THERE IS NO NEED TO NAME THEM HERE

    LATER COMMUNIST PARTY WAS BANNED FOR A SHORT PERIOD FOR TAKING PART IN ARMED REVOLUTION IN TELENGANA.SIMILARLY R.S.S. WAS BANNED FOR A SHORT PERIOD AFTER MAHATMA GANDHI'S ASSASSINATION
    Total seats: 108; Indian National Congress: 44; Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress (T. T. N. C.): 8;Socialist Party: 11; Communist Party: 25; Revolutionary Socialist Party: 6; Kerala Socialist Party: 1; Cochin party: 1; Independents: 12



    A. J. JOHN,

    ELECTION AS LEADER OF THE CONGRESS LEGISLATURE PARTY (44 LEGISLATORS), DEFEATING PANAMPILLY GOVINDA MENON BY A MARGIN OF 2 VOTESA. J. JOHN INVITED BY THE RAJPRAMUKH TO FORM THE GOVERNMENT AS LEADER OF THE LARGEST SINGLE PARTY IN THE LEGISLATURE

    T. T. N. C. (8 legislators under A. Chidambaranatha Nadar) offers support to the Congress in forming a coalition government. (57 vs. 51 among 108 legislators)

    Cabinet: T. M. Varghese, (Home Affairs);
    Panampilly Govinda Menon (Finance, Civil Supplies)

    Kalathil Velayudhan Nair (Public Works, Transport, Electricity)
    V. Madhavan (Medicine, Public Health); K. Kchukuttan (Local self-government); A. Chidambaranatha Nadar (Land revenue, Fo
    Total seats: 118; Indian National Congress: 45; Travancore Tamil Nadu Congress (T. T. N. C.): 12;Praja Socialist Party: 19; Communist Party: 23;Revolutionary Socialist Party: 9; Kerala Socialist Party: 3; Independents: 6;
    GOVERNOR P.S. RAU ADMINISTERING OATH TO PATTOM THANU PILLAI


    HISTORY OF P.S.P PARTY :-
    Political offices
    Preceded by
    none
    Prime Minister of Travancore
    1948– 1948[PATTOM.A.THANU PILLAI]
    Succeeded by
    Parur T. K. Narayana Pillai
    Preceded by
    A. J. John, Anaparambil
    Chief Minister of Travancore-Cochin
    1954– 1955
    Succeeded by
    Panampilly Govinda Menon
    Preceded by
    E. M. S. Namboodiripad
    Chief Minister of Kerala
    1960– 1962
    Succeeded by
    R. Sankar
    His actual name was A. Thanu Pillai. Since he came from Pattom in Thiruvananthapuram, he was called Pattom Thanu Pillai. Popularly he was known as just "Pattom".
    . He obtained a degree in law and started legal practise.After some days he gave up the practise and joined the Indian National Congress.He atively took part in the independence movement .Within a few days he became a good leader of the congress party.He was given the responsibility to lead the congress party in the princely state of Travancore. In 1946 he was appointed as the member of the constituent assembly of India.

    Pattom A. Thanu Pillai played crucial role in drafting the constitution of India.After independence he was appointed as the prime minister of Travancore.
    The struggle for a responsible government in the princely state culminated in the ousting of theDiwan,Sir C.P. Ramaswami Iyer. Sir C.P. left Travancore on 19 August 1947. After Indian Independence and before the formation of Kerala state in 1956, he became Prime Minister of Travancorefrom 24 March 1948 to 22 October 1948. After independence, the princely states of Travancore andCochin were amalgamated to form Travancore-CochinState on 1 July 1949.
    As a PSP member Pillai became Chief Minister ofThiru-Kochi (or Travancore-Cochin) from 16 March 1954 to 14 February 1955. The State of Kerala was formed on 1 November 1956 and the first state elections held there in March 1957 and resulted in a Communist Party-led administration. Pillai was an MLA for Thiruvananthapuram II representing the PSP.
    When the first Kerala administration fell in the onslaught of "Vimochana Samaram" (Liberation Struggle) against the Communist rule and after elections in 1960 Pillai became the second Chief Minister of Kerala as head of a coalition administration. He was in power from 22 February 1960 to 26 September 1962. In 1962, he became the Governor of Punjab. Later he was appointed the Governor of Andhra Pradesh in which role he served from 4 May 1964 until 11 April 1968.

    During the Travancore-Cochin elections, while people watch a play. {NINGAL ENNE COMMUNISTAKKI?-- BEFORE MANY PEOPLE BECAME COMMUNISTS IN 1950'S}

    Kerala People's Arts Club (KPAC) was formed in 1950.It was a cultural organisation with a political purpose, The brainchild of a group of youngsters - G. Janardhana Kurup, N. Rajagopalan Nair and K.S. Rajamani - associated with the CPI;


    It was with "Ningalenne Communistakki" (You Made Me a Communist, 1952), its second play, that KPAC became a force to reckon with on Kerala's cultural scene.Thoppil Bhasi, a young Communist activist wrote the play under the pseudonym Soman. most of the members of the group had little or no prior stage experience,After the first show itself the play was booked for 36 performances. Overnight, an amateur play became professional,,Ningalenne Communistakki" made history in Malayalam theatre by becoming the first play to be staged more than 10,000 times

    Gifted artists such as KPAC Sulochana, K.S. George, G. Devarajan, M.S. Baburaj, K. Raghavan Master, P.J. Antony, Kambissery Karunakaran, K.P. Ummer and KPAC Lalitha and poets such as O.N.V. Kurup and Vayalar Rama Varma, to name a few, were either associated with the KPAC or began their career in it.golden jubilee celebrations of KPAC were inaugurated in May 2000
    This drama propelled KPAC into the forefront of kerala cultural scene and played a historical role in popularising the Communist movement in Kerala during 1950's



     
    Kerala history, First E.M.S. Ministry, 1957

    IN THE ABOVE VIDEO OF A STREET DEMONSTRATION NEAR TRIVANDRUM MUSEUM;
    ONE CAN SEE THE OLD COSTLY IMPORTED ,GLOBE SHAPED STREET LAMPS; PUT FROM PALAYAM TO KOWDIAR IN 1940'S;BY THE MAHARAJA. BUT ALL THESE STREET LAMPS WERE STONED TO PIECES BY SOME POLITICAL PARTY AGITATING FOR SOME INSIGNIFICANT CAUSE IN 1960'S .PUBLIC PROPERTY ISCOMMON MAN'S PROPERTY.THIS ALL POLITICAL PARTIES MUST REMEMBER .THOSE PARTIES WHICH DESTROY OUR PROPERTY SHOULD PAY BACK THE COST ;TO THE GOVERNMENT .



    eventually leading to the establishment of first democratically elected communist ministry in The World in 1957 in Kerala under E. M. S. Namboodiripad.

