Slavery in India ,Africa,America{&,ANCIENT ROMAN AND EGYPTIAN EMPIRES}

Lake scenery near Colombo (Slave Island).




Photographer: Fiebig, Frederick
Medium: Photographic print
Date: 1852

Photograph by Frederick Fiebig from an album of 70 handcoloured salt prints, of Slave Island in Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Fiebig, of German origins, was active in Calcutta as an artist and lithographer in the 1840s. Little is known about his life, but turning to photography in the late 1840s he produced hundreds of photographs by the calotype process, frequently handcolouring them. His photographs of Ceylon, probably taken in 1852, are considered the earliest surviving photographic record of the island. Colombo, on the west coast, is the capital and commercial heart of Sri Lanka. Its artificial harbour, enclosed by breakwaters, is bounded on the south by a slight promontory which is occupied by that part of the city called the Fort, after a now non-extant fort founded by the Portuguese and reconstructed by the Dutch. To the north-east of the Fort is Colombo's fresh-water Beira Lake. The narrow isthmus between the lake and the sea is called Galle Face. The peninsula between the two arms of the lake was known as Slave Island because in the 16th and 17th centuries slaves were confined here in the night without guards as there were crocodiles in the lake. Slaves were shipped to Sri Lanka from Zanzibar in East Africa and auctioned at Slave Island. Slavery was not abolished on the island till 1845.


Alongside Buddhist Oirats, Christian Russians, non-Sunni Afghans, and the predominantly Shia Iranians, Hindu slaves were an important component of the highly active slave markets of medieval and early modern Central Asia. The all pervasive nature of slavery in this period in Central Asia is shown by the 17th century records of one Juybari Sheikh, a Naqshbandi Sufi leader, (the Sufis appear to have a representation in standard modern historical texts in India, as a very liberal, humane, tolerant and integrative interpretation of Islam) owning over 500 slaves, forty of whom were specialists in pottery production while the others were engaged in agricultural workclip_image004

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Young female slaves fetched higher market price than skilled construction slaves, sometimes by 150% Because of their identification in Muslim societies as kafirs, "non-believers", Hindus were especially in demand in the early modern Central Asian slave markets, with Indian Hindu slaves specially mentioned in waqafnamas, and archives and even being owned by Turkic pastoral groups.In September 1687, 665 slaves were exported by the English from Fort St. George, Madras. Finally, in 1694-96, when warfare once more ravaged South India, a total of 3,859 slaves were imported from Coromandel by private individuals into Ceylon
 According to Sir Henry Bartle Frere (who sat on the Viceroy's Council), there were an estimated 8,000,000 or 9,000,000 slaves in India in 1841. In Malabar, about 15% of the population were slaves

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             SLAVERY IN SOUTH AFRICA19 TH CENTURY




The real threat of invasion in 1804-5 rallied the public to the cause of King and Country, but by 1807 the dissenters were back, ending the slave trade (though not slave ownership) in the Empire with a huge petitioning campaign.
In 1830, more high prices, unemployment and continued poverty wages brought the southern counties out into open revolt, which the authorities put down with force. 19 rebels were executed with a further 200 death sentences commuted to transportation to Australia.
 In 1833 Britain outlawed slavery in all its colonies

 THE POOR PEOPLE OF ENGLAND; BEFORE IT BECAME RICH AFTER LOOTING INDIA'S WEALTH


  SLAVES IN SHIP
As early as 1655,Barbados was shipping 7,787 tons of sugar back to England, and there were already 20,000 slaves on the island against 23,000 whites,
y 1700 there were 50,000 slaves on Barbados, with the white indentured labourers almost gone. By 1800 there were 70,000, and another 400,000 on Jamaica.Excusing British slavery by pointing to the social mores of the time is by no means an adequate response.
In the century and a half of the slave trade, from the 1650s to 1807, between three and four million Africans were transported out of their homelands to the New World 
in British ships”,

