HISTORY OF ANCIENT ,ROMAN, trade with kerala ;Before christ[B.C]ANDAFTER[A.D]

Pliny famously remarked upon the drain of gold from Rome in 79 CE, and large quantities of Roman coins have been found in excavations in southern India

COIN OF AUGUSTUS CAESAR FOUND AT PUDUKOTTAI -TAMIL NADU
                                    [MONTH OF AUGUST IS NAMED AFTER AUGUSTUS CAESAR]
                                    GOLD COIN OF JULIUS CAESAR OF ROMAN EMPIRE(50 BC)
[MONTH OF JULY IS NAMED AFTER JULIUS CAESAR]

                                 A slashed  COIN OF Roman  EMPERORAureus of Augustus(SOUTH INDIA)

                                                        
                                            ROMAN EMPEROR SEPTIMUS(SOUTH INDIA)

ROMAN EMPEROR  OF BYZANTINE EMPIRE (SOUTH INDIA)
One of the earliest references to maritime trade with India is from the Bible:-(I Kings 9:28) which states that King Solomon collaborated with King Hiram of Tyre/Sidon, and built a fleet at Elath and Eziongeher (or Ezion-geber). Manned by Phoenician sailors, it sailed to Ophir
In 950 BC Jewish people arrive in India in King Solomon’s merchant fleet. Later Jewish colonies find India a tolerant home


We are told that a shipwrecked Indian sailor was discovered, half-dead, by coast guards on the Red Sea, and was brought to the Egyptian King Physkon (also known as Physcon or Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II) during
118 BC.
                                                           king ptolemy(physcon of egypt 118 BC
The sailor said he was the sole survivor of a ship that had sailed from India.The sailor promised to guide any of the King’s navigators on a voyage to India . So a Greek sailor, Eudoxus of Kyzicus (himself an envoy from Greece to Ptolemy VIII), was appointed to that mission.Poseidonius recounted two direct journeys to India.

The first in 118 BC, guided by the Indian sailor, proved successful.rom Berenice Harbor to Muziris below Calicut took 70 days.
Eudoxus returned with a cargo of aromatics and precious stones.Ptolemy VIII promptly confiscated the cargo.The second, under the sole guidance of Eudoxus, occurred in 116 BC,





Roman trade with India MAP





Peryplus of the Erythraean sea (Ist century CE)

map of roman trade

Emperor Augustus of Rome at Antioch knew of the Pandyan of Dramira and received a Pandyan ambassador with letters and gifts from this ancient Tamil Kingdom. Strabo described an ambassador to emperor Augustus Caesar from a South Indian King called Pandyan. The country of the Pandyas, Pandi Mandala, was


                                                             Emperor Augustus of Roman empire

described as Pandyan Mediterranea by Periplus and Madura Regia Pandyan by Ptolemy

                        
       ANCIENT PORT OF MUZIRIS(MUCHIRI) [SAME AS PRESENT DAY TOWN OF KODUNGALLOOR] KERALA.


THE MAP SHOWS A ROMAN TEMPLE NEAR THE HARBOUR OF MUZIRIS[KERALA]

According to the Periplus, numerous Greek seamen managed an intense trade with Muziris;abounds in ships sent there with cargoes from Arabia, and by the Greeks; it is located on a river, distant from Tyndis by river and sea five hundred stadia, and up the river from the shore twenty stadia"
ANCIENT PORT OF  Arikamedu:-
 excavations between 1944 and 1949 showed that it was "a trading station to which goods of Roman manufacture were imported during the first half of the 1st century AD
 in TAMIL NADU a centre of  trade (now part of ARIYANKUPPAM, about 2 miles from the modern PONDICHERRY

                                                                        Roman gold and silver



coins unearthed around the Palayur-Kodungallur-Parur belt at Eyyal (1945) and Valuvally (1984) Shown above are some gold coins of Tiberius Caesar, Nero and from these collections
By the first century of A.D., Greek and Roman merchants were trading with India as a matter of course, as confirmed by finds of Roman coins and pