THE NAIR SOLDIERS OF TRAVANCORE AND THEIR FINAL INTEGRATION INTO MADRAS REGIMENT















The King of Cochin -1506-IN PROCESSION

1662-"Nieuhof's Audience with ye Queen of Koylang [Quilon]," from "Mr John Nieuhoff's remarkable voyages & travels into ye best provinces of ye West and East Indies", printed for Awnsham and John Churchill at the Black Swan in Pater Noster Row, London, 1703:



Description of Umayamma Rani

The Dutch representative William Van Nieuhoff describes the Rani as:
... I was introduced into her majesty's presence. She had a guard of above 700 Nair soldiers about her, all clad after the Malabar fashion; the Queens attire being no more than a piece of callicoe wrapt around her middle, the upper part of her body appearing for the most part naked, with a piece of callicoe hanging carelessly round her shoulders. Her ears, which were very long, her neck and arms were adorned with precious stones, gold rings and bracelets and her head covered with a piece of white callicoe. She was past her middle age, of a brown complexion, with black hair tied in a knot behind, but of majestick mein, she being a princess who shew'd a great deal of good conduct in the management of her affairs [15]
Umayamma Rani
Born: - Died: 1705
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Rajah Aditya Varma
Rani of Venad, Attingal Mootha Thampuran
1677-1684
Succeeded by
Rajah Ravi Varma







[NAIRS.jpg]

 [some carrying big guns on their shoulder]


File:Istanbul.Topkapi071.jpg


                       File:Wheellock pistol or 'Puffer'.jpg
king of cochi-n(on elephant) with nair soldiers

                  File:Dragon pistol.jpgFile:ArquebusClipAndColor.jpg



1708-WAR ON PEPPERCOAST{KERALA/MALABAR}A battle on the Malabar Coast ("Pepper Coast") between the Dutch East India Company and the Portutuese, with "Nairos," Dec. 1661; Dutch ships are in the background; from 'Wouter Schouten's travels into the East Indies', 2nd ed., Amsterdam, 1708






A MALABAR(KERALA) MAN AND WOMAN 1660




Velakali - South Indian Folk Dance


Velakali is a spectacular martial dance performed in a few temples of Southern Kerala by Nair warriors holding wooden swords and shields.

The dancers, clad in traditional clothes and colourful headgear of medieval Nair soldiers, engage in vigorous movements and dexterous sword play, to the accompaniment of an orchestra comprising 'Maddalam', 'Ilathalam', 'Kombu' and 'Kuzhal'.

Velakali originated in Ambalappuzha where Mathoor Panicker, a chief of the Chempakasserri army, promoted it to boost the martial spirit of the people. Velakali is a regular feature at the Ambalappuzha Sri Krishna Temple festival in Alappuzha district.



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NAIR SOLDIERS AROUND KING SWATHITHIRUNAL'S CHARIOT 1840
TRAVANCORE NAIR SOLDIERS[NAIR PADAYALIKAL] PAINTING 1850 BY SWISS ARTIST













Travancore Nair Brigade (©Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University Library)

From Kerala came the martial clans known as Nairs. This picture shows some of its members part of a Nair brigade in the service of the British, as painted by the Swiss artist Paul Aimé Vallouy (1832-1899) and part of a series of three charcoal and watercolour drawings made in 1855.


Thiruvithamkoor Nair Pattalam' (Travancore Nair Army). The Travancore army was officially referred as the Travancore Nair Brigade in 1818. In the early days, only Nairs were admitted in to this brigade. Later, the unit was expanded and several sub units were formed.Malayalam actor Mohanlal commissioned to the Madras Regiment of the Territorial Army as Lt.Colonel and his visit to the Kowdiar Palace to pay tributes to the erstwhile ruling family of Travancore has evoked considerable interest about the military past of the state.
Two Travancore infantry battalions were integrated into Madras regiment after the states merged with the Indian union and were called 9th (Travancore) and 16th (Travancore) battalions of the Madras regiment. Likewise the Cochin battalion became the 17th (Cochin) under MR.

Major-General Sri Chithira Tirunal H.H. Maharaja Bala Rama Varma of Travancore,

 GCSI, GCIE was the Col-in-Chief of Travancore State forces from 1924-1949 and of the Travancore-Cochin State Forces for the period 1949-1954


[photo taken at 'palayam' Trivandrum where the soldiers were stationed 1861]


[NAAAIR.jpg]


[NNNNNAIR.jpg]
[photo taken at 'palayam' Trivandrum where the soldiers were stationed 1861]



HEAD QUARTERS OF NAIR SOLDIERS AT TRIVANDRUM [NEXT TO KERALA LEGSL:]
















Madras Infantry, Nancowry Islands[Andaman islands] (ca. 1900)


SOLDIERS INCLUDING NAIR SOLDIERS[NAIR PATTAALAM] AROUND SWATHI THIRUNAAL MAHARAJA OF TRAVANCORE

The Nair Brigade was the army of the erstwhile kingdom of Travancore in India. Nairs were a warrior community in the region which was responsible for the security of Travancore and other local kingdoms. King Marthanda Varma's (1706 - 1758) 

 Before his death Marthanda Varma summoned his nephew and successor and gave his final instructions.to maintain above all the friendship existing between that Honourable Association (the British) and Travancore and to repose in them full confidence. They had proved more trustworthy of all the foreign forces in His opinion.



Velu Thampi's Insurrection

Velu Thampi Dalawa and the Paliath Achan, Govindan Menon, met and decided on the extirpation of the British Resident and end of British supremacy in their respective states. Velu Thampi organised recruits, strengthened forts and stored up ammunition while similar preparations was made by the Paliath Achan in Cochin. Velu Thampi applied to the Zamorin of Calicut and to the French for assistance, but both did not acknowledge the request. The plan of the Paliath Achan and Velu Thampi was to unitedly attack the Fort of Cochin and murder the British Resident Major Macaulay and Kunju Krishna Menon. Another force was appointed to attack the British garrison at Quilon. This was in the year 1807.
The Resident realised the object of the simultaneous preparations on Travancore and Cochin and immediately wrote of theMadras government for reinforcements. The British 12th Regiment and two native battalions were ordered to aid the Resident. Velu Thampi pretended great alarm at these preparations and begged permission to resign his office and retire toMalabar in the English territories. The same was agreed upon and on 28 December 1808 Velu Thampi was to be escorted toMalabar. The intention of Velu Thampi however was to divert the Resident's forces away from Cochin in which he succeeded. That night a body of armed men led by the Paliath Achan, surrounded the Residency at Bolghatty Palace and surprised the Resident, who was under the impression that the menace of Velu Thampi was finally over. The Resident and Kunju Krishna Menon however succeeded in escaping and reached Quilon. Velu Thampi ordered his troops to attack them at Quilon.
The Nair troops attacked the Subsidiary force of the British at Quilon. In spite of greater numbers, the troops were not organized and lacked communications with a leader and hence for the night on 30 December 1808 the British Indian troops under Colonel Chalmers held their ground. The Dalawa collected a force of three thousand men and again attacked the British Indian troops on 15 January 1809. The British organized their Indians armies strategically and had better artillery support enabling them to repulse the attack by the Nair warriors. The British Indian regiments in Cochin were attacked by thePaliath Achan but here too he was repulsed. In all these battles, the British were helped by treachery within the Dalawa's camp which forewarned them of the Dalawa's battle plans.
Velu Thampi then went to Kundara where he made his famous proclamation in January 1809 urging the people to fight the British. The proclamation had its effect and the whole country rose like one man against the British. This was now a desperate game being played by Velu Thampi. He exploited the religious orthodoxy of the people by making them believe the British were Christian missionaries. The proclamation even influenced the Maharajah at Trivandrum. Wholesale butchery of foreigners took place in Travancore, thereby disgracing the cause of the rebellion. The British realized that the Dalawa was now desperate.

10. Rebellion Quelled

Colonel Leger came with Indian troop reinforcements from Madras on 6 February 1809 and camped on the Aramboly pass. The Maharajah who never openly supported the rebellion, now turned against it under the influence of Ummini Thampi, who was a government official and later went on to become the Dalawa of Travancore. Together with the Maharaja's troops Col. Leger entered Travancore the next morning and attacked the lines of the Nair troops near the Palamcottah fort. The Nair troops were defeated and the Dalawa himself fled to Trivandrum. Having secured entry into Travancore the Maharajas's and British troops now moved into the interior and within a few days the two important forts of Padmanabhapuram and Udayagiri also fell into their hands. Meanwhile at Quilon where the Nair troops were planning yet another final attack heard of the fall of these forts and lost heart and dispersed to their homes. The allied army camped on the outskirts of Trivandrum in Pappanamcode.
Velu Thampi himself fled from Trivandrum to Kilimanoor where he called on the Royal family there. After staying there for the night, he proceeded northwards but was overtaken


in the Bhagvawati Temple at Mannadi

velu thambi memorial at Mannadi
Mannadi, Mannadi historical, Mannadi travel, Mannadi tourism, Mannadi Historical Place, travel to Mannadi Monument


where he was surrounded by the Maharaja's troops. However the Dalawa did not wish to be taken alive. In the temple he asked his younger brother to cut his throat, which request on being refused, he did it himself. Velu Thampi died in the Mannadi Temple. His body was brought back to Trivandrum and gibbeted on the Kannammoola hill.
His brother surrendered and was taken to Quilon and executed there. Velu Thampi's body was taken to Trivandrum and exposed on a gibbet. The man who informed the Army of the Dalawa's whereabouts received an award of Rs. 50,000 from the British. Velu Thampi's ancestral home was razed to the ground and his relatives after being flogged and banished, were taken to the Maldives when, while at Tuticorin, many of them committed suicide.
Velu Thampi failed militarily against the British Indian Army even though he commanded a well trained army armed with muskets and artillery organized on European military system with 3000 men and 18 guns. Large sections of the warrior Nair caste [which had nearly 80,000 males of conscription age in Travancore] and the common people supported the Dalawa. At the height of power, Velu Thampi, though a good administrator, was stern and tough, and thus alienated some nobles and officials of the crown. The East India Company entered in a treaty with the Maharaja of Travancore, offering their troops to ward off internal and external threats. Though this meant that the Nair army who had fought for the crown during the Third Mysore war would be disbanded, the Maharaja signed it because the treaty helped him maintain his throne, taking away a threat to his rule from future local rebellions because he could call up the English East India Compan's army to put down civil uprisings. And the Maharajah could save the money needed to maintain a standing army and this was an added incentive to his decision to sign the treaty. This treaty of Subordinate Isolation was used by the the East India Company in other princely kingdoms in India.
The Travancore army primarily consisting of Nairs who fought so well in defense of Nedumkotta against Tipu Sultan's army in 1790, was the first native force to defeat a colonial power in Asia - the Dutch East India Company in Travancore-Dutch war. The army consisted of athletic troops who had to pass a very tough selection procedure to join, and were trained in the European model of warfare by Valiakappittan DeLennoy. However, Velu Thampi himself had disbanded most of the States's Army following the mutiny against him in AD 1805. Velu Thampi may not have realized a number of his supposed friends were planning to betray him and that the Maharaja, who was notorious for his weakness of character, would not hesitate to sacrifice his former Dalawa to normalise relations with the East India Company.
Stinger Lawrence who established the Madras Army with Mohamed Ali Khan Walajan, the Nawab of Carnatic