    [other reasons for communist win were :- common man got upset by instability;with many short lived cong: ministries ,many times central rule ;corruption charges against some ministers;semi famine condition;severe un employment;poverty among the workers; agriculture workers;small scale agriculturists;'paatta krishi' agriculture arrangement ;UNHAPPY DALITS ]

    CLICK AND LISTEN TO KPAC SONGS:-http://www.devaragam.com/vbscript/WimpyPlayer_ext.aspx?ord=d&var=7831,795,796,794


    kpac drama music -www.devaragam.com






    music before  each and every CPI meetings and drama 1960:-





    'Ningal Enne Communistakki' again on Stage

    അറുപത് വര്‍ഷത്തിന് ശേഷം ഓര്‍മ്മകള്‍ ചെങ്കൊടിയേന്തുന്ന മണ്ണില്‍ നിങ്ങള്‍ എന്നെ ...

    BELOW:-During the Travancore-Cochin elections,



    During the Travancore-Cochin elections,
    During the Travancore-Cochin elections, with the Communist Party campaign procession shouting slogans. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)Mar 1, 1954

    http://youtu.be/59y3xz-ovTIhttp://youtu.be/59y3xz-ovTI:-[Bali kudeerangale]music


    Durring the Travancore-Cochin elections, with voters at polls. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)Mar 1, 1954

    During Travancore-Cochin elections,

    Travancore Cochin Elections, with Communist Workers Fixing Loudspeaker on a Stripped Coconut Tree Photographic Print
    communist workers climbing up a flag post

    Poverty stricken farmers pulling an ancient plow through rice field.
    Poverty stricken farmers pulling an ancient plow through rice field-DAILY WAGES WERE JUST 4 ANNAS=25 PAISE=1/4 RUPEE/DAY''ELLU MURIYE PANI CHEYTHAL PALLU MURIYE THINNAAM''(IF YOU WORK HARD YOU GET ENOUGH FOOD) WAS A SAYING OF THAT TIMES[THIS UNHAPPY SITUATION WAS USED BY CPI TO INCREASE POPULARITY AND VOTE]
    Poverty stricken farmers pulling an ancient plow through rice field. (Photo by James Whitmore//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)Apr 1, 1957
    Mannil Eee Nalla mannil :---(SURVEY KALLU) -by  KS George+
    click EE MANNIL VEENA:- --http://youtu.be/zYjTpnARXjw by DEVRAJAN
     Ponnarival:-http://youtu.be/cLXyzq2wmeI
    A similar photo from Hyderabad Workers of the Nizam of Hyderabad - 1890s

    Workers+of+the+Nizam+of+Hyderabad+-+1890%2527s
    Photographer: Raja Deen Dayal
    Unemployed youths, many college graduates, applying for work as bus conductors.

    Unemployed youths, many college graduates, applying for work as bus conductors. (Photo by James Whitmore//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    VERY RARELY PEOPLE USED TO WEAR SLIPPERS/CHAPPALS ON FEET.
    WEARING OF PANTS/TROUSERS BECAME COMMON AFTER 1980




    During the Travancore-Cochin elections,
    During the Travancore-Cochin elections, Congress Party flags out numbering Communist Party flags. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty mages)Mar1, 1954
    Fishermen drawing in nests.(Photo by James burke/Time/Life
    NOTE:-THE BEACHES WERE VERY WIDE THEN ;BEFORE THE SEA EROSION STARTED IN 1960 AND NOW BELOW



    Durring the Travancore-Cochin elections,
    Durring the Travancore-Cochin elections, with people waiting for identity slips which are exchanged for ballots. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Mar 1, 1954

    Giant bats hanging in trees outside a Hi
    Giant bats hanging in trees outside a Hindu temple.[SRI PADMANABHA SWAMI TEMPLE ,TRIVANDRUM] (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

    Padmanabhaswami Temple (Hindu), with Hin
    Padmanabhaswami Temple (Hindu), with Hindus taking pre-sunrise purifying bath in river. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Mar 1, 1954


    This photo can be used to create Photo Books, Framed Fine Art Prints, Framed Fine Art Canvas
    The entrance to U.S. Information Library
    The entrance to U.S. Information Library, with pictures of American homes displayed outside. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Mar 1, 1954[ AT PALAYAM OPPOSITE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE ;BEFORE IT CLOSED DOWN DUE TO POLITICAL PRESSURE ;;AND NOW IT IS CONVERTED TO -'THE SOUTH PARK HOTEL']

    Flight with history:

    The protagonists of the accession drama, the Travancore raja and Sardar Patel, aboard a Devon plane in '50.[Travancore was in half mind to remain as free country without joining India]MAY BE SARDAR PATEL'S FIRM WORDS CHANGED THE MIND OF THE MAHARAJA AND TRAVANCORE FINALLY JOINED THE INDIAN UNION


    [The present state of Kerala is made up of three princely states, Travancore, Cochin and Malabar. When the British announced their withdrawal from India, the Diwan of Travancore, Sir. CP Ramaswamy Iyer announced that Travancore would establish itself as an independent state and would not join the Indian Union.

    bY. The action of Diwan aroused a bitter controversy inside and outside the State. Travancore was again in the vortex of a political struggle and the Government resorted to a series of repressive measures to meet the situation. One of the highlights of the struggle was a police firing at Pettah, Trivandrum, in which three persons including a student by name Rajendran were killed. A few days after the incident, an unsuccessful attempt was made on SirC.P.Ramaswamy Iyer’s life when the Diwan was attending a function in the Swathi Thirunal Academy of Music at Trivandrum (July 25, 1947). The Diwan escaped with minor injuries and very soon left the State for good. Immediately after this incident the Maharaja intimated, to Lord Mountbatten, the Governor-General, his decision to accept the Instrument of Accession and take Travancore into the Indian Union. SirC.P. Ramaswamy Iyer resigned the office of Diwan on August 19, 1947 and was succeeded in that office by P.G.N. Unnithan.]

    Jawaharlal Nehru, who declared open the Indian Rare Earths Factory at Alwaye, Travancore - Cochin, is on a conducted of the factory. (Left to right) : Dr.H.J.Bhabha, Dr.S.S.Bhatnagar, Shri K.R.K. Menon, Shri Jawaharlal Nehru, The Rajpramukh of Travancore-Cochin and Shri Lal Bhahadur Shastri(with white cap).and chief minister A.J.John(R)(IN MUNDU)

    BELOW:-
    Medical College,Thiruvananthapuramwas founded in 1951, and was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. at 8:00 AM on 27th Nov. 1951. This is the first ,oldest ,and most prestigious medical college in Kerala.Trivandrum Health Care Hospitals/Medical Tourism/Medical Research


    Nehru at palayam,Thiruananthapuram stadium 1960'S.just to see Nehru and listen to him ;the stadium was overflowing with crowd
    THIRUANANTHA PURAM ,PALAYAM POLICE STADIUM ALSO KNOWN AS CHANDRASEKHARAN NAIR STADIUM
    WAS THE NAIR PATTALAM(SOLDIER'S)PARADE GROUND FROM 1850 ON WARDS
    CAN SEE ABOVE :- THE OLD KERALA ARCHITECTURE TILED MOSQUE OF PALAYAM ;BEFORE THE NEW MOSQUE WITH MINARET WAS BUILT;AS SEEN BELOW

    File:Palayam Mosque.jpg

    1708-WAR ON PEPPERCOAST{KERALA/MALABAR}A battle on the Malabar Coast ("Pepper Coast") between the Dutch East India Company and the Portutuese, with "Nairos," Dec. 1661; Dutch ships are in the background; from 'Wouter Schouten's travels into the East Indies', 2nd ed., Amsterdam, 1708



    A Malabar man(kerala) Showing tricks with Serpents* 1660'S

    A Malabar[KERALA] Man and Woman* 1660

    Vasco da Gama in Calicut, India, 1498

    Vasco da Gama in Calicut, India, 1498



    Vasco da Gama-CLICK AND READ- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasco_da_Gama
    When we reached the palace we passed through a gate into a courtyard of great size, and before we arrived at where the king was, we passed four doors, through which we had to force our way, giving many blows to the people. When, at last, we reached the door where the king was, there came forth from it a little old man, who holds a position resembling that of a bishop [i.e. a Brahmin], and whose advice the king acts upon in all affairs of the church. This man embraced the captain when he entered the door. Several men were wounded at this door, and we got in only by the use of much force.File:Gama squadron of 1502 Armada (Livro das Armadas).jpg

    Gama squadron of 1502 -Armada////

    READ-Portuguese in Kerala:-http:///wiki/Portuguese_in_Kerala

    Queen of Koylang [Quilon] 1662,[NOW KNOWN AS KOLLAM TOWN]

    Description of Umayamma Rani

    The Dutch representative William Van Nieuhoff describes the Rani as:

    ... I was introduced into her majesty's presence. She had a guard of above 700 Nair soldiers about her, all clad after the Malabar fashion; the Queens attire being no more than a piece of callicoe wrapt around her middle, the upper part of her body appearing for the most part naked, with a piece of callicoe hanging carelessly round her shoulders. Her ears, which were very long, her neck and arms were adorned with precious stones, gold rings and bracelets and her head covered with a piece of white callicoe. She was past her middle age, of a brown complexion, with black hair tied in a knot behind, but of majestick mein, she being a princess who shew'd a great deal of good conduct in the management of her affairs [15]

    Umayamma Rani
    Born: - Died: 1705
    Regnal titles
    Preceded by
    Rajah Aditya Varma
    Rani of Venad, Attingal Mootha Thampuran
    1677-1684
    Succeeded by
    Rajah Ravi Varma



    The Taking of Ye City of Cotchin in Mallabar

    The Taking (CAPTURING FROM PORTUGUESE BY THE DUTCH) of Ye City of Cotchin (COCHI) in Mallabar-[YEAR 1640-BY NIEUHOF]


    Dutch Malabar-click and read:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_Malabar



    Dutch commander De Lannoy surrenders to Marthanda Varma at the Battle of Colachel. Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace..Marthanda Varma MAHARAJA-1706–1758-CLICK AND READ :-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marthanda_Varma
    Plan of the Fortress of Coylan. Located on the Malabar coast of India.  The Dutch East India Company captured it from the Portuguese in 1661. Also known as Quilon. Copper plate engraving, hand coloured,from Abbe Prevost's Historical Travels, 1747.
    Plan of the Fortress of Coylan[QUILON =KOLLAM]. Located on the Malabar coast of India. The Dutch East India Company captured it from the Portuguese in 1661. Also known as Quilon. Copper plate engraving, hand coloured, from Abbe Prevost's Historical Travels, 1747.

    1805-THE MAHARAJAH OF TRAVANCORE PRESENTING GOLD CROWN FOR THE TORAH



    1905-FIRST SEVEN INDIAN NURSES WITH IDA SCUDDER VELLORE

    vellore1.jpg

    Prime Minister Indira Gandhi being received by Chief Minister Karunakaran in Trivandrum on January 1982. Photo: The Hindu Archives
    The HinduPrime Minister Indira Gandhi being received by Chief Minister Karunakaran in Trivandrum on January

    MANNATHU PADMANABHAN WITH NEHRU AND INDIRA GANDHI






    Mannam. KM Munshi,Panambilly


    Mannam and K.Kelappan



    Mannam, Pattom Thanu Pillai, KPS Menon, G Ramachandran

     Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru being greeted by leader of the Nair service society, Mannath Padmanabhan (left) at Trivandrum airport in Kerala on June 25, 1959.

    Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru being greeted by leader of the Nair service society, Mannath Padmanabhan (left) at Trivandrum airport in Kerala on June 25, 1959.

    C.KESAVAN WITH JAWAHARLAL NEHRU





    The Prime Minister, Mrs. Indira Gandhi greeted by the people of Trivandrum who had thronged on the roadside during her visit to the State capita on January 17, 1980. She and her party won the Lok Sabha election as she was sworn in PM on January 14, 1980.



    BEFORE HIGH WAYS AND MAIN CENTRAL (M.C.)ROAD WERE MADE ,'VALLAM' WAS THE ONLY MODE OF TRAVEL AND TRADE
    Velu Thampi Dalawa-(1765–1809) was the Dalawa or Prime Minister of the Indian kingdom of Travancore between 1802 and 1809 during the reign of His Highness Maharajah Bala Rama Varma Kulasekhara Perumal. He is best known for being one of the earliest individuals to rebel against British East India Company's supremacy in India.Sculpture of Velu Thampy Dalawa in the Secretariat campus, Thiruvananthapuram:-CLICK AND READ:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velu_Thampi_Dalawa



    below:-Raja Kesavadas (1745-1799)constructed the Main Central Road (now State Highway No.1) from ThiruvananthapuramtoKarukutty, near Angamaly which is still the main road in thehinterland areas of Kerala. The originating junction of this road - Kesavadasapuram - is derived from his name
     
    Raja Kesavadas (1745-1799):- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raja_Kesavadas

    Kayangulam [Kayankulam]--Photographer: D'Cruz, Zachariah Medium: Photographic print Date: 1900

    Kayangulam [Kayankulam]



    1878



    'Beypore, India'

    Oil painting on paper by Marianne North of Beypore, dated 1878-1879. Marianne North visited India in 1877-79 and completed over 200 paintings whilst there.

    In her autobiography, 'Recollections of a happy life' of 1892, she wrote, "At Beypore I found a large room over the station, a hundred yards from the sea, with a garden between me and it...I enjoyed being at Beypur close to the sea...I could walk on the rocks and sands, watching the shrimps, crabs...I made a long sketch of the river and distant mountains, with endless cocoa-nuts in the middle distance, ferry-boats, and picturesque people. It was very pleasant sitting on the clean sand, but it was hot."

    f.8   View of Cannanore Bay with fort on the right, Malabar district.  'Cannonore fort & Bay.'
    Water-colour painting of the town and harbour of Kannur (Cannanore) by John Johnson (c.1769-1846), c.1795 - 1801. This image is from a sketch-book of 36 drawings (36 folios) depicting scenes chiefly in west India and Mysore (Karnataka) between c.1795-1801.
    Kannur is situated on a headland overlooking a picturesque bay in Kerala, in the south of India. Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) the Portuguese explorer who discovered an ocean route from Portugal to the East came to this area in 1498 and it subsequently became an important trading station. The fort of St. Angelo was constructed in 1505 by the first Portuguese Viceroy Don Francisco De Almeda with the consent of the ruling Kolathiri Raja. In 1656 the Dutch expelled the Portuguese and subsequently sold the town to a Moplah family (a community of Arab descent) who claimed sovereignty over the Laccadive Islands, a group of coral reefs and islands off the coast of Kerala. Moplah rule was terminated by the British who attacked and captured Kannur in 1790 and it became their most important military base in the south of India. The barracks, arsenal, cannons and the ruins of a chapel still stand in the fort as a testimony to its glorious history.



    Attack on Kollam in December 1661.

    READ-Dutch Malabar:-http:///wiki/Dutch_Malabar
    Below:-Quilon(KOLLAM) surrenders to Dutch
    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Quilon_surrenders_to_Dutch.jpg


    Fortified Island on the Malabar Coast in the East Indies, belonging to Tippoo Sultan



    TIPU'S ROCKETS SCATTER AND DEFEAT ENGLISH SOLDIERS ,2ND MYSORE WAR,





    In the year 1780 the
    British began to annex the territories of the Sultanate of Mysore, during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. A British battalion was defeated during the Battle of Guntur, by the forces of Hyder Ali, who effectively utilized Mysorean rockets and Rocket artillery against the closely massed British forces.

    TIPPU SULTAN CLICK AND READ:-http://en.wikipedia.org





    CLICK AND READ:-http://gallimafry.blogspot.in/2010/08/star-spangled-banner-and-indian-rockets.html:-STORY OF THE AMERICAN NATIONAL ANTHEM AND INDIAN ROCKETS


    In his attempts to junction with Tipu Sultan, Napoleon annexed Ottoman Egypt in  year 1798
    Aquatint published by F. Jukes in 1794 and part of King George III's Topographical Collection, with a view of an island fort of Tipu Sultan on the Malabar Coast in southern India. It is one of the forts which was ceded to the British during the Third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-92). Tipu Sultan (b.1750-d.1799), was the strong and capable ruler of Mysore who consistently opposed the British as they expanded their control over India. The bitter struggle between the two powers was played out through the Anglo-Mysore Wars and only ended in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War of 1799, when Tipu was defeated and died fighting while his capital Seringapatam (Srirangapattana) fell to the British.
    Napoleon enters Alexandria on July 3, 1798 by Guillaume-François Colson, 1800.

    Tipu Sultan organised his Rocket artillery brigades known as Cushoon's, Tipu Sultan expanded the number of servicemen in the various Cushoon's from 1500 to almost 6000. The Mysorean rockets utilised by Tipu Sultan, were later updated by the British and successively employed during the Napoleonic Wars.



    150 × 150

    Palakkad Fort

    Tellicherry from the island of Darmadam, or Darmapattam
    Water-colour painting of Tellicherry from the island of Darmadam, or Darmapattam, by an unknown artist, c.1790. The inscription, overwritten on the reverse reads: 'Tellicherry from Durmapatam. Hills round Mahe. Charles Point. P[...] Church. Telly Fort House. Ghauts Calick Wells. A Bungalow built by Mr Falconer. Cochin Cundy Fort ditto by Mr Bailie. Codoly Fort. The entrance to the Dumapm & Codoly rivers'.
    Tellicherry, founded in 1683, was the first regular settlement on the Malabar coast. The fort was completed in 1708 by the Kolattiri Rajah and handed to the East India Company for the protection of their factory. In 1776 the factory was reduced to a Residency and in 1794 the factory was abolished by Sir John Shore. It has not been possible to identify Falconer and Bailie with certainty; an Alexander Falconer was in the Madras Civil Service at this period.
    Tellicherry on the coast of Malabar
    TALASSERY[TELLICHERRY] TOWN



    Engraving by Pieter Schenk (1645-1715) of Cochin in Kerala, published by the artist in his 'Totius orbis Terrarum oppida nobiliora centum Amsterdam' of 1702.
    Dam, Periyar Lake.
    View of the dam, Periyar Lake taken by an unknown photographer in the 1900s. The photograph is part of an album containing views of various locations in India, formerly in the collection of Horatio Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum and Broome, (1850-1916), who was Commander in Chief of India between 1902 and 1909.(a picture of the Mullaperiyar dam here)

    MULLA PERIYAR DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION


    Kollam Residency Office of British Resident to Cochin & Travancore KingdomS

    Trivandrum Royal General Hospital- India's first free public Allopathic hospital open to all people[can see a Trivandrum horse carriage-used as taxi


    The Trivandrum Golf Club- Commonwealth's second oldest Golf club--
    ALSO READ:-The British Hegemony and Kerala's Opposition http://www.kerala.
    BELOW:- ANJENCO(ANJU THENGU) FORT NEAR KOLLAM-[SITE OF 1800 MUTINY AGAINST BRITAIN]
    READ:-THE FIRST INDIAN MUTINY AGAINST BRITISH 1800-http://pazhayathu.blogspot.in/2009/02/1800
    ANJU THENGU FORT 1772 UNDER BRITISH CONTROL

    Alleppy Port, which was Travancore primary port, before development of Kochi Port.
    Raja Kesavadas (1745-1799)s considered as the chief architect of Alapuzha town. The area which Alapuzha now occupies was once a coastal area which was uninhabited and filled with large weeded plants. He found Alapuzha to be a good location for a port. He constructed two parallel canals for bringing goods to the port. For the building of Alapuzha town he was ably assisted by one of his ministers, viz. Thachil Matthoo Tharakan.. Raja Kesavadas offered infrastructural facilities to merchants and traders from Surat, Mumbai and Kachchh to start industrial enterprises, trading and cargo centres. Alappuzha attained progress and became the financial nerve centre of Travancore during his time.