The slaves were denied every last vestige of their humanity by traders, their private parts inspected closely for signs of yaws prior to purchase, their breast our shoulder then branded by the initial of the ship that would take them across the ocean. Many attempted suicide rather than face the hell of the plantation. One slave trader spoke of sharks following the ships all the way from West Africa to the Caribbean, feasting on the suicides and the corpses pitched over the side. Those who remained on board were crammed in cheek-by-jowl and chained together, malnourished, forced to fester in each other’s filth, driven slowly mad by dehydration and dysentery.
One might almost say that it was the unlucky ones who survived the “middle passage” and made it to the West Indies. One fifth of slave children born on the plantation were dead before their second birthday. If they lived to six or seven they were sent out to work. Eighty per cent of slaves worked seventy to eighty hour weeks. The work, especially in the mill and the boiling house,The slaves were denied every last vestige of their humanity by traders, their private parts inspected closely for signs of yaws prior to purchase, their breast our shoulder then branded by the initial of the ship that would take them across the ocean. Many attempted suicide rather than face the hell of the plantation. One slave trader spoke of sharks following the ships all the way from West Africa to the Caribbean, feasting on the suicides and the corpses pitched over the side. Those who remained on board were crammed in cheek-by-jowl and chained together, malnourished, forced to fester in each other’s filth, driven slowly mad by dehydration and dysentery.
One might almost say that it was the unlucky ones who survived the “middle passage” and made it to the West Indies. One fifth of slave children born on the plantation were dead before their second birthday. If they lived to six or seven they were sent out to work. Eighty per cent of slaves worked seventy to eighty hour weeks. The work, especially in the mill and the boiling house, was not only back-breaking but highly dangerous. Simply being a slave was lethal in itself, but they cost sufficiently little to purchase for their deaths not to pose a serious economic problem. Women bore a particularly harsh burden, subjected as they were to the “habitual sexual aggression” of their owners. Pregnant women were forced to continue working right up til the point of delivery. In spite of all this, the slaves resisted whenever and however they could, either in outright rebellions as in Antigua in the 1720s and 1730s and Jamaica mid-century, or in simply preserving their own cultures against all the odds. But this is another story.


 was not only back-breaking but highly dangerous. Simply being a slave was lethal in itself, but they cost sufficiently little to purchase for their deaths not to pose a serious economic problem. Women bore a particularly harsh burden, subjected as they were to the “habitual sexual aggression” of their owners. Pregnant women were forced to continue working right up til the point of delivery. In spite of all this, the slaves resisted whenever and however they could, either in outright rebellions as in Antigua in the 1720s and 1730s and Jamaica mid-century, or in simply preserving their own cultures against all the odds. But this is another story.


Britain’s single most valuable import was the sugar produced by three quarters of a million West Indian slaves, generating huge personal fortunes and general enrichment which was in turn to transform both the economy and British society. The ports of Bristol and Liverpool developed and expanded significantly as a direct result of the transatlantic trade. The great library at All Soul’s College, Oxford was built thanks to a donation from the Codmingtons of Barbados. 


The banking houses of Barclays and Lloyds grew rich, and reinvested in manufacturing.[from slavery money]


 And thenouveaux riches of the trade were now throwing their weight around in Westminster and the City of London. Their liberty, at least, had been greatly enhanced.




LIBERATING SEX SLAVES IN INDIA:-

Within hours of arriving in Mumbai, Neetu found herself in a world unlike anything she could have imagined. A world of threats and violence in dark alleys and hidden rooms filled with cramped and brutalized bodies – the world of stolen women. ‘Night was like day. Day was like night,’ recalls Neetu.
Young, fair-skinned and beautiful, Neetu is one of an estimated 12,000 girls and women that the UN’s International Labour Organization believes are trafficked every year from Nepal to work in the brothels of India’s megacities. Other agencies believe the figure to be much higher. In Mumbai alone there may be as many as 35,000 Nepali girls working in the city’s notorious red-light district, giving Nepal the dubious distinction of being the largest exporter of trafficked women in South Asia. Many are tricked into leaving their homes with the promise of a well-paid job. Some are abducted. Others are sold by their own families. In Neetu’s case, the brother and husband of one of her closest friends delivered her to the brothel. ‘They loved me so much that I never suspected foul play,’ she remembers.
A Street called Desire Mumbai Cages
Slavery To Freedom (Pakistan):-
There are million’s of slaves alive today. The majority are bonded laborers in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. Bonded labour is a contemporary from of slavery (debt bondage), where people are forced in to slavery due to debts inherited from past generations. Slavery To Freedom (Pakistan)The Open Hearts Open Minds Foundation will be working in conjunction with Ummah Welfare Trust with their project in Thar Pakar – Sindh province of Pakistan where there is an estimated 50,000 bonded labourers according to the statistics given by the Human Rights commission of Pakistan, who have consequently freed 7,500 bonded labourers since 1995.
Total cost to free one family is:- £600
This includes the following:


  • Paying debt for freedom
  • Education program
  • Clothes
  • Household utilities
  • Either a donkey cart, sewing machine etc for income generation
  • Traveling costs
  • Land for residence





 rWho were the Untouchables in India: Why They Became Untouchables? by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar- Hindu people from slavery of caste:-






By Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, January l, 1948, 1, Hardinge Avenue, New Delhi
"This book is a sequel to  treatise called The Shudras-Who they were and How they came to be the Fourth Varna of the Indo-Aryan Society which was published in 1946. Besides the Shudras, the Hindu Civilisation has produced three social classes whose existence has not received the attention it deserves. The three classes are:
(i) The Criminal Tribes who number about 20 millions or so;
(ii) The Aboriginal Tribes who number about 15 millions; and
(iii) The Untouchables who number about 50 millions."[Now untouchability  is abolished by law.names like criminal tribes etc are also removed by law]
The cost of slaveryKevin Bales, president of the nonprofit advocacy organization Free the Slaves talks with host Kai Ryssdal about why slavery continues to exist today.