ACCORDING TO ORAL HISTORY FROM OLDER GENERATIONS:-,   ,ABOUT NAIR SOLDIERS:-[ ORAL HISTORY  -SO 'MAY BE'' -TRUE']
 THEY HAD DIFFICULTY UNDERSTANDING ENGLISH COMMANDS OF ENGLISH OFFICERS
[NO INDIAN WAS ALLOWED TO BE AN OFFICER ; BECAUSE THE BRITISH FEARED ANOTHER REVOLT ;AS UNDER VELU THAMPY DALWA]
, LEFT- RIGHT -LEFT RIGHT , MARCH WAS ANNOUNCED IN MALAYALM LANGUAGE TO THE NAIR SOLDIERS STATIONED AT PALAYAM
 .
THE MALAYALAM LANGUAGE TRANSLATION OF LEFT RIGHT LEFT RIGHT MARCH WAS:- OLA KKAAL- SEELA KKAAL;OLA KKAAL -SEELA KKAAL
SEELA KKAAL MEANS RIGHT LEG;BECAUSE IT IS BUT NATURAL[SEELAM] FOR MOST PEOPLE TO START WALKING WITH RIGHT LEG
OLA KKAAL MEANS:- THE LEG AS PER ORDER[BRITISH OFFICER'S COMMAND]=OLA=ORDER WRITTEN ON OLA(COCONUT LEAF)= LEFT LEG 
[SO OLA KKAAL MEANS THE LEG TO BE MOVED AS PER THE ORDER ]
IT WAS DIFFICULT ,IN THE BEGINNING ,FOR NAIR SOLDIERS ,TO START MARCHING WITH THE LEFT LEG, AS THEY WERE USED TO RIGHT LEG START.

[2] THE SECOND ORDER ;TRANSLATED INTO  MALAYALM WAS :-PUT THE GUN ON SHOULDER AND MARCH
IT WAS TRANSLATED INTO MALAYALM LANGUAGE AS 'THOOKK EDUTHU THOLEL VAYY'-'[THOKK =GUN ;THOL= SHOULDER ;VAYY= PUT]
THOKK EDUTHU VEETTIL POO'[THOKK=GUN;EDUTHU=TAKE;VEETTIL =HOME=CAMP;POO=MARCH]
OLA MEANS

  ORDER- WRITTEN ON PALM LEAF MEANS ORDER OF HIGHER AUTHORITY ;IN MALAYALM ;BECAUSE ALL ORDERS WERE WRITTEN ON OLA{PALM LEAF]AS THERE WERE NO PAPER IN THOSE TIMES



coconut ola for writing

 THE ABOVE A PHOTO OF OLA[PALMLEAF] OR EZZHTU OLA MEANS OLA USED FOR EZHUTHU =WRITING ;WHICH WERE THE ONLY WRITING MATERIAL AVAILABLE IN KERALA ABOUT 150 YEARS AGO

STYLUS FOR WRITING ---[CALLED 'NARAYAM' IN MALAYALAM LANGUAGE]ON PALM LEAF KAAL MEANS LEG 
The Pazhasshi Raja 
commanding no more than 1000 men mostly armed with swords, spears and bows-arrows and a territory that was limited to present day Wynad district and Talasseri taluk of Kannur district was able to hold out against the Company's and his own uncle's troops for nearly a decade[1793-97 / 1800-1805] till he was betrayed by one of his followers.

1799



Like many insurgencies the war against the Pazhassi Raja was a brutal one, with both sides on occasion taking heavy losses.


Later accounts published in the 19th Century tend to picture the British winning battles over the various Indian forces with comparative ease.


This was often not in fact the case, and as the following news paper account makes clear the insurgents were often able to inflict heavy casualties onto the East India Company forces.


From the Whitehall Evening Post
Saturday, July 20, to Tuesday, July 23, 1799.

Authentic Particulars respecting the primary Rupture with the
COTIOTE RAJAH(PAZHASSI RAJAH OR KOTTAYAM OF MALABAR) recently received from India. Captain Bowman and Lieutenant Bond were sent with a detachment to take possession of a stronghold near Cootungarry, and were decoyed by a Hircarrah,[1] employed on the occasion, into a narrow defile, where a strong party of Nairs in ambuscade, availing themselves of the disadvantageous situation of the detachment, and their mode of attack, beset the party with a ferocity peculiarly their own, when Captain Bowman and Lieutenant Bond were almost immediately over powered and killed. Several Sepoys were also killed and wounded on the spot. Captain Lawrence, on hearing the report of the musquetry, proceeded, with all possible expedition, at the head of a body of grenadiers, towards the succour and support of Captain Bowman’s detachment: but having experienced a similar breach of faith in his guide, was also attacked in the same defile: but, after a warm and fortunate resistance, effected his retreat, and took post in a pagoda the whole night and part of the next day, hemmed in by upwards of a thousand of the Rajah’s troops.

Captain Troy, who had been employed in mustering the Native troops, and Captain Shean, on his return from a visit, fell in with a party of these sanguinary savages, who, having surrounded them, coolly and unprovokedly put the first to death, and wounded the latter in a shocking and barbarous manner. It would appear, from the foregoing circumstances that the inhuman wretches chiefly aimed at the destruction of the Officers: but particularly from their subsequent barbarity, the bodies of Capt. Troy and Lieutenant Bond having been since found decapitated; their heads, as it is supposed, having been sent to the Rajah – the copse of Captain Bowman was snatched from a similar fate of so many Officers, in being cut off from their relations and friends in this cruel and insidious manner, cannot be too much lamented, and furnishes a melancholy example of the inherent ferocity which has ever been characteristic of the cast of Nairs.

Had Velu Thampi Dalawa followed a similar guerrilla warfare in hilly terrain of Eastern Travanacore, perhaps he might have been able to hold out against the Maharaja's and East India Company's armies for years.

[HISTORY SHOWS ENGLISH RULERS TO BE MOST UNTRUSTWORTHY ,CROOKED AND RAPACIOUS IN LOOTING INDIA]


personal bodyguard was called 'Thiruvithamkoor Nair Pattalam' (Travancore Nair Army). The Travancore army was officially referred as the Travancore Nair Brigade in 1818. In the early days, only Nairs were admitted into this brigade. Later, the unit was expanded and several sub units were formed. The name Nair Brigade remained unchanged, even following the admittance of non-Nairs. The army was involved in many services during peace time. The Headquarters of the brigade was in Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum).


Madras Sappers and Miners
The Sappers and Miners, as the Engineers of the Indian Army are designated, are divided into three Corps, of which Queen Victoria's Own Madras Sappers and Miners are the senior. The Corps was originally raised in 1780 and has taken part in almost every campaign since then in which Indian troops have shared. Its battle honours before 1914 show service in Egypt, Java, China, Persia, Abyssinia and Afghanistan, as well as in India, while in the Great War its units fought in France, Egypt, Palestine, Iraq, Persia and East Africa. It is recruited entirely from the Madras Presidency. We show the Subadar-Major of the Corps in Full Dress, standing in front of Government House, Madras.

[SOME ENGLISH OFFICERS OF THE NAIR SOLDIERS-1800 ERA- ARE BURIED IN THE CSI CHURCH-NEAR PUBLIC LIBRARY,MAIN ROAD TRIVANDRUM--WHICH WAS THE CANTONMENT CHURCH FOR BRITISH SOLDIERS OF PALAYAM]

  • The area where the Travancore Brigade was settled came to be called Palayam, which means army settlement. The area is still called so, even though it has changed to a market.
  • The Muslim Cavalry soldiers of the Nair Brigade of Travancore, who had settled in Sasthamangalam and Vattiyoorkavu, built an impressive mosque in Vattiyoorkavu.
  • The famous Pazhavangadi Ganapathi Temple in Thiruvananthapuram was owned and maintained by the Travancore Brigade. This temple is now owned and maintained by the Indian Army, after the integration of Travancore Army with the Indian Forces.
  • The first group of State Forces of Cochin Kingdom was also called as the Nair Brigade in 1940.  The Brigade's name was changed in 1945 to Cochin State Forces by Kerala Varma and allowed non-Nairs also to be admitted into his army.
The total strength of Travancore Nair Army as of 1945 was 4,082 men, of which 84 were officers and 132 were JCOs. A part of this force (those within medical categorization 'A') were absorbed in to the Indian Army (Travancore - Cochin unified forces), while the remaining forces were disbanded. After the unification of Travancore and Cochin forces, Trivandrum was declared as the headquarters of the unified command. Major General V.N. Parameswaran Pillai, the GOC of the Travancore Nair army became the commandant of the unified forces. The unified force was divided in to five infantry battalions (Travancore - I, II, III and IV, Cochin I). The unification took place under Major General V.N. Parameswaran Pillai of Travancore and Lt Col G.S. Subbiah of Cochin on 20th May 1949. Finally the forces unified Travancore-Cochin forces were either disbanded or absorbed in to the Indian Army and Major General V.N. Parameswaran Pillai was allowed to retire.

9th Battalion, Madras Regiment (Travancore)

The 9th battalion of the Madras Regiment (Travancore) has completed 300 years in the service of the motherland. The battalion was raised in 1704 at Padmanabhapuram in Kalkulam taluk of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu. Padmanabhapuram was the erstwhile capital of Travancore State. Raised as personal bodyguards to the Maharaja of Travancore, the unit, though redesigned through the ages, continues to retain its individual identity with no history of disbandment or reraising.
Headquarters of the Nair Brigade of Travancore -[at palayam Trivandrum].- The building is now the Legislative Museum of Kerala
The Travancore Army completely exterminated the superior and better equipped Dutch Forces which landed at Colachal in July 1741 during the reign of Anizham Thirunal Veer Bala Marthand Varma. In the battle of Colachal, Capt Eustace De Lanoy, the Dutch Naval Forces Commander, was captured
De Lannoy's Surrender at the Battle of Colachel.
 who was asked later to train the Travancore Army.The key element of the Raja's army was his personal army, known as the Travancore Nair Brigade or locally known as the Nair Pattalam. This unit was later integrated into the Indian Army as the 9th Battalion Madras Regiment and the 16th Battalion Madras Regiment in 1954.


3RD MADRAS CAVALRY SOLDIERS
 From 1741 to 1758, Capt De Lanoy remained in command of the Travancore Forces and was involved in annexation of small principalities.DELANOY'S GRAVE IN SOUTH INDIA

De Lannoy's Tomb at Udayagiri Fort on theKanyakumari-Trivandrum highway.


De Lannoy's burial site at the tomb atUdayagiri Fort, with inscriptions in Latin and Tami

BRITISH TROOPS AT VELLORE QUELLING A RIOT 1800'S
A Jamadar of the 20th Deccan Horse
A British officer in the Madras Light Cavalry
In 1935, the Travancore State joined the Indian State Forces Scheme and the battalion was named 1st Travancore Nayar Infantry, Travancore State Forces. The unit was reorganised as an Indian State Infantry Battalion by Lt Col HS Steward who was appointed Commandant of the Travancore State Forces. In 1940, the battalion left for Padmanabhapuram and arrived at Military Station, Cannanore.
Indian infantry, from the time of the First World War.
The battalion served overseas in 1940s. In 1945, Maj Gen Parameshwaran Pillai was appointed GOC, Travancore State Forces. In the same year, the unit was asked to move to South East Asian Command. Embarked on At Taima, the unit sailed to Hong Kong. Disembarked at Kowloon Harbour, it was placed under the command of 150 Independent Infantry Brigade. While at Kowloon, the unit was assigned the task of guarding Japanese prisoners of war, airfields and docks. It also looked after the repatriation of PoWs to Japan. The unit left Hong Kong, disembarked at Madras and arrived at Trivandrum on January 31, 1947.
In April, 1951 the battalion was integrated with Indian Army and on May 1, 1954, it was merged with the Madras Regiment and was redesignated 9th Battalion of the Madras Regiment (Travancore).
 After the integration of Travancore State Force with the Indian Army, the State Forces Colours were ceremonially laid up at Chetwode Hall, Indian Military Academy, Dehra Dun in 1956.