    BELOW:-Alleppey Lighthouse--Photographer: D'Cruz, Zachariah Medium: Photographic print Date: 1900

    Alleppey Lighthouse


    The HQ of Travancore Royal Nair Army.[INSIDE TRIVANDRUM FORT]
    Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the Adoption Durbar, Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The State troops at the Adoption Durbar can be seen here on parade during the ceremony.
    This image falls into the public domain as it was taken in India prior to 1 January 1951, and was not published in India after that date. It is in public domain in the United States as well as it was taken prior to 1 January 1951.
    DURBAR OF THE RAJAH OF TRAVANCORE c.1856-KERALA


    In AD 1849, the Madras government informed the Maharajah, HH Uthram Thirunal Marthanda Varma, of the conducting of a great exhibition in London and requested His Highness’s government to make suitable contributions. The Maharajah, ordered a committee to be formed for this for which,Maj.Gen Cullen, the Resident, Dr.Paterson, the Durbar Physician, Mr.Kohlhoff, a judge of appeal court, and Ramen Menon, the Dewan Peishcar, were the members. P.Shangoonny Menon was the secretary to the committee.
    An ivory state chair in the shape of a throne, reflecting the craftsmanship of the Travancore artisans, was already under construction for the Maharajah’ use and at this juncture it was thought a fit present to be sent for the Great Exhibition. The Maharajah also desired that once the exhibition was over, the throne be accepted by the Queen Victoria as a token of HH’s regards and esteem. This was fully appreciated by the Resident, Major General Cullen and the Madras Government. Accordingly, the beautiful throne along with many carvings reflecting the Travancore workmanship was sent to England along with the following letter to Her Majesty.

    Engraving of the ivory state chair
    To

    Her Most Excellent Majesty Alexandrina Victoria

    From

    HH Sree Padmanabha Dasa Vanchipala Marthanda Vurmah

    MAY IT PLEASE YOUR MAJESTY

    “Major General Cullen, the British Resident at my court, and my valued friend and adviser, having conveyed to me a communication, from the Court of Directors of the East India Company, through the Government of Madras, intimating that Your Majesty had been pleased to appoint certain learned and eminent gentlemen as Commissioners for carrying out a project formed at the instance and under the distinguished patronage of Your Majesty’s Royal Consort His Royal Highness Prince Albert, for the collection and exposition in Your Majesty’s city of London, in the ensuing year 1851 of the specimens of produce , manufactures and arts of all countries and nations , and awarding prizes to the most approved productions, and requesting the cooperation and aid of my government in the promotion of this most laudable and important object by collecting and forwarding to the said exhibition, specimens of articles from my country, I have given the most particular instructions to my Dewan for the furnishing of the choicest and most useful and interesting of the productions , which instructions are now being executed with all care and expedition, under the immediate direction of my friend Major General W.Cullen

    The transmission of articles from this country for the exhibition, has afforded me an opportunity of which I am anxious to avail myself of forwarding also to London a chair of State , made of ivory, carved and ornamented, the production wholly of the native artists of my country and which I request permission to offer for Your Majesty’s acceptance , as a curiosity, and at the same time as a slight token of my profound respect for Your Majesty’s exalted person and for the numerous and great virtues for which Your Majesty is eminently distinguished.

    I beg Your Majesty will graciously condescend to receive this friendly, but humble, tribute, from the Native Prince of a country situated at the very southern extremity of Your Majesty’s vast Indian Empire, who is, as everyone of his predecessors has always been a faithful ally and dependent of the British Government, which on its part, has ever extended to us, its protection and favour, a relation which I humbly trust, will continue to the end of time. And wishing Your Majesty a long happy reign and Your Majesty’s Royal Consort, and all the members of Your Majesty’s illustrious family long life and happiness.

    I beg to subscribe myself Your Majesty’s most devoted faithful friend and servant.”

    Trevandrum Palace, 11th October 1850.

    The state chair in ivory was prominently exhibited in the Crystal Palace, London and it won great acclaim for its beauty, elegance and workmanship. No doubt, Her Majesty was most pleased to accept the gift from the Maharajah after the exhibition.
    The Elephants of Raja of Travancore, May 1841.




    MAHARAJA OF TRVANCORE-

    Lithograph of the Raja of Tranvancore's elephants at Trivandrum in Kerala by L.H. de Rudder (1807-1881) after an original drawing of May 1841 by Prince Aleksandr Mikhailovich Saltuikov published in 1848. Prince Saltuikov visited Trivandrum in August 1841 and noted several details about his meeting with the Hindu Maharaja of Travancore. He wrote that the Raja received his guest on his throne, was not more than 25 or 27 years of age and gave his guest two Indian drawings.

    Calicut, the Coast of Malabar-KERALA 1813
    '

    BELOW:-calicut,Mananchira Pond-kerala

    File:Raja ravivarma painting 50 historic meeting.jpg
    \Painting by Raja Ravi Varma depictingRichard Temple-Grenville, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Chandos being greeted byVisakham Thirunal, with Ayilyam Thirunal of Travancore looking on, during Buckingham's visit to Trivandrum, Travancore in early 1880.NOTE:-(NO CARS ,BUSES,PLANES DISCOVERED THEN)

    NOTE:-AS THERE WERE NO ROAD TRANSPORT; FORIEGNERS HAD TO ARRIVE AT CHAKKAI BOAT YARD IN TRIVANDRUM BY BOAT(VALLAM)
    [Illustrated+London+News+of+5th+August+1854+about+Opening+of+a+bridge+at+Travancore2.JPG]



    PRESS CTRL+ TO READ


    Travancore: Travancore Anchal | Flickr - Photo Sharing!
    TRAVANCORE STATE ANCHAL(POST) BOX



    This photo can be used to create Photo Books, Framed Fine Art Prints, Framed Fine Art Canvas
    Crowds gather for mass meeting. (Photo
    Crowds gather for mass meeting. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Aug 1, 1958
    This photo can be used to create Photo Books, Framed Fine Art Prints, Framed Fine Art Canvas
    Motor Boat employee union members demost
    Motor Boat employee union members demostrating aganist the Communist govt. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Aug 1, 1958



    Politcal prisoners released following el
    Politcal prisoners released following election victory by Communist Party in Indian state of Kerala. (Photo by James Whitmore//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Travancore old map
    old map of Travancore.












