STORY OF COMPUTERS

The earliest counting devices known to man were his own hands and fingers.
 If that wasn't enough, things in nature were used

 like shells,


Stock photo : Stone Count

 twigs, pebbles, stones, and so forth. It is a good idea to think about the history of arithmetic, mathematics, writing and recorded information. Man's invention of the computer resulted from man's need to quantify, to count and to do mathematic calculations. Long before the computer, in the Roman Empire, Ancient Asia, and other parts of the World, man was inventing easier and faster ways of counting and calculating.



Ancient Times:-


Chinese abacus (counting board)circa 1200 A.D
picture of a Chinese abacus

The Salamis tablet was no pocket calculator: a marble slab measuring 150 x 75 x 4.5 cm. (59 x 29,5 x 1,7 in.) and weighing 130 kg. (286 lb.), it was used in Babylon as early as 300 BC. As an object, the tablet has the extreme simplicity of the raw material: a stone piece with etched elements, it was originally thought of as a gaming board. Gaming is, after all, counting. The tablet’s two sets of grooves –and spaces in-between them- are used in conjunction with pebbles or beads, and the symbols in the periphery, to create a well-determined system that allowed users to consistently perform the four basic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The Salamis tablet offered rigor and permanence to the important act of counting. The selection of durable and monolithic marble and the effort of etching a system in it to allow for the same process to take place over and over again,

salamis tablet (300 b.c.)from Greek island of salamis





abaci from ancient times


The Middle Ages:-

abaci from the middle ages

Modern Times:-

modern
abaci
 Early 1600s, William Oughtred, an English clergyman, invented the slide rule
Slide rule

















    • Early example of an analog computer.
  • The Pascaline. Invented by Blaise Pascal (1623-62).

Blaise Pascal
Pascaline (front view)

Pascaline (rear view)


Pascaline
One of the first mechanical computing machines, around 1642.


Although attempts to multiply mechanically were made by
 Gottfried Liebnitz
 in the 1670s the first true multiplying calculator appears in Germany shortly before the American Revolution.

The Reckoner (reconstruction)

Leibniz's Step Reckoner.

In 1801 a Frenchman, Joseph-Marie Jacquard

 builds a loom that weaves by reading punched holes stored on small sheets of hardwood. These plates are then inserted into the loom which reads (retrieves) the pattern and creates(process) the weave. Powered by water, this "machine" came 140 years before the development of the modern computer.

Analytical EngineJoseph-Marie Jacquard
Joseph Marie Jacquard's loom.--calculator 1820 1812 there By 1812 there were 11 000 looms in use. 11 000 looms in use.By 1812 there were 11 000 looms in use.
Jacquard's punched card loom
Designed during the 1830s
Parts remarkably similar to modern-day computers.
The "store"
The "mill"
Punch cards.
Punch card idea picked up by Babbage from Joseph Marie Jacquard's (1752-1834) loom.

Shortly after the first mass-produced calculator(1820),

 Charles Babbage 

Charles Babbage
begins his lifelong quest for a programmable machine.
Difference Engine

Working model created in 1822.


 Although Babbage was a poor communicator and record-keeper, his difference engine is sufficiently developed
 by 1842  that Ada Lovelace uses it to mechanically translate a short written work. 

She is generally regarded as the first programmer
Agusta Ada Byron
Augusta Ada Byron (1815-52)

 to mechanically translate a short written work. She is generally regarded as the first programmer.

 Twelve years later George Boole, recognized as the father of computer science.

 Birth: 2 Nov 1815 
Date of Death: 8 Dec 1864 John Boole was a shoe maker, but was more interested in math, and science. He was particularliy interested in how math was used to make scientific instruments.Boole was offered the position of the chair of mathematics at Queens College, Cork in 1849. In August, 1849, it was announced that Boole would become the first professor of mathematics at Queens College, Cork. In 1851, he was appointed as Dean of Science. came from poverty, but still pursued an education – teaching himself when he had to. His career was halted, as he assumed the responsibility of taking care of his parents and siblings, but he pursued his dreams.

while professor of Mathematics at Cork University, writes An Investigation of the Laws of Thought(1854), and is generally recognized as the father of computer science.


C. The Electromechanical Age: 1840 - 1940.


The Beginnings of Telecommunication.
  1. Voltaic Battery.












    • Late 18th century.
  2. Telegraph.












    • Early 1800s.
  3. Morse Code.












    • Developed in1835 by Samuel Morse
    • Dots and dashes.
  4. Telephone and Radio.












    • History of the telephone














    1. Followed by the discovery that electrical waves travel through space and can produce an effect far from the point at which they originated.
    2. These two events led to the invention of the radio











      • Guglielmo Marconi
      • 1894
  1. Electromechanical Computing
    1. Herman Hollerith and IBM.
      Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) in 1880.
Herman Hollerith

Holleritch's machine
Census Machine.

Hollerith's machine, detail.

Early punch cards.
Punch card workers.
Punch card workers.1890
IBM logoIBM [Its first logo]
Mark 1
Mark 1.COMPUTER [Paper tape stored data and program instructions.]

Mark 1 paper tape (detail)

 The Electronic Age: 1940 - Present.

ENIAC - Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer

ENIAC (rear view)
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC)1940Used vacuum tubes (not mechanical devices) to do its calculations.1946
The First Stored-Program Computer(s):-

Manchester University Mark I

The Manchester University Mark I (prototype).1948
EDVAC

The First General-Purpose Computer for Commercial Use: Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC).:-
UNIVAC
1951
The Four Generations of Digital Computing.:-
Vacuum tubes

Transistors

The Second Generation (1959-1963) Vacuum tubes replaced by transistors as main logic element.

The Third Generation (1964-1979):-Individual transistors were replaced by integrated circuits.

Computer chip

Chip, one 1/100 of inch
Typical mainframe computer set-up circa 1967

The Fourth Generation (1979- Present).Large-scale and very large-scale integrated circuits (LSIs and VLSICs)
Apple Mac 1984