File:Plan of Fort St George and the City of Madras 1726.jpg

Plan of Fort St. George and the city of Madras 

File:Calicut 1572.jpg
Image of Calicut, India from Georg Braunand Frans Hogenberg's atlas Civitates orbis terrarum, 1572




The then President, Mr VV Giri, presented new Colours to the battalion on May 23, 1970 at Barrack square, Wellington at a solemn ceremony. Over the years, everybody was impressed with the valiant deeds of the battalion. In fond recognition of their bravery, people started calling them terrors.

EARLY INDIAN ' SOLDIERS REDCOATS' 1759
Post Independence, the battalion served from Siachen to Andaman and Nicobar Islands and from Nagaland to Rajasthan. The battalion actively participated in the Hyderabad Police Action during 1948 and was instrumental in restoring peace and tranquility in the riot-torn region. For the first time, the unit was deployed in high altitude area in Sugar Sector in Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and occupied forward posts in inhospitable terrain during 1962 war.


Fort St George Madras codnor.info
Fort St George, Madras, on the Coromandel Coast, 1754; painting by Jan Van Ryne

South East View of Fort St George, Madras





EARLY BRITISH TRADERS IN MADRAS (CHENNAI)

During Indo-Pak war in 1965, the battalion located at Ferozpur under 65 Infantry Brigade fought the famous Battle of Barki and played a leading role in the capture of Barka-Kalan and Ichogil Bund. In this heroic action, twentyseven personnel made supreme sacrifice. The battalion was honoured with one Vir Chakra, two Sena Medals, twelve mention-in-despatches and the theatre honour Punjab. In Nagaland, the battalion conducted operations against Naga hostiles. The unit performed extremely well and was awarded one Sena Medal and two COAS commendation cards.

Artillery for use against French troops

On September 22/23, 1965, Ichhogil Bund was captured by the 9th battalion of Madras Regiment, under the command of Lt Col BK Satyan in a terrific hand-to-hand fight. The fight ended with the annihilation of approximately two Pakistani companies which attempted to re-occupy the eastern bund of Ichhogil Canal.

ion Cactus Lily during 1971 war. The battalion, deployed under 330 Infantry Brigade at Barmer, captured Mahendro Ro Par and Fateh Ro Par on Gadra City-Umraokot axis. It remained deployed at Naya Chor till the announcement of ceasefire on December 17, 1971. During this operation, it suffered ten casualties. In another operation, during 1971 war, Capt Gopa Kumar Raman Pillai was awarded Vir Chakra.
The battalion served in Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1990 to 1994 where it had the opportunity to undertake anti-poaching operations in conjunction with Navy and the Air Force. The unit was awarded one Vishisht Seva Medal and four GOC-in-C Southern Command commendation cards during these operations. The battalion served in Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1990 to 1994 where it had the opportunity to undertake anti-poaching operations in conjunction with Navy and the Air Force. The unit was awarded one Vishisht Seva Medal and four GOC-in-C Southern Command commendation cards during these operations.
During operation Rakshak, the battalion conducted counter-insurgency operations in Bhadarwah and Rajouri Sectors. It neutralised more than 35 militants and captured a large quantity of weapons, ammunition and explosives including SAM missiles, UMGs and a sniper rifle. Maj Sajjan Singh Gahalawat and three ORs made supreme sacrifice during these operations. The unit was awarded two Shaurya Chakra, three Sena Medals, two COAS commendation cards and two GOC-in-C commendation cards.
While participating in operation Meghdoot, the unit served at the world's highest battlefield from 2000 to 2002. It occupied Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) in Siachen. During this operation, the battalion suffered two casualties due to adverse weather conditions. During operation Parakram, the unit was operationally deployed at Turtuk, Baramulla, Handanbrog, Dras and Kargil.
Widely known as the Terrors in the regiment, 9 Madras (Travancore) concluded their tercentenary celebrations "somewhere in the Western Sector" in June 2004. With 300 glorious years of service to the nation, the regiment has ravelled a long way from being the Personal Bodyguards of the Maharaja of Travancore to one of the finest units of Indian
Army. They have the rare distinction of retaining their identity throughout as they have never been disbanded.he Madras Regimental Centre.


The soldiers of the Madras Regiment 

 The practice of carrying standards

Sepoy Officer, 1757

The martyrs of the paltan were paid homage during the solemn ceremonial parade led b
y Maj Gen VDI Devavaram, Colonel of the Madras Regiment. The wreath laying was followed by a special sainik sammelan where all ranks were addressed by the Colonel of the Regiment, previous Commanding Officers and the present Commanding Officer. The Colonel of the Regiment emphasised that the troops have to work two hundred per cent more than other units to maintain the present standards. He presented to the unit a silver replica of the war memorial at Colachal. The unit had defeated Dutch in 1741 at the famous Battle of Colachal. A personal representative of the Maharaja of Travancore also presented the unit with mementos from the Maharaja.


 The bagpipers of the Madras Regiment at Wellington, Nilgiris
 and a First Day cover on the occasion. Eklingarh Cantonment wore a festive look throughout the three-day celebrations which included variety entertainment programmes and exhibition of various art forms of South India.