    TRAVANCORE MAHARAJA'SROLLS ROYCE CAR 1935

    Milne Collection


    Click on each picture(repeat click ) to see the film

    Click here to view this filmFilm 1:
    B&W. 13:29min. Travancore, (Kerala), India. c. 1930s. Tea plantations. 13:29min. Travancore, (Kerala), India. c. 1930s. Unidentified filmmaker. Tea plantations. Tea boxes transported by

    cable railway (wire shoots) across a mountainous area ( the High Ranges bordering Munnar town).
    Aerial views of the tea plantations filmed form the cable railway. Outdoor and indoor scenes of the tea factory and workers.
    arge number of Indian workers repairing and pulling a set of heavy cable
    Click here to view this filmFilm 2:
    B&W. 16:13min. Travancore, (Kerala), India. c. 1935. Maharaja of Travancore visiting Nullantani all-electric tea factory. The opening of the Neriamangalam Bridge.
    Click here to view this filmFilm 3:
    B&W. 33:01min. Travancore, (Kerala), India. c. 1930s. Tea plantations and tea production technology. Lumbering in South India










    A Garden Party - The Travancore Royal Family with The Nehrus[JAWAHARLAL NEHRU WITH WHITE CAP,INDIRA GANDHI iN SARI,AND THE BOY IS RAJIV GANDHI













    the royal family of erstwhile Travancore after the screening of the movie ‘Paadatha Painkili’ [THE KING IN WHITE AND WHITE
    DRESS,CENTER]


    Dorothia Henriett Watts with Radhadevi, wife of the head of the royal family of erstwhile Travancore, at a garden party in 1945.


    PHOTO BELOW
    Members of the Kani tribe offering ‘Thirumulkazhcha'[PRESENTS TO KING] to the head of the royal family of erstwhile Travancore, Uthradom Tirunal Marthanda Varma, at the Levee Hall in the city Members of the royal family Aswathy Tirunal Gowri Lakshmi Bai and Pooyam Tirunal Gowri Parvathy Bai are also seen





    V. K. Krishna Menon;Jawaharlal Nehru
    Jawaharlal Nehru (L) and V. K. Krishna Menon (R) attending United Nation General Assembly.

    V. K. Krishna Menon Interview



    Sankaran Namboodripad
    Chief Ministerof the Indian state of Kerala, Communist Sankaran Namboodripad sitting at his desk. (Photo by James Whitmore//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Apr 1, 1957


    Communist Party symbol of rice and sickl
    Communist Party symbol of rice and sickle painted on stone along riverbank where young workers from the rice fields are bathing. (Photo by James Whitmore//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Apr 1, 1957
    Govindan Nair
    Strong man of Communist party in Indian state of Kerala, Govindan Nair. (Photo by James Whitmore//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Apr 1, 1957

    Student anti-Communist demonstrations.
    Student anti-Communist demonstrations. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Aug 1, 1958


    Father Joseph Vadakkan, anti-Communist l
    Father Joseph Vadakkan, anti-Communist leader. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Aug 1, 1958




    M. R. Venkataraman;Gurucharan Patnaik;Balchandra Trimbak Ranadive
    (L to R) Balchandra Trimabak Ranadive, Gurucharan Patnaik, and M.R. Venkataraman during a meeting of Indian Communist Central Exec. Committee members. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Aug 1, 1958
    -Sankaran Namboodripad
    Chief Minister E.M. S. Namboodiripad and Communist cabinet members leaving capital offices for lunch. (Photo by James Whitmore//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Apr 1, 1957


    PUTTING UP NAMES OF THOSE ARRESTED IN THE AGITATION
    Date taken: August 1958. Photographer: James Burke.


    Students celebrate victory over red gov'Students celebrate victory over red gov't. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)Aug 1, 1958

    below-Sankaran Namboodripad;Jyoti Basu;Bhupesh Gupta
    (L to R) Jyoti Basu, Bhupesh Gupta, and Sankaran Namboodripad, during a meeting of Indian Communist Central Exec. Committee members. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images) Motor boat unions sends 5 men daily to picket red gov't offices. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)Aug 1, 1958


    This photo can be used to create Photo Books, Framed Fine Art Prints, Framed Fine Art Canvas
    Young school girls demostrating aganist the Communist govt. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Aug 1, 1958
    This photo can be used to create Photo Books, Framed Fine Art Prints, Framed Fine Art Canvas
    Kurur Neelacantan Nambudripad
    India Congress Party leader Kurur Neelacantan Nambudripad (standing C), consoling victum of Communist attack. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Aug 1, 1958
    /span>

    This photo can be used to create Photo Books, Framed Fine Art Prints, Framed Fine Art Canvas
    Sripad Amrit Dange;Govindan Nair
    Hindu Communists Sripad Amrit Dange (L) and Govindan Nair, at Central Exec. Committee. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)
    Aug 1, 1958
    Police arresting union members for prote
    Police arresting union members for protesting Communist gov't. (Photo by James Burke//Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)Aug 1, 1958_________________
    Gen. Secy. of the Indian Communist Party Ajoy Ghosh (L). Location: Kerala, India. Date taken: August 1958. Photographer: James Burke.

    sepia- memories of a rich past

    uma Maheswari

    The royal family of Travancore owns many simple and neatly built palaces most of them centred near the southeast corner of the Sree Padmanabhswami Temple in Thiruvananthapuram. Palaces in the Fort area are called the Valia Kottaram Palace Complex. Each ruler out of respect and reverence never lived in the palace of his predecessor. Thus arose many palaces in the Fort area which also has the much revered Sree Padmanabhaswami temple, the abode of the titular deity of the rulers of Travancore.

    VINTAGE: One of the photographs to be displayed at the gallery.The royal family of Travancore owns many simple and neatly built palaces most of them centred near the southeast corner of the Sree Padmanabhswami Temple in Thiruvananthapuram. Palaces in the Fort area are called the Valia Kottaram Palace Complex. Each ruler out of respect and reverence never lived in the palace of his predecessor. Thus arose many palaces in the Fort area which also has the much revered Sree Padmanabhaswami temple, the abode of the titular deity of the rulers of Travancore.

    The Ranga Vilasam Palace which was constructed by Maharaja Swati Tirunal, the monarch-musician in 1839, will now take on the mantle of a heritage gallery-cum-museum when it is formally inaugurated on July 12. It was Sri Chithra Tirunal, who took the initiative to establish an art gallery in this admirable structure. His visit to Europe in 1933, urged him to open an art gallery in Travancore too. This gallery housed many artifacts, Kathakali figurines, Kerala utensils, bell metals vessels, ivory articles, paintings, bronze pieces, china wares, many curios and private collections of the Maharajas who ruled Travancore. However, the art gallery ceased to function in the post-Independence period.

    The present maharaja, Sree Uthradam Tirunal Marthanda Varma, who is an eminent photographer and has a rich collection of 10,000 pictures neatly catalogued, wished that the public too have a glimpse of the sepia tinted frames which were virtually slices from an eventful and culturally rich past. He decided to convert the Ranga Vilasam lying vacant to a museum of rare photographs. “It is not possible to display all the pictures in the gallery and selection of 200 pictures was not easy,” admits the Maharaja. His idea was to blow up the pictures to large impressive dimensions so as to enhance the visual appeal. The Maharaja entrusted the renowned press photographer B Jayachandran, photo-editorMalayala Manorama, with this onerous task.
    It was Arunacahalam Pillai who brought photopidikkunna ynatram or the first-ever camera to Travancore in 1850. Obviously he took the photographs of the Maharaja. The oldest photograph in the collection was of Ayilayam Tirunal Maharaja (1832-1880) with this wife, taken by the reputed photographers from Calcutta, Bourne and Shepherd. This happens to be one among the priceless collection titled ‘Album of Cartes de visite portraits of Indian rulers and notables’ by Zachariah Curzon..

    Successive maharajas had taken interest in commissioning a photographer. Sree Mulam Tirunal appointed William D’ Cruz (D Cruz Junior) as the palace photographer. His collections were compiled by George Nathaniel Curzon who was the Under Secretary of the State (1895-98) and more familiar to us as Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India during the turn of the 19th century.
    1. Anizham Tirunal Marthanda Varma 1729–1758
    2. Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma (Dharma Raja) 1758–1798
    3. Balarama Varma 1798–1810
    4. Gowri Lakshmi Bayi 1810–1815 (Queen from 1810–1813 and Regent Queen from 1813–1815)
    5. Gowri Parvati Bayi (Regent) 1815–1829
    6. Swathi Thirunal Rama Varma 1829–1846
    7. Uthradom Thirunal Marthanda Varma 1846–1860
    8. Ayilyam Thirunal Rama Varma 1860–1880
    9. Visakham Thirunal Rama Varma 1880–1885
    10. Sree Moolam Thirunal Rama Varma 1885–1924
    11. Sethu Lakshmi Bayi (Regent) 1924–1931
    12. Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma 1931–1947

    Dewans (Prime Ministers) of Travancore

    musings from Antique Origins:-http://muralirvarma.blogspot.in/2009/05/paolino-bartolomeo-and-karthika-tirunal.html
    NamePortraitTook officeLeft officeTerm[17]
    T. Madhava RaoMadhava Rao.jpg185718721
    A. Seshayya SastriSeshayya sastri.jpg187218771
    Nanoo Pillai
    187718801
    V. RamiengarV. Ramiengar.jpg188018871
    T. Rama RaoT. Rama Rao.jpg188718921
    S. Shungrasoobyer
    189218981
    K. Krishnaswamy RaoK. Krishnaswamy Rao.jpg189819041
    V. P. Madhava RaoV. P. Madhava Rao.jpg190419061
    S. Gopalachari
    190619071
    P. Rajagopalachari
    190719141
    M. Krishnan Nair
    191419201
    T. Raghavaiya
    192019251
    M. E. WattsMEWatts.jpg192519291
    V. S. Subramanya IyerVSSubramanyaIyer.jpg192919321
    T. Austin
    193219341
    Muhammad HabibullahMuhammadHabibullah.jpg193419361
    C. P. Ramaswami IyerSirCP.JPG193619471

    An early attempt at energy conservation: This 1940 photo shows the chief minister of Travancore princely state in southern India 
    C. P. Ramaswami Iyer  test-riding a bus fueled by charcoal gas. This innovation was expected to considerably reduce the consumption of petrol.
    COAL GAS BUS OF 1940
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    OLD TRAVANCORE MEASUREMENTS:-

    [1]Nirapara[onepara=10 edangazhi=10 kilo]
    NAAZHI IS THE SMALL MEASUREMENT ON LEFT OF BOX

    EDANGAZHI IS THE BIGGER MEASUREMENT ON RIGHT OF BOX
    1 EDANGAZHI=4 NAAZHI= ROUGHLY 1 KILO
    PARA IS THE BIG ROUND VESSEL AT THE BOTTOM OF THE TABLE
    1 PARA =10 EDANGAZHI= 10 KILOS
    so naazhi was equal to 1/4 kilo
    naazhi was subdivided into:- uri naazhi= 1/2 naazhi
    moozhak naazhi=3/4 naazhi
    uzhak naazhi=1/4 naazhi
    aaazhak naazhi=1/8 naazhi
    naavuzhak naazhi=1/16 naazhi


    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    [2]IMPERIAL ENGLISH measurement of distance:-
    12 inch=1 foot/
    3 feet= 1yard/
    220 yard=1 furlong/
    8 furlongs=1 mile/
    2yards=1 fathom(6 feet)
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    Another way of measuring :-SURVEYOR's chain
    [3] MAINLY FOR LAND MEASUREMENT

    1 CHAIN=100 LINKS=66 FEET =22 YARDS
    I ACRE = 10 SQUARE CHAINS
    80 CHAINS= 1 MILE
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    [4] BRITISH MEASUREMENT FOR WEIGHT :-
    16 DRACMS=1 OUNCE
    16 OUNCE =1 POUND
    14 POUNDS = 1 STONE
    2 STONE = 1 QUARTER
    4 QUARTER= 1 HUNDRED WEIGHT
    20 HUNDRED WEIGHT = 1 TON

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    Commodity weight:-

    20 CWT = 1 Ton avoirdupoi = 40 Bushell = 160 Stones
    4 Stones = 1 Bushell = 56 Pound
    1 hundredweight (cwt) = 112 Pounds = 2 Bushell + 8 Stones
    14 Pounds avoirdupois = 1 Stone avoirdupois
    16 Ounces avoirdupois = 1 Pound avoirdupois
    Conversion
    1 Ounce avoirdupois = 28.349523 grams approx.
    1 Pound avoirdupois = 453.59237 grams
    1 Ton avoirdupois = 2240 pounds avoirdupois
    Weight of 1 Barley corn = 64.79891 milligrams
    One Troy Ounce = 31.1034768 grams
    3.75 Troy ounce = 10 Tola---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Length:-
    In 1950s, Mile and Furlong were common markers on the roads in India.
    Minimum length = 1 Inch
    1 Foot = 12"
    1 Yard = 3 Feet
    1 Furlong = 660 feet
    1 Mile = 1,760 yards, or 5,280 feet
    1 Mile = 8 Furlong
    1 Chain = 22 yard
    1 Acre = (1 Chain) x (1 Furlong)
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Conversion

