SOUND OF SILENCE AT GHOST TOWN OF DHANUSHKODI-The town that disappeared- DESTROYED BY SUPER CYCLONE TIDAL WAVE 1964

Dhanushkodi was just another port town with a population of around 25,000.
A super cyclone with a wind velocity of 270km/hr crashed into Dhanushkodi on the night of 22-23 December 1964.All structures and dwelling houses were blown up in the storm and marooned.About 1800 people died BY 20 FEET TIDAL WAVES
.On December 22nd at 23.55 hours while entering Dhanushkodi railway station the train no.653 Pamban Dhanushkodi Passenger which left Pamban with 110 passengers and 5 railway staff was hit by the cyclonic storm and high tidal waves and the whole train got submerged under water killing all 115 on the spot

Types of Disturbances
Associated wind speed in the Circulation
1. Low Pressure Area
2. Depression
3. Deep Depression
4. Cyclonic Storm
5. Severe Cyclonic Storm
6. Very Severe Cyclonic Storm
7. Super Cyclonic Storm
Less than 17 knots ( < 31 kmph)
17 to 27 knots ( 31 to 49 kmph)
28 to 33 knots ( 50 to 61 kmph)
34 to 47 knots ( 62 to 88 kmph)
48 to 63 knots ( 89 to 118 kmph)
64 to 119 knots ( 119 to 221 kmph)
120 knots and above ( 222 kmph and above)

File:Adams bridge map.png






Dhanushkodi
Location of Dhanushkodi
in Tamil Nadu and India
Coordinates9°09′07″N 79°26′45″ECoordinates: 9°09′07″N 79°26′45″E
CountryIndia
StateTamil Nadu
District(s)Ramanathapuram
Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30)
Area

0 metres (0 ft)


File:Dhan11.jpg
DESTROYED RAILWAY BRIDGE DUE TO SUPER CYCLONE [270 KM/HR WIND]


NEW AND OLD PAMPAN BRIDGE
All dwelling houses in Dhanushkodi were blown to pieces in the storm and marooned.Pamban bridge was washed away by the high tidal waves in this disaster."The buildings that braved the fateful day still exist partly buried in the sand and partly weathered by the sea adding a mysterious beauty to the place.



DESTROYED CHURCH DHANUSHKODI

RUINED RAILWAY STATION

The destroyed railway track


Danushkodi 1964


Pictured here is what remained of an Indian narrow gauge train which was swept away as it crossed from Raneswaren Island to the mainland. All 128 passengers and crew were killed in the upturned and totally destroyed carriages.


Devastating cyclone of 1964 has left behind such ruined structures at the once flourishing port town and religious place - Dhanushkodi in Tamil Nadu. According to Indian mythology, the island place had a bridge or 'sethu' constructed by the monkey warriors of Hindu Lord Rama to reach Lanka.
RUINS OF THE TOWN

ANOTHER PHOTO OF THE GHOST TOWN




WRECKED FISHING BOAT
The Government of Madras declared the town as Ghost town and unfit for living after the storm, now a small group of fisher folk resides there. For reaching the village one has to go in a four wheel drive or in a fish cart.




All that remains of Dhanushkodi town

REMAINS OF WEALTHY TOWNSHIP



The remains of a School
This was a school


Dhanushkodi




Dhanuskodi



Dhanuskodi



Dhanuskodi



Map of Pamban Island before the cyclone-- Prior to the cyclone, the town had been an important commercial centre with a railway station, a customs office, post and telegraphs office, two medical institutions, one railway hospital, a panchayat union dispensary, a higher elementary school and port offices.[8] A port had been functioning since 1 March 1914.[8]A dilapidated church, parts of the railway track and the Puduroad railway station and the ruins of a Vinayaka temple are all that remain of the town.

Adam's bridge as seen from the air
Adam's Bridge (Tamil: ஆதாம் பாலம் āthām pālam), also known as Rama's Bridge orRama Setu (Tamil: இராமர் பாலம் Rāmar pālam, Sanskrit: रामसेतु, rāmasetu), is a chain of limestone shoals, between Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram Island, off the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and Mannar Island, off the northwestern coast ofSri Lanka. Geological evidence suggests that this bridge is a former land connection between India and Sri Lanka.

