BRITAIN -THEN AND NOW

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Map of the British Empire 1897 (Green)[BRITAIN MADE MONEY THROUGH DRUG TRADE IN CHINA;SLAVE TRADE IN AFRICA;LOOTING IN INDIA,BUCCANEERING IN AMERICA BY PLUNDERING AND PIRACY OF SPANISH AND PORTUGESE SHIPS rich in gold and ripe for the picking with the wealth of America .but the sad news-hold on-BRITAIN IS NOW DOWN WITH $ 200 BILLION DEBT !!!!!!!!!!!]



british opium and drug trade 1840 to 1920

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British troops in the Battle of Amoy, 1841

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Boxers[CHINESE]fighting the Eight-Nation Alliance (British and Japanese soldiers depicted)
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British troops capture Chinkiang in the last major battle of the war, 21 July 1842


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Combat at Guangzhou (Canton) during the Second Opium War;

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Map of the British Empire 1897 (Green)
1839–1842, 1856–1860 CHINA
"The reception of the Diplomatique (Macartney) and his suite, at the Court of Pekin". Drawn and engraved by James Gillray, published in September 1792

the British were selling roughly 1,400 tons of opium per year to China. In March 1839

kohinoor diamond looted
from punjab 1830




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  • BRITISH EMPIRE
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    BRITISH TRADE 1500 ONWARDS


    BRITISH PIRATE -CAPTAIN KIDD



    Tudor Pirates


    This week in Tudor History, Sir Francis Drake severely damaged the Spanish fleet at the Bay of Cadiz on April 18, 1587. This event delayed the Spanish invasion of England for over a year. This event is not that well known, but it got me thinking about Sir Francis Drake and Tudor Piracy.





    File:The Signing of the Treaty of Nanking.jpg
    Signing of the Treaty of Nanking (1842).

    The Eight-Nation Alliance with their naval flags. Japanese print, 1900


    Jardine Matheson then began its transformation from a major commercial agent of the East India Company into the largest British trading hong (洋行), or firm, in Asia
    China and the Opium Wars. From left images of an advertisement for heroin, a woodcut depicting an addict seloling his wife for drugs and a heroin den.


    File:Signing of the Treaty of Tientsin-2.jpg
    Signing of the Treaty of Tientsin in 1859-06-06 after China lost the war