Mother of Late Sep Bhaskaran Nair receiving Vir Chakra

 September 23, Sep Narayanan and Sep Bhaskaran of the leading platoon were found dead in a pool of blood. Sep Narayanan was within a few feet of the pill-box, presumably after throwing a grenade through the slit of the pill-box which held three Pak soldiers—a machine gunner, a light machine gunner and a rifleman with unlimited quantity of ammunition. Sep Narayanan had six bullets across his face.


MADRAS REGIMENT ---TRAVANCORE STATE FORCES WERE PART OF THIS


Crest


Madras Infantry
1758

Regimental Badge
1850

Regimental Crest
1850

Regimental Badge
1865

Regimental Crest
1865

Regimental Badge
1891


Badge 10 MADRAS
Native Infantry

Badge 20 MADRAS
Native Infantry

Badge 83 Wallajahbad
Light Infantry

Madras Regiment Crest 1865

Madras Regiment Crest

Mysore State Force1951


State Forces of Travancore & Cochin1951

Madras Regiment Crest 1942-52
  

After the Battle of Assaye (1803), the device of the Assaye Elephant was sanctioned as a special honour-badge to the 2nd, 4th, 8th, 10th and 24th Madras Infantry. The Regiment therefore claimed the Assaye Elephant as part of its Cap Badge. The present Regimental Crest consists of the Assaye Elephant surmounting a pair of Malabar swords with a shield at the crossing, and a scroll below inscribed 'THE MADRAS REGIMENT'. It is bi-metallic, the shield being in brass and the rest in white chrome. The elephant faces west as seen from the front, and has an arched back, a slightly curved trunk, tusks pointing upwards, and a sagging belly, with the tuft of the tail resting at the rear edge of its left thigh.


The 9th battalion of the Madras Regiment (Travancore) has completed 300 years in the service of the motherland. The battalion was raised in 1704 at Padmanabhapuram in Kalkulam taluk of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu. Padmanabhapuram was the erstwhile capital of Travancore State. Raised as personal bodyguards to the Maharaja of Travancore, the unit, though redesigned through the ages, continues to retain its individual identity with no history of disbandment or reraising.
The Travancore Army completely exterminated the superior and better equipped Dutch Forces which landed at Colachal in July 1741 during the reign of Anizham Thirunal Veer Bala Marthand Varma. In the battle of Colachal, Capt Eustace De Lanoy, the Dutch Naval Forces Commander, was captured who was asked later to train the Travancore Army. From 1741 to 1758, Capt De Lanoy remained in command of the Travancore Forces and was involved in annexation of small principalities.
In 1935, the Travancore State joined the Indian State Forces Scheme and the battalion was named 1st Travancore Nayar Infantry, Travancore State Forces. The unit was reorganised as an Indian State Infantry Battalion by Lt Col HS Steward who was appointed Commandant of the Travancore State Forces. In 1940, the battalion left for Padmanabhapuram and arrived at Military Station, Cannanore.
The battalion served overseas in 1940s. In 1945, Maj Gen Parameshwaran Pillai was appointed GOC, Travancore State Forces. In the same year, the unit was asked to move to South East Asian Command. Embarked on At Taima, the unit sailed to Hong Kong. Disembarked at Kowloon Harbour, it was placed under the command of 150 Independent Infantry Brigade. While at Kowloon, the unit was assigned the task of guarding Japanese prisoners of war, airfields and docks. It also looked after the repatriation of PoWs to Japan. The unit left Hong Kong, disembarked at Madras and arrived at Trivandrum on January 31, 1947.
In April, 1951 the battalion was integrated with Indian Army and on May 1, 1954, it was merged with the Madras Regiment and was redesignated 9th Battalion of the Madras Regiment (Travancore). After the integration of Travancore State Force with the Indian Army, the State Forces Colours were ceremonially laid up at Chetwode Hall, Indian Military Academy, Dehra Dun in 1956.
The then President, Mr VV Giri, presented new Colours to the battalion on May 23, 1970 at Barrack square, Wellington at a solemn ceremony. Over the years, everybody was impressed with the valiant deeds of the battalion. In fond recognition of their bravery, people started calling them terrors.
Post Independence, the battalion served from Siachen to Andaman and Nicobar Islands and from Nagaland to Rajasthan. Some of the operational achievements are highlighted below:

•  The battalion actively participated in the Hyderabad Police Action during 1948 and was instrumental in restoring peace and tranquility in the riot-torn region.


















President’s Colours being given by the then President Mr. VV Giri on May 23, 1970

•  For the first time, the unit was deployed in high altitude area in Sugar Sector in Punjab and Himachal Pradesh and occupied forward posts in inhospitable terrain during 1962 war.
•  During Indo-Pak war in 1965, the battalion located at Ferozpur under 65 Infantry Brigade fought the famous Battle of Barki and played a leading role in the capture of Barka-Kalan and Ichogil Bund. In this heroic action, twentyseven personnel made supreme sacrifice. The battalion was honoured with one Vir Chakra, two Sena Medals, twelve mention-in-despatches and the theatre honour Punjab.
•  In Nagaland, the battalion conducted operations against Naga hostiles. The unit performed extremely well and was awarded one Sena Medal and two COAS commendation cards.
•  The 9th battalion took part in operation Cactus Lily during 1971 war. The battalion, deployed under 330 Infantry Brigade at Barmer, captured Mahendro Ro Par and Fateh Ro Par on Gadra City-Umraokot axis. It remained deployed at Naya Chor till the announcement of ceasefire on December 17, 1971. During this operation, it suffered ten casualties. In another operation, during 1971 war, Capt Gopa Kumar Raman Pillai was awarded Vir Chakra.
•  The battalion served in Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1990 to 1994 where it had the opportunity to undertake anti-poaching operations in conjunction with Navy and the Air Force. The unit was awarded one Vishisht Seva Medal and four GOC-in-C Southern Command commendation cards during these operations.
•  The battalion served in Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1990 to 1994 where it had the opportunity to undertake anti-poaching operations in conjunction with Navy and the Air Force. The unit was awarded one Vishisht Seva Medal and four GOC-in-C Southern Command commendation cards during these operations.

















Before Colours laying at IMA, Dehra Dun in 1956
•  During operation Rakshak, the battalion conducted counter-insurgency operations in Bhadarwah and Rajouri Sectors. It neutralised more than 35 militants and captured a large quantity of weapons, ammunition and explosives including SAM missiles, UMGs and a sniper rifle. Maj Sajjan Singh Gahalawat and three ORs made supreme sacrifice during these operations. The unit was awarded two Shaurya Chakra, three Sena Medals, two COAS commendation cards and two GOC-in-C commendation cards.
•  While participating in operation Meghdoot, the unit served at the world’s highest battlefield from 2000 to 2002. It occupied Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL) in Siachen. During this operation, the battalion suffered two casualties due to adverse weather conditions.
•  During operation Parakram, the unit was operationally deployed at Turtuk, Baramulla, Handanbrog, Dras and Kargil.


TIPU DEFEATED TWICE BY TRAVANCORE NAIR SOLDIERS 1790A.D.:-[Marthanda Varma (Anizham Thirunal) (Malayalam: മാര്‍ത്താണ്ഡ വര്‍മ്മ), (1706–1758) was the Maharajah of the Indian princely state of Travancore from 1729 till his death in 1758, having succeeded his maternal uncle Rajah Rama Varma. He is credited as the "maker of modern Travancore";from kanyakumari northwards to cochi kingdom].






TIPU'S INVASION OF TRAVANCORE
Travancore had an alliance (Treaty of Mangalore) with the English Company according to which "an aggression against Travancore would be viewed as equivalent to declaration of war against the English"

Kingdom of Travancore
Part of History of Kerala
Flag of Travancore
Travancore Kings
Marthanda Varma1729–1758
Dharma Raja1758–1798
Balarama Varma1798–1810
Gowri Lakshmi Bayi1810–1815
Gowri Parvati Bayi1815–1829
Swathi Thirunal1829–1846
Uthram Thirunal1846–1860
Ayilyam Thirunal1860–1880
Visakham Thirunal1880–1885
Moolam Thirunal1885–1924
Sethu Lakshmi Bayi1924–1931
Chithira Thirunal1931–1949
‡ Regent Queens
Capitals
Padmanabhapuram1729–1795
Thiruvananthapuram1795–1949
Palaces
Padmanabhapuram Palace
Kilimanoor palace
Kuthira Malika
Kowdiar Palace

 The Dutch who were afraid of Tipu also agreed to transfer the Kodungallur Fort to Travancore, mainly as a strategy to involve the more powerful British in case of war with Travancore on that account. Since Cochin was considered a tributary to Mysore,

 Tipu objected to the transfer of Kodungallur Fort

Relics of Cranganore Fort



Nair soldier,an old picture   


which was part of Cochin territory before its occupation by the Dutch. Therefore, Tipu Sultan demanded of Travancore to (i) allow free access to Kodungallur because the Travancore defence line had stretched and passed through Cochin territory, and (ii) surrender all Hindu Rajas and nobles from Malabar who had taken refuge in Travancore.

Dharma Raja Of Travancore


raja kesavadas
But the demand was rejected. That was his pretext for waging a war against the Travancore State. In the meantime, the Cochin Raja, who was under the guidance and protection of the weak Dutch, openly shook off his tributary links with Tipu and aligned with Travancore after the firm offer of support and protection by the British. It may be noted here that Tipu never fought against the British in Kerala.

 He fought only against the Hindu Rajas. His hostilities against the British were stepped up only when his ally, the French, waged wars against the British in Europe or his own kingdom was threatened.

TIPU CRIPPLED AND DEFEATED
The Travancore Raja replied to Tipu explaining that he did what he did as per the advice of the British . That provoked Tipu. He launched an attack against Travancore but was defeated in January, 1790. According to Mr. Powney who was the Resident Representative of the English Company in Travancore, Tipu's attack was not only effectively stopped by the Travancore army, Tipu himself fell down from the rampart, was seriously wounded, and was rendered permanently lame during the counter-attack by the Travancore forces.

Tipu and his army were camping on the banks of the Alwaye river before launching the attack on the Travancore defence lines (Nedunkotta Fort).
(Nedunkotta Fort).
The relics of the entrance of travancore lines-


 The Travancore army was no match for the huge Mysore army and the monsoon season was four or five months away. 

Therefore, under the guidance of Raja Kesavadas, the Prime Minister of Travancore, a temporary bund was constructed way up on the stream by a team headed by Kalikutty Nair.

 When the Mysore army launched its assault and Nedunkotta was penetrated, the temporary bund was breached in the midst of heavy fighting, causing an unexpected flood which drowned many Mysore soldiers and rendered the gunpowder wet and useless. The result was panic and confusion in the Mysore army. The triumphant Nair forces of Travancore inflicted heavy casualties on the- invading army. But the valiant Kalikutty Nair was also drowned in the sudden surge of water and became a martyr.

That was the first time, January 1, 1790, when Tipu Sultan tasted a humiliating defeat.

 It is recorded in Travancore history and also confirmed by the local folklore that as the wounded Tipu was lying unconscious in the battlefield he was rescued by a Nair soldier who quietly carried the unconscious Sultan to the Mysore military camp during the night and left quickly  The brave Nair soldier could have easily killed the unconscious Tipu as many Muslims have done to a Hindu in similar circumstances.