The bridge is 18 miles (30 km) long and separates the Gulf of Mannar (southwest) from thePalk Strait (northeast). Some of the sandbanks are dry and the sea in the area is very shallow, being only 3 ft to 30 ft (1 m to 10 m) deep in places, which hinders navigation It was reportedly passable on foot up to the 15th century until storms deepened the channel: temple records seem to say that Rama’s Bridge was completely above sea level until it broke in a cyclone in 1480 CE.
Studies have variously described the structure as a chain of shoals, coral reefs, a ridge formed in the region owing to thinning of the earth's crust, a double tombolo, a sand spit, or barrier islands. It has been reported that this bridge was formerly the world's largest tombolo before it was split into a chain of shoals by the rise in mean sea level few thousand years ago
Another theory affirms that the origin and linearity of the Adam's bridge may be due to the old shoreline – implying that the two landmasses of India and Sri Lanka were once connected – from where coral reefs evolved.
Geological Survey of India (GSI) carried out a special programme called “Project Rameswaram” that concluded that age data of corals indicate that the Rameswaram island has evolved since 125,000 years ago. Radiocarbon dating of samples in this study suggests that the domain between Rameswaram and Talaimannar may have thus been exposed sometime between 18,000 and 7,000 years ago.Thermoluminescence dating by GSI concludes that the sand dunes of Dhanushkodi to Adam's bridge started forming only about 500–600 years ago

NASA satellite photo: India on top, Sri Lanka at the bottom of the photo




Tombolo near Karystos, Euboea, Greece
Trainride on the pamban bridge-OLD DESTROYED BRIDGE CAN BE SEEN IN SEEN


Pamban Bridge

Pamban Road and Rail Bridge
Official nameAnnai Indira Gandhi Bridge
Carries2 lanes of road traffic
CrossesPalk Strait
LocaleRameshwaram, Tamilnadu, India

Ferry service from pier to Dhanushkodi Talaimannar (Ceylon).

Boat leaves soon after 4pm. Time taken is about 3 ½ hours.

No steamer service on Sunday night.



Source: www.slrfc.org [OLD PHOTO]

Dhanushkodi Pier dep. 12:05
Pamban arr 12:49 dep. 12:55
Mandapam arr 13:34 dep. 13:45
Manamadurai arr 16:13 dep. 16:33
Trichinopoly arr 20:40 dep. 21:38
Tanjore arr 22:26 dep. 22:40
Chidambaram arr 01:14 dep. 01:19
Madras Egmore arr 07:25


In 1898, the South Indian Railway ran a Madras - Tuticorin service
that connected with the boat to Ceylon.

This took 21 hours and 50 minutes for the run 443 miles (709km).

The steamer from Tuticorin to Colombo took 22 hours.


Source: www.irfca.org


The Dhanushkodi pier with the ship and sea at the background.[OLD PHOTO BEFORE CYCLONE 1964]

A ferry service linked Dhanushkodi in India with Talaimannar in Sri Lanka. The service was part of the Indo-Ceylon Railway service during the British Rule. One could buy a railway ticket fromChennai to Colombo, whereby people traveled by rail from Chennai to Pamban island, go by ferry to Talaimannar, and then go again by rail to Colombo. in 1964, a cyclone completely destroyed Dhanushkodi, a train about to enter the station, the tracks and the pier and heavily damaged the shores of Palk Bay and Palk Strait
Dhanushkodi was not rebuilt and the train then finished at Rameswaram. There was a small ferry service from there to Talaimannar, but it has been suspended around 1982 because of the fighting between Sri Lankan government forces and the separatist LTTE.

DHANSHKODI ISLAND PHOTO FROM AIR


S.S.San Francisco Xavier

The Steamers
The first steam-ship was built by John Stevens and Robert Fulton. It was launched on the Hudson river in 1807, and given the name "Clermont". It plied between New York and Albany. The hull of the ship in those days was made of wood and later iron was used. The first iron-hulled steamboat, "Aaron Manly" was built in Britain in 1822. Steam boats were first used to carry passengers on the Thames in 1815. Tugs, little tramps, freighter, oil tanker and luxury liners are the types of steam ships.
The scale sectional model of the steamer "S.S. San Francisco Xavier" built by the Green Oak Grangemont Dockyard , Scotland, is exhibited here.

Model of S.S. Irwin- Ship
This is model of the ship, "S.S. Irwin" which was plying between Dhanushkodi and Talaimannar Pier. The ship was built in 1929 and put on service in the year 1930. The tonnage of the ship is 970.11 gross and 377.39 registered. The overall length and breadth are 259 feet and 38 feet respectively. Its passenger carrying capacity in fair and rough weather is 1552 and 1045 respectively. The normal speed of this is approximately 10 knots.
This model was presented to this museum by Southern Railway.
Side view of S.S.Irwin
Top view of S.S.Irwin



A typical M class steam locomotive in use in the 1930's and 40's.

witness to history: A view of the Pamban bridge, one of the oldest sea bridges in the world.

this link to Sri Lanka was cut off on December 22, 1964, when a cyclone destroyed the railway system beyond Rameswaram. The turbulent sea and high tides also had their impact on the Pamban bridge. On the fateful night, Train No. 653 Pamban-Dhanushkodi passenger left Pamban at 11.55 p.m. with 110 passengers, including a group of school students, on board.
A few metres ahead of Dhanushkodi, the signal failed. With pitch darkness around and no indication of the signal being restored , the driver blew a long whistle and decided to take the risk.
Minutes after the train started rolling along the sea, a huge wave smashed it submerging all the six coaches under deep water. The tragedy that left no survivors came to light only after 48 hours when the railway headquarters issued a bulletin based on the information given by Marine Superintendent, Mandapam.

List of longest bridges above water in India


NameSpanningLength
metres (feet)
Completed
/Opened
TrafficState
Bandra-Worli Sea LinkMahim Bay5,600 m (18,400 ft)2009RoadMaharashtra
Mahatma Gandhi SetuGanges5,575 m (18,291 ft)1982RoadBihar
Vikramshila SetuGanges4,700 m (15,400 ft)2001RoadBihar
Vembanad Rail BridgeVembanad Lake4,620 m (15,160 ft)2011RailKerala
Nehru Setu Son River3,064 m (10,052 ft)1900RailBihar
Jawahar SetuSon River3,061 m (10,043 ft)1965RoadBihar
Kolia Bhomora SetuBrahmaputra River3,015 m (9,892 ft)1987RoadAssam
Godavari BridgeGodavari River2,754 m (9,035 ft)1970Rail-cum-roadAndhra Pradesh
Old Godavari Bridge
Now decommissioned
Godavari River2,754 m (9,035 ft)1900RailAndhra Pradesh
Godavari Arch BridgeGodavari River2,745 m (9,006 ft)1997/2003RailAndhra Pradesh
Pamban BridgePalk Strait2,300 m (7,500 ft)1988RoadTamilnadu
Naranarayana BridgeBrahmaputra River2,284 m (7,493 ft)1998Rail-cum-roadAssam
Farakka Barrage Ganges2,240 m (7,350 ft)1975Rail-cum-roadWest Bengal
Second Mahanadi Rail BridgeMahanadi River2,100 m (6,900 ft)2008RailOrissa
Pamban BridgePalk Strait2,065 m (6,775 ft)1913RailTamilnadu
Sharavathi BridgeSharavathi River2,060 m (6,760 ft)1994RailKarnataka
Rajendra SetuGanges2,000 m (6,600 ft)1959Rail-cum- roadBihar
Vashi BridgeThane Creek1,837 m (6,027 ft)1997RoadMaharashtra
Saraighat BridgeBrahmaputra River1,492 m (4,895 ft)1962Rail-cum-roadAssam
Koilwar Bridge Son River1,440 m (4,720 ft)1862Rail-cum-roadBihar
Mahanadi Bridge
near Bhootmundei
Mahanadi River1,400 m (4,600 ft)1961RoadOrissa
Second Narmada Bridge
near Bharuch
Narmada River1,365 m (4,478 ft)2000RoadGujarat
Prakasam BarrageKrishna River1,224 m (4,016 ft)1885RoadAndhra Pradesh
Sharavathi BridgeSharavathi River1,048 m (3,438 ft)?RoadKarnataka
Airoli BridgeThane Creek1,030 m (3,380 ft)1999RoadMaharashtra
Vivekananda SetuHooghly River900 m (3,000 ft)1932Rail-cum-roadWest Bengal
Nivedita SetuHooghly River880 m (2,890 ft)2007RoadWest Bengal
Vidyasagar SetuHooghly River822 m (2,697 ft)1992RoadWest Bengal
Yamuna Bridge
at Kalpi
Yamuna River767 m (2,516 ft)?RoadUttar Pradesh
Jajmau BridgeGanges River720 m (2,360 ft)2011RoadUttar Pradesh
Howrah BridgeHooghly River705 m (2,313 ft)1943RoadWest Bengal
Garmukteswar Bridge Yamuna River671 m (2,201 ft)1901Rail-cum-RoadUttar Pradesh
Lav Kush Barrage Ganges River621 m (2,037 ft)2000RoadUttar Pradesh
Naini Bridge[28]Yamuna River610 m (2,000 ft)2005RoadUttar Pradesh


E. Sreedharan

started his career as a Probationary Assistant Engineer in the Southern Railways. He also worked at the Bombay Port Trust as a trainee for one year.

In 1963, E. Sreedharan was put in-charge of the rebuilding of the Pamban Bridge, because a tidal wave carried away the part of the bridge that connected Rameshwaram with Tamil Nadu. He completed the construction of the bridge in only forty-six days though he was given six months to do the same. This achievement was admired quite a lot.

He was the Managing Director and Chairman of the Cochin Ship Yard and he was the one who commissioned Rani Padmini, the first ship built by the yard
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