Letter of surrender signed by Manuel António Vassalo e Silva to Kunhiraman Palat Candeth signifying the official surrender of Goa from Portuguese Rule
The armed action, codenamed Operation Vijay by Indian government, involved air, sea and land strikes for over 36 hours, and was a decisive victory for India, ending 451 years of Portuguese colonial rule in Goa. Thirty-four Indians and thirty-one Portuguese were killed in the fighting. The brief war drew a mixture of worldwide praise and condemnation. In India, the action was seen as a liberation of historically Indian territory, while Portugal viewed it as aggression against a long-held colonial possession.
Indian troops enter Goa
Portuguese Soldiers Surrendering to Indian Army
Indian troops are greeted by crowds of Goans as they march through the streets of Panjim, shortly after the
The Indian Chief of Army Staff, Gen. Pran Thapar (far right) with deposed Governor General of Portuguese India Manuel António Vassalo e Silva (seated centre) at a POW facility in Vasco Da Gama, Goa
The official Portuguese surrender was conducted in a formal ceremony held at 2030 hours on the 19th of December when Governor General Manuel António Vassalo e Silva signed the instrument of surrender bringing to an end 451 years of Portuguese Rule in Goa. In all, 4668 personnel were taken prisoner by the Indians - a figure which included military and civilian personnel, Portuguese, Africans and Goan.
Upon the surrender of the Portuguese governor general, Goa, Daman and Diu was declared a federally administered Union Territory placed directly under the President of India, and Maj. Gen. K. P. Candeth was appointed as its military governor. The war had lasted two days. India lost 34 killed and 51 wounded. Portugal lost 31 killed, 57 wounded, and 4668 captured.
On 18 December, even as Indian forces were rolling into Goa, a special emergency session of the United Nations Security Council was convened at the request of the Portuguese Government. At the meeting, called to consider the Indian invasion of Portuguese territories in Goa, Daman and Diu, Adlai Stevenson, the US representative to the UN, criticized the Indian military action. He then submitted a draft resolution that called for a cease fire, a withdrawal of all Indian forces from Goa, and the resumption of negotiations. This resolution was co-sponsored by France, UK and Turkey, but failed after the Soviet Union, India’s long time cold war ally, exercised its veto.
Upon receiving news of the fall of Goa, the Portuguese government formally severed all diplomatic links with India and refused to recognize the incorporation of the seized territories into the Indian Republic. An offer of Portuguese citizenship was instead made to all Goan natives who wished to emigrate to Portugal than remain under Indian rule.
Relations between India and Portugal thawed only in 1974, when, following a military coup d'état and the fall of the authoritarian corporatist rule in Lisbon, Goa was finally recognised as part of India, and steps were taken to re-establish diplomatic relations with India. In 1992, Portuguese President Mário Soares became the first Portuguese head of state to visit Goa after its annexation by India. This followed Indian President R. Venkataraman’s visit to Portugal in 1990.
Following their surrender, the Portuguese soldiers were interned by the Indian Army ,The captivity lasted for six months
Ex- governor Manuel António Vassalo e Silva was greeted with a hostile reception when he returned to Portugal. He was subsequently court martialed for failing to follow orders, expelled from the military and was sent into exile. He returned to Portugal only in 1974, after the fall of the regime,
In an article titled "India, The Aggressor", The New York Times on 19 December 1961, stated "With his invasion of Goa Prime Minister Nehru has done irreparable damage to India's good name and to the principles of international morality
Nikita Khrushchev, the de facto Soviet leader, telegraphed Nehru stating that there was "unanimous acclaim" from every Soviet citizen for "Friendly India"
China neither condemned nor applauded the invasion, it was enjoying cordial relations with India, although theSino-Indian War would begin only months later
A Canberra PR.9 taking off. The Indian Air Force used the small and lightweight Canberra bombers.
A 1954 attempt by unarmed protesters to storm Goa and liberate it was suppressed by the Portuguese.
The Portuguese Governor general Vassalo da Silva surrendered.
portuguese and colonial TROOPS INSIDE BASILICA BOM JESUS 1961
i n s vikrant TOOK PART IN THE WAR
THE LAST PORTUGUESE TROOPS FLYING OUT
19TH DECEMBER 1961GOA CELEBRATES FREEDOM AFTER 450 YEARS OF PORTUGUESE RULE