RYSSDAL: Are human beings, on a relative scale over time, are human beingsexpensive today?

BALES: Oh, gosh, no. One of the most important things aboutcontemporary forms of slavery has been the absolute collapse in the price ofhuman beings in the last 50 to 60 years. And so it's a very remarkable changein human history.

If you go back to Mississippi in 1850, the average slave, a prime field hand,would cost about $1,200 to $1,500, but those are 1850 dollars, which is about$40,000 in today's money. You could go to Cambodia today and pick up a humanbeing for $100 or less.

RYSSDAL: Does it seem to you that there is more slavery now than ever?

BALES: Well, there are about 27 million people in slavery around theworld today. That's a pretty significant jump over the last 50 to 60 years.At the same, while that may be the greatest number of individuals in slaveryever in human history, it's also probably the smallest proportion of theglobal population to ever be in slavery.


slaves
African slaves

slave revolt in Haiti
                               The slave revolt in Haiti.1822
Abraham Lincoln
  president Abraham Lincoln -removed slavery from united states

child slavery

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sudan-child-soldier3.jpg
  child soldier

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 child slavery  -

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emancipation of women and abolition of 'sati'


Close to two million slaves were brought to the American South from Africa and the West Indies during the centuries of the Atlantic slave trade. Approximately 20% of the population of the American South over the years has been African American, and as late as 1900, 9 out of every 10 African Americans lived in the South. The large number of black people maintained as a labor force in the post-slavery South were not permitted to threaten the region's character as a white man's country, however. The region's ruling class dedicated itself to the overriding principle of white supremacy, and white racism became the driving force of southern race relations

Most of the cotton crop was grown on large plantations that used black slave labor, such as this one on the Mississippi River.

  ex slaves sitting in front of their cabin --1862
 

Seven African American slaves sitting in a pile of cotton in front of a gin house on the Smith Plantation, 1861-1862).

                                  Slaves of the Confederate Genl. Thomas F. Drayton, Hilton Head, S.C.

                                                  The Hermitage, slave quarters, Savannah, Ga.

 Freed slaves under Union Army guard leaving their plantations.

Ironically, although Southern politicians supported secession in order to preserve slavery, their action led instead to the end of slavery. As the war dragged on, Northern war aims gradually
shifted from preserving the Union to abolishing slavery and remaking the Union.





Slavery in the Roman Empire:-

Slaves were often very badly treated in the wealthy ancient Roman families. Slaves would be used to keep furnaces burning for the bath houses and central heating. Roman Slaves would be expected to cook, clean and do other household chores and jobs. 

In the country, Roman farms, slaves would have to do all the hard and back-breaking work needed in running a farm. 

Unfortunate Roman Slaves were used down mines to mine silver, lead, tin and gold for their masters - they might not get to see sunlight for months at a time. 

Slaves were also used inAncient Rome's galleys and in gladiatorial combats in the arena. 

Some slaves might be used as tutors for wealthy families children. Other gifted slaves might be expected to keep their masters accounts and run his investments for him. 
Even valued household slaves who were treated as part of the Roman family in many ways, were still slaves, and did not have the same rights and access to the law as aRoman Citizen. 
One of the laws that was in operation at the time of the Emperor Hadrian was if a master was murdered by a slave, then all the other slaves within hearing were executed, as well as the slave who did the dastardly deed. 

If your mother was a slave when you were born then you were also a slave. This helped the Romans maintain their number of slaves when they were not at war. 

During war time, captured prisoners were used as slaves in the Roman Empire. 
gladiators were slaves 

Spartcus Falls

The leader of the slave revolt, Spartacus, falls.
In ancient times, very few were opposed to slavery.