    • 1620s -1670s
      Rajput troops fighting for the Mughals introduce the habit of taking opium to Assam. Opium is given daily to Rajput soldiers. From 1637 onwards Opium becomes the main commodity of British trade with China.
    • 1680
      English apothecary, Thomas Sydenham, introduces Sydenham's Laudanum, a compound of opium, sherry wine and herbs. His pills along with others of the time become popular remedies for numerous ailments.
    • 1700
      The Dutch export shipments of Indian opium to China and the islands of Southeast Asia; the Dutch introduce the practice of smoking opium in a tobacco pipe to the Chinese.
    • 1729
      Chinese emperor, Yung Cheng, issues an edict prohibiting the smoking of opium and its domestic sale, except under license for use as medicine.
    • 1750
      The British East India Company assumes control of Bengal and Bihar, opium-growing districts of India. British shipping dominates the opium trade out of Calcutta to China.
    • 1753
      Linnaeus, the father of botany, first classifies the poppy, Papaver somniferum - 'sleep-inducing', in his book Genera Plantarum.
    • 1767
      The British East India Company's import of opium to China reaches a staggering two thousand chests of opium per year.
    • 1773
      East India Company assumes monopoly over all the opium produced in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. Warren Hastingsintroduces system of contracts. Contracts for dealing in opium were awarded through auction.
    • 1793
      The British East India Company establishes a monopoly on the opium trade. All poppy growers in India were forbidden to sell opium to competitor trading companies.
    • 1796
      The import of opium into China becomes a contraband trade. Silver was smuggled out to pay for smuggling opium in.
    • 1797
      East India Company introduced Bengal Regulation IV to enable appointment of Opium Agents for purchase of opium from cultivators and its processing at factories owned by the company at Patna and Ghazipur
    • 1799
      China's emperor, Kia King, bans opium completely, making trade and poppy cultivation illegal.
    • 1800
      The British Levant Company purchases nearly half of all of the opium coming out of Smyrna, Turkey strictly for importation to Europe and the United States.
    • 1803
      Friedrich Sertürner of Paderborn, Germany discovers the active ingredient of opium by dissolving it in acid then neutralizing it with ammonia. The result: alkaloids - Principium somniferum or morphine.Physicians believe that opium had finally been perfected and tamed. Morphine is lauded as "God's own medicine" for its reliability, long-lasting effects and safety.
    • 1805
      A smuggler from Boston, Massachusetts, Charles Cabot, attempts to purchase opium from the British, then smuggle it into China under the auspices of British smugglers.
    • 1812
      American John Cushing, under the employ of his uncles' business, James and Thomas H. Perkins Company of Boston, acquires his wealth from smuggling Turkish opium to Canton.
    • 1816
      John Jacob Astor of New York City joins the opium smuggling trade. His American Fur Company purchases ten tons of Turkish opium then ships the contraband item to Canton on the Macedonian. Astor would later leave the China opium trade and sell solely to England.
    • 1819
      Writer John Keats and other English literary personalities experiment with opium intended for strict recreational use - simply for the high and taken at extended, non-addictive intervals
    • 1821
      Thomas De Quincey publishes his autobiographical account of opium addiction, Confessions of an English Opium-eater.
    • 1827
      E. Merck & Company of Darmstadt, Germany, begins commercial manufacturing of morphine.
    • 1830
      The British dependence on opium for medicinal and recreational use reaches an all time high as 22,000 pounds of opium is imported from Turkey and India.Jardine-Matheson & Company of London inherit India and its opium from the British East India Company once the mandate to rule and dictate the trade policies of British India are no longer in effect.
    • 1837
      Elizabeth Barrett Browning falls under the spell of morphine. This, however, does not impede her ability to write "poetical paragraphs."
    • March 18, 1839
      Lin Tse-Hsu, imperial Chinese commissioner in charge of suppressing the opium traffic, orders all foreign traders to surrender their opium. In response, the British send expeditionary warships to the coast of China, beginning The First Opium War.
    • 1840
      New Englanders bring 24,000 pounds of opium into the United States. This catches the attention of U.S. Customs which promptly puts a duty fee on the import.
    • 1841
      The Chinese are defeated by the British in the First Opium War. Along with paying a large indemnity, Hong Kong is ceded to the British.
    • 1842
      The Treaty of Nanking between the Queen of Great Britain and the Emperor of China.
    • 1843
      Dr. Alexander Wood of Edinburgh discovers a new technique of administering morphine, injection with a syringe. He finds the effects of morphine on his patients instantaneous and three times more potent.
    • 1852
      The British arrive in lower Burma, importing large quantities of opium from India and selling it through a government-controlled opium monopoly.
    • 1856
      The British and French renew their hostilities against China in the Second Opium War. In the aftermath of the struggle, China is forced to pay another indemnity. The importation of opium is legalized.Opium production increases along the highlands of Southeast Asia.
    • 1874
      English researcher, C.R. Wright first synthesizes heroin, or diacetylmorphine, by boiling morphine over a stove.In San Francisco, smoking opium in the city limits is banned and is confined to neighboring Chinatowns and their opium dens.
    • 1878
      Britain passes the Opium Act with hopes of reducing opium consumption. Under the new regulation, the selling of opium is restricted to registered Chinese opium smokers and Indian opium eaters while the Burmese are strictly prohibited from smoking opium.
    • 1886
      The British acquire Burma's northeast region, the Shan state. Production and smuggling of opium along the lower region of Burma thrives despite British efforts to maintain a strict monopoly on the opium trade.
    • 1890
      U.S. Congress, in its earliest law-enforcement legislation on narcotics, imposes a tax on opium and morphine.Tabloids owned by William Randolph Hearst publish stories of white women being seduced by Chinese men and their opium to invoke fear of the 'Yellow Peril', disguised as an "anti-drug" campaign.
    • 1895
      Heinrich Dreser working for The Bayer Company of Elberfeld, Germany, finds that diluting morphine with acetyls produces a drug without the common morphine side effects. Bayer begins production of diacetylmorphine and coins the name "heroin." Heroin would not be introduced commercially for another three years.
    • Early 1900s
      The philanthropic Saint James Society in the U.S. mounts a campaign to supply free samples of heroin through the mail to morphine addicts who are trying give up their habits. Efforts by the British and French to control opium production in Southeast Asia are successful. Nevertheless, this Southeast region, referred to as the 'Golden Triangle', eventually becomes a major player in the profitable opium trade during the 1940s.
    • 1902
      In various medical journals, physicians discuss the side effects of using heroin as a morphine step-down cure. Several physicians would argue that their patients suffered from heroin withdrawal symptoms equal to morphine addiction.
    • 1903
      Heroin addiction rises to alarming rates.
    • 1905
      U.S. Congress bans opium.
    • 1906
      China and England finally enact a treaty restricting the Sino-Indian opium trade. Several physicians experiment with treatments for heroin addiction. Dr. Alexander Lambert and Charles B. Towns tout their popular cure as the most "advanced, effective and compassionate cure" for heroin addiction. The cure consisted of a 7 day regimen, which included a five day purge of heroin from the addict's system with doses of belladonna delirium.U.S. Congress passes the Pure Food and Drug Act requiring contents labeling on patent medicines by pharmaceutical companies. As a result, the availability of opiates and opiate consumers significantly declines.
    • 1909
      The first federal drug prohibition passes in the U.S. outlawing the importation of opium. It was passed in preparation for the Shanghai Conference, at which the US presses for legislation aimed at suppressing the sale of opium to China.
    • February 1, 1909
      The International Opium Commission convenes in Shanghai. Heading the U.S. delegation are Dr. Hamilton Wright and Episcopal Bishop Henry Brent. Both would try to convince the international delegation of the immoral and evil effects of opium.
    • 1910
      After 150 years of failed attempts to rid the country of opium, the Chinese are finally successful in convincing the British to dismantle the India-China opium trade.
    • Dec. 17, 1914
      The passage of Harrison Narcotics Act which aims to curb drug (especially cocaine but also heroin) abuse and addiction. It requires doctors, pharmacists and others who prescribed narcotics to register and pay a tax.
    • 1923
      The U.S. Treasury Department's Narcotics Division (the first federal drug agency) bans all legal narcotics sales. With the prohibition of legal venues to purchase heroin, addicts are forced to buy from illegal street dealers.
    • 1925
      In the wake of the first federal ban on opium, a thriving black market opens up in New York's Chinatown.
    • 1930s
      The majority of illegal heroin smuggled into the U.S. comes from China and is refined in Shanghai and Tietsin.
    • Early 1940s
      During World War II, opium trade routes are blocked and the flow of opium from India and Persia is cut off. Fearful of losing their opium monopoly, the French encourage Hmong farmers to expand their opium production.
    • 1945-1947
      Burma gains its independence from Britain at the end of World War II. Opium cultivation and trade flourishes in the Shan states.
    • Photograph of opium smokers from Smith, 1908