    1" = Span of 6 Barley corns side by side by thickness, It really does not work.
    1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
    1 Foot = 30.48 cm
    1 Yard = 0.914 meter
    1 Mile = 1.61 Kilometer
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    FOR FLUIDS,PETROL
    [5]1 CUP=16 TABLE SPOON=48 TEASPOONS=8 FLUID OUNCE
    1 GALLON=4 QUARTS=8 PINTS=16 CUPS=3.78 LITER
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    [6]TROY MEASUREMENT FOR GOLD
    I TROY POUND = 12 TROY OUNCE=480 GRAINS OF GOLD
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------[7]Length MEASUREMENT
    • 10 koaN= 1 nuNNaNu
    • 10 nuNNaNU= 1 aNu(atom)
    • 8 aNu= 1 kathirtthugaL
    • 8 kathirtthugaL= 1 thusumbu
    • 8 thusumbu= 1 mayirnuni
    • 8 mayirnuni= 1 nuNmaNal
    • 8 nuNmaNal= 1 siRu-kadugu
    • 8 siRu-kadugu= 1 eL
    • 8 eL= 1 nel
    • 8 nel= 1 viral= 8^8 aNu(atom)= 1.9444 centimetre
    • 12 viral= 1 saaN= 100 immi= 23.3333 centimetre
    • 2 saaN= 1 muzham= 46.6666 centimetre
    • 2 muzham= 1 kajam
    • 4 muzham= 1 paagam
    • 625 paagam= 1 kaadham= 1166.66 metre
    • [8]The weight system for gold
    • 1 nenmani = 1 visa thukkam
      4 nenmani = 1 kunni (rati) kuru

    • The Manjadi weighs actually between 4.1-5.3 grains
    • 2 Kunri = 1 manjadi
      2 manjadi = 1 panathukkam
      10 panathukkam = 1 kazhanchi (kalanju)
    The nenmani is ‘rice in the husk’ or nellu.
    The kalanju is the fever nut, Molucca bean

    Tola (unit):-The tola formed the base for units of mass under the British Indian system, and was also the standard measure of gold and silver bullion:-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tola_(unit)

    Current Conversion Standard

    In 1956, For metric conversion, Government of India defined the Seer as follows:
    One Seer = 0.93310 kilogram exact
    The UN (1966) set One Seer = 2.057 pounds on average. This is approximately 2 pounds and One ounce
    1 Maund = 40 Seer = 100 Troy Pounds Exact
    1 Seer = 80 Tola
    1 Tola = 11.66375 gram

    view of Pathayam
    [MOST HOUSES HAD ONE AS A STATUS SYMBOL]
    WHERE RICE WAS STORED
    [WHEAT WAS UNKNOWN THEN]
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    A PIGEON HOUSE NEAR THE GATE WAS FASHION 1940'S
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    MANY KERALA HOUSES HAD WOODEN GATES ,WITH THE HEAD OF A LION ,ON EITHER SIDE, OVER PILLAR OF THE GATE
    [SIMILAR TO BELOW PHOTOS ;ON EITHER SIDE OF THE GATE ;FROM THE PUBLIC ROAD ROAD]


    MANY HOUSE FRONT ENTRANCES (MAINLY CHRISTIAN ) HAD HEADS OF WILD ANIMALS ;PROMINENTLY SHOWN AT THE ENTRANCE ;AGAIN A SHOW OFF FOR OTHERS TO SEE ; THAT THE OWNER OF THE HOUSE IS A GREAT HUNTER!

    Hunting was free and killing wild animals were neither banned;nor it was considered as destruction of nature in 1950.Many evenings and some morning walks;hunting gun was carried by many ,to kill any wild animal or bird which he saw.

    The worries about destruction of nature;pollution, THE AWARENESS ABOUT ENVIRONMENT , PRESERVATION OF FLORA AND Fauna etccame much later in 1980's

    Tiger Shoot on River Chambal - 1952

    Tiger-Shoot-on-river-Chambal-1952


    From left: Shri Jai Narain Vyas Chief Minister of Rajasthan, M.K.Brijraj Singh of Kotah, Maharani Gayatri Devi of Jaipur, Maharaja Man Singh of Jaipur


    senior rani of Baroda kingdom with a tiger shot

    FILM:-hunting with the help of cheetah


    RAHU KALAM-click and read

    http://pazhayathu.blogspot.com/2009/10/prisoner-of-ones-beliefs-in-good-time.html

    AVOIDING THE RAHU KALAM BEFORE STARTING TRAVEL OR WORK
    RAHU KALAM
    7:30 - 9:00 - MONDAY
    9:00 - 10:30 -SATURDAY
    10:30 - 12:00 - FRIDAY
    12:00 - 1:30 -WEDNESDAY
    1:30 - 3:00 - THURSDAY
    3:00 - 4:30- TUESDAY
    4:30 - 6:00-Sunday
    ASSUMING THE SUNRISE IS AT 6:00 AM

    ANCIENT TIME CALCULATION -
    Prahar[It is also called Yaam.]
    Prahar is a part of the day.
    Eight Prahar make one day and night -
    four Prahar in the day and four Prahar in the night.
    So one Prahar can be taken as equal to three hours.

    Migration

    A large migration moved many Syrian Christians from Central Kerala to Malabar regions; termed as Malabar Migration. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of Mappilas(muslims) numbering between 3 and 4 million people have left Kerala to seek employment in the Middle East, especially in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Omen, Bahrain

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    water pump 1950http://youtu.be/Sjtyjfay0HI

    ->the birth of the radio age-1920sFIRST RADIO-MADE FROM CRYSTALhttp://youtu.be/Bg9PUF7Tx4A

    http://youtu.be/5JcdzOFZIhw

    1952 AMI D-40 Jukebox - Play a 45

    http://youtu.be/U7Byab_Wips


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    more old pictures of kerala:-http://pazhayathu.blogspot.com/2011/12/more-old-pictures-of-kerala.html


    KERALA AND CHINA 1347 AD:http://pazhayathu.blogspot.


    Below:-click and listen to music :-



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