Spartacus and Slavery

A Roman soldier named Spartacus became an outlaw, perhaps after having deserted. For survival he joined drifters in bandit raids, and he was caught. For punishment, Roman authorities sold him as a slave. He became a prisoner at a training school for gladiator contests in the city of Capua. And there, in 73 BCE, he and seventy-seven other prisoners and slaves escaped and seized control of nearby Mount Vesuvius. As before, news of the revolt encouraged other slaves to revolt, and they joined Spartacus on Mount Vesuvius -- an army of from fifty to a hundred thousand. Thus began what historians called the Third Servile War.
The slaves on Vesuvius were too diverse for any one leader to control. Some wished to go north across the Alps and disperse. Others wished to remain in Italy and plunder. Despite their disorganization they managed to hold off the first Roman legions sent against them, which were incompetently led. Rome sent more legions, led by the talented Marcus Crassus, an ambitious aristocrat with the unostentatious manner traditionally valued among Romans. Crassus was a former slave trainer. He had amassed a great fortune, much of it by buying estates cheaply from Sulla's victims and reselling them later for a big profit. He had acquired political position by lending money to young aristocrats with political ambitions, and he had made money by operating a fire brigade in Rome that would rush to the scene of a fire and buy the property at a bargain price before agreeing to put the fire out.
The slave army broke through Crassus' lines and pushed south to the toe of the Italian peninsula, where it hoped to cross into Sicily. But the slaves were unable to buy passage or commandeer ships, and Rome's legions cornered them. To escape, the slaves scattered. Piecemeal they were defeated and captured, and, to advertise their defeat and lift the morale of Roman citizens, Crassus had them crucified along the road (the Appian way) between Capua and Rome.
After this latest slave uprising the demand for slaves declined among the Romans, largely from fear of slaves in great numbers. Landowners in Italy began replacing gangs of slaves with what they saw as an easier and less frightening alternative: freemen farming as tenants, the landlords receiving a third or more of their harvests. Slaves would still be used by the Romans, especially in workshops and as domestics. They would work as firemen, torturers for the police, laborers in the military, accountants, and guards for public buildings, but slavery had seen its peak among the Romans. With less warring abroad and a reduced supply of slaves, the price of slaves would rise and the purchase of slaves decline.

                                                           

                                                                              Ancient Egypt: Slavery:-


African slaves in ancient Egypt
African slaves in Egypt:-

 Some Egyptians were sold into slavery because of debts or sold themselves to escape poverty. As indentured slaves they did not lose all their civil rights; and sometimes the economic security they gained through their new status might seem to be worth giving up some freedoms for.
    A remnant of these customs is seen in the demotic contracts concerning security, where grasping the hand refers to the warrantor's hand being held by the creditor symbolizing the debtor giving the creditor power over his person. Debt slavery was abolished in the Late Dynastic Period.
Punishment    It has been proposed that the vizier had the right to impose perpetual forced labour on a convicted criminal, which would put him in a position of virtual slavery.
Voluntary servitu
ushabtisde-woman paid a temple to be accepted as a servantRoyal ushabti
WarCaptured soldiers belonging to the Sea Peoples    While there had been slaves in Egypt since the beginning of its history, their numbers greatly increased during the New Kingdom, when the pharaohs were committed to a policy of foreign involvement and conquests in Nubia, Canaan and Syria brought in many prisoners of war, seqer-ankh, who were enslaved, at times branded with the sign ki




I gave to them captains of archers, and chief men of the tribes, branded and made into slaves, impressed with my name; their wives and their children were made likewise.
Ramses III
 is said to have given 113,000  slaves to the temples during the course of his reign. 
By birth
    In the Roman empire the offspring of slaves inherited their parents' status
Capture
    There were apparently times when order was barely enforced and people, above all women, were abducted and enslaved. In a letter from the late New Kingdom the owner of such kidnap victims complained to the trader from whom he had purchased them, that the woman's family had come to claim her and he demanded compensation . Similar incidents happened during the Roman periods, when policing was in the hands of the Roman army instead of the professional policeforce which had come into existence in the second millennium BCE 
    Strangers were in even greater danger. According to the apocryphal story in the Bible Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers and taken abroad by the merchants [1]
The price of a slave
    Prices were affordable to the better-off householder . Iry-nofret paid the equivalent of 4 deben [3] and 1 kit of silver, (i.e. 41kit, about 370 grammes) for a Syrian girl
Amenhotep III 
ordered 40 girls from Milkilu, the Canaanite prince of Gezer, at 40 kit of silver each
The slave population:-
Thutmose III for instance is reported to have returned from a campaign in Canaan with almost 90,000 prisoners. Given the small size of armies - generally thousands rather than tens of thousands of soldiers - most of these prisoners must have been civilians
pre-dynastic period, when the belongings buried with a dead king may have included some of his servants . Such practices were unknown in historic times
Runaway slavesSlaves being property, if they tried to escape they were pursued and recaptured if possible. The reason for attempted escapes was often harsh treatment.There were apparently two options open to a runaway: one was crossing the desert in order to reach a foreign country, the other seeking asylum in a temple and becoming a temple servant:
The setting free of slaves    Sometimes slaves were set free through manumission - a practice deemed advantageous for the soul of the slave owner - and were at times even adopted by the family of their former master
Foreigners  In many countries foreigners had few rights during ancient times, and their status was at times little better than that of slaves. In Egypt resident foreigners had rights,