According to authentic historical records, the Nair forces of Travancore attacked the Mysore army which was crossing the defence fortification, and inflicted heavy casualties on it. The sudden and unexpected attack made the Mysore Army panicky, and in the confusion Tipu Sultan fell down from the ramparts of the fort into the ditch below along with his palanquin. 

The fall made him permanently lame. Later on, the Travancore forces recovered from the ditch the sword, the pallanquin, the dagger, the ring and many other personal effects of Tipu and presented them to the Dharma Raja. Some of Tipu's personal weapons and ornaments were sent to the Nawab of Arcot on his request (Travancore History by P. Sankunny Menon, published by Kerala Bhasha Institute, Trivandrum, pp. 191-92).

Sultan Bathery derives its present name from Tipu Sultan of Mysore who used the abandoned Jain temple here and used it as his battery hence the name Sultan's Battery.



TIPU'S SECOND DEFEAT
Tipu retreated and sent for reinforcements from Coimbatore and Srirangapatanam. He also "recalled all his Muslim troops despatched earlier to different parts of South Malabar  . 

After regrouping and reinforcing his army, Tipu mounted another attack in March 1790 in order to demolish the Travancore defence line. He reached upto Veropally (Varapuzha) near Alwaye. 




Meanwhile, following firm assurance of support and protection by the English Company who had by this time extended their military power and political influence to the entire West Coast and South India, some of the important Malabar Rajas such as

 Pazhassi Raja,

Pazhassi Raja
Prince Regent of Kottayam

Pazhassi Raja - an artist's view on a laterite wall
Reign1774 - 1805



Kolathiri Raja and Kadathanad Raja, returned to their respective kingdoms and asserted their independence from Mysore suzerainty.

 The Cochin Raja shook off his tributary link with Mysore. The Zamorin and the Palghat Raja were promised help by the British in their opposition to the Mysore Sultan, with the promise of restoring their lost territories to them after the defeat of Tipu.

 All the Hindu Rajas and nobles had thus joined hands with the British against the war efforts of Tipu mainly because of his Islamic atrocities against the Hindus in Kerala. Revolt against the Mysore occupation forces broke out all over Malabar and spread to Coorg with the return of the chieftains to their respective areas.

 Before the end of 1790, the British captured Palghat Fort and secured the communication channel from Coimbatore to the West Coast for assisting the Travancore forces against the Mysore army.

By the time Tipu Sultan launched his second attack and demolished parts of Nedungotta in May 1790, heavy monsoon rains caused the Alwaye river to flood the countryside. Since the Mysore army was not accustomed to fighting during rainy season, it was easy for the Travancore army to defeat Tipu's army.

That was the second defeat Tipu suffered near Alwaye in 1790.

In the meantime, Lord Cornwallis, the Governor General,

 himself assumed the command of the British forces and pushed forward towards Srirangapatanam, headquarters of Tipu Sultan. Simultaneously, the Maratha and the Nizam's forces also advanced from different directions. The final assault was mounted and Srirangapatanam surrounded in January-February 1791 by a combined army consisting of the British, Maratha and the Nizam's forces. Tipu Sultan, who-rushed to Srirangapatanam, abandoning his military operations against Travancore, was forced to sign a treaty in 1792 ceding the entire West Coast and half of his other possessions to the Allies, thus relieving the Hindus of Kerala from further Islamic brutalities.

ROLE OF THE BRITISH
It may be noted here that the Maharaja of Travancore had kept the British Governor of Madras informed about the political developments and the imminent military operations of Tipu Sultan against Travancore. 

But the then Governor of Madras, Mr. Holland, in spite of the obligations under the Treaty of Mangalore, specifically instructed the British contingents sent to the Travancore borders, not to assist the Travancore forces in case of war. When the Governor General, Lord Cornwallis, heard about Travancore's victory over Tipu's forces, he assumed at first that it was due to the active assistance rendered by the English Company. But later on, he came to know about the dubious actions and the corrupt character of Mr. Holland. The Governor of Madras was believed to be in the pay of Tipu Sultan. So he was relieved of his responsibilities and Lord Cornwallis himself assumed command of the Madras Army.

 The military operations against Srirangapatanam culminated in Tipu's surrender and the Treaty of Srirangapatanam signed in 1792. But as far as Tipu's defeat and humiliation on the borders of Travancore were concerned, the British played no role; the entire credit for the victory goes to the strategy of Raja Kesava Das and the valiant soldiers of the Travancore army.

MAP OF MALABAR KINGDOMS AT THE TIME OF TIPU'S INVASION:-


The British not only did not keep their solemn promise to the Malabar kings and chieftains, but also insisted that Travancore should pay heavily for the British "help".


Many members of the royal families of Malabar who migrated to Travancore State preferred to stay back even after the withdrawal of Tipu's army and restoration of peace, because of their nightmarish experience and the peculiar psyche of the forcibly converted Muslim population in Malabar. The prominent royal families were (1) Neerazhi Kovilakam, (2) Gramathil Kottaram, (3) Paliyakkara, (4) Nedumparampu, (5) Chempra Madham, (6) Ananthapuram Kottaram, (7) Ezhimatoor Palace, (8) Aranmula Kottaram, (9) Varanathu Kovilakam, (10) Mavelikkara, (11) Ennakkadu, (12) Murikkoyikkal Palace, (13) Mariappilly, (14) Koratti Swaroopam, (15) Kaippuzha Kovilakam, (16) Lakshmipuram Palace, and (17) Kottapuram.


                                              END OF TIPU'S  DYNASTY:-







CLICK AND READ:- TRAVANCORE WAR WITH TIPU SULTAN OF MYSORE ;TIPU DEFEATED TWICE BY TRAVANCORE NAIR SOLDIERS 1790A.D.:-http://pazhayathu.blogspot.com/2011/09/travancore-war-with-tipu-sultan-of.html