    ... This factory — “the architecture of 13,000,000 pounds of opium production,” as Ptak Science Books calls it — is part of a larger British colonial landgrab fueled, at least in part, by pursuit of the immense profits to be earned from an unrestricted drug trade. As Amitav Ghosh, in an interview about his novel, Sea of Poppies, explains, “The Ghazipur and Patna opium factories between them produced the wealth of Britain. It is astonishing to think of it but the british Empire was really founded on opium"


    Sir Francis Drake is probably the most famous English pirates of the Elizabethan Era. The Queen did not name him a pirate, however, but a "Privateer." Because the Spanish continually complained about Drake's constant attacks on their treasure ships, the Queen said that she would stop it. However, she rewarded him with a knighthood in 1581. He was second in command against the Spanish Armada in 1588.Doing a bit of research, I found a few interesting books on Drake and Tudor Piracy.
    The first I want to point out is Francis Drake: The Queen's Pirate by Harry Kelsey. According to amazon, the book discusses how "Francis Drake roamed the world under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth I. He enriched her coffers by attacking Spanish merchant ships in the Caribbean, raiding ports, looting churches, and taking a cut of the slave trade--the acts not of a military man, Harry Kelsey argues, but of a pirate, and of a cowardly one at that as he was given to fleeing at the first sign of danger, leaving his men behind. Even so, for his services Elizabeth awarded Drake a knighthood and a degree of immunity until he failed to appear at his post during a naval engagement against ships of the Spanish armada. He then lost the queen's favor and disappeared from history's stage. Drake has few champions today, certainly fewer than he did in Elizabethan times. Even then he was none too popular. This well-written revisionist biography explains why."




Sir Francis Drake

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Canton (Guangzhou), China

THE OPIUM MONOPOLY[forcible sale of opium drugs made in India to china by the British east India company]


BRITISH SLAVERY IN INDIA [1777 TILL 1914 WHEN SYNTHETIC INDIGO WERE MADE]



08 SEPTEMBER 2010 - 05H48


Book blames Churchill for Indian famine that killedmillions

AFP - British prime minister Winston Churchill deliberately let millions of Indians starve to death, the author of a new book has claimed, alleging he was motivated in part by racial hatred.
As many as three million people died in the Bengal famine of 1943 after Japan captured neighbouring Burma -- a major source of rice imports -- and British colonial rulers in India stockpiled food for soldiers and war workers.
Panic-buying of rice sent prices soaring, and distribution channels were wrecked when officials confiscated or destroyed most boats and bullock carts in Bengal to stop them falling into enemy hands if Japan invaded.
Rice suddenly became scarce in markets and, as worsening hunger spread through villages, Churchill repeatedly refused pleas for emergency food shipments.
Emaciated masses drifted into Kolkata, where eye-witnesses described men fighting over foul scraps and skeletal mothers dying in the streets as British and middle-class Indians ate large meals in their clubs or at home.
The "man-made" famine has long been one of the darkest chapters of the British Raj, but now Madhusree Mukerjee says she has uncovered evidence that Churchill was directly responsible for the appalling suffering.
Her book, "Churchill's Secret War", quotes previously unused papers that disprove his claim that no ships could be spared from the war and that show him brushing aside increasingly desperate requests from British officials in India.
Analysis of World War II cabinet meetings, forgotten ministry records and personal archives show that full grain ships from Australia were passing India on their way to the Mediterranean region, where huge stockpiles were building up.
"It wasn't a question of Churchill being inept: sending relief to Bengal was raised repeatedly and he and his close associates thwarted every effort," Mukerjee told AFP in a telephone interview.
"The United States and Australia offered to send help but couldn't because the war cabinet was not willing to release ships. And when the US offered to send grain on its own ships, that offer was not followed up by the British."
Churchill's record as a war leader against Nazi Germany has secured his place in history, but hisattitude towards Indians attracts less admiration.
"He said awful things about Indians. He told his secretary he wished they could be bombed," Mukerjee said. "He was furious with Indians because he could see America would not let British rule in India continue."
Churchill derided Indian independence leader Mahatma Gandhi as a lawyer posing as a "half-naked" holy man, and replied to British officials in India who pleaded for food supplies by asking why Gandhi had not yet died.
"I hate Indians. They are a beastly people with a beastly religion," he told Leo Amery, the secretary of state for India. Another time he accused Indians of effectively causing the famine by "breeding like rabbits."


{{In 1942 during the Second World War a Harrow-educated English man called John Amery began making Nazi propaganda broadcasts from Berlin. At 112 Eaton Square in Belgravia his family, almost certainly, would have been listening intently to the wireless. What they heard would have been more than embarrassing for any family at the time, but it was especially so for this one, John Amery’s father Leo was a school friend of Winston Churchill’s and was currently the Secretary Of State for India and Burma in Churchill’s cabinet.
After the broadcast Leo Amery immediately called Churchill who exclaimed ‘Good God. No one should be blamed for the aberrations of a grown-up son’. The next day Leo went to his lawyer to disinherit his traitorous son.}}
Leopold Amery in 1940



Amery once lost his temper after one rant by the prime minister, telling Churchill that he could not "see much difference between his outlook and Hitler's."
Amery wrote in his diary: "I am by no means sure whether on this subject of India he is really quite sane."
Mukerjee believes Churchill's views on India, where he served as a young army officer, came from his Victorian upbringing. Like his father, he saw India as the fundamental jewel in the crown of the British empire.
"Winston's racist hatred was due to his loving the empire in the way a jealous husband loves his trophy wife: he would rather destroy it than let it go," said Mukerjee.
Mukerjee's book has been hailed as a ground-breaking achievement which unearths new information despite the hundreds of volumes already written on Churchill's life.
Eminent British historian Max Hastings has described it as "significant -- and to British readers -- distressing."
Author Ramachandra Guha said it provided "for the first time, definitive evidence of how a great man?s prejudices contributed to one of the most deadly famines in modern history."
Mukerjee attributes the book's revelations to her training as a physicist.
"People suspected that something like this happened but no one really went through the evidence properly to find out what the ships were doing at the time, proving that grain could have been taken to India," she said.
"I didn't set out to target Churchill. I set out to understand the famine and I slowly discovered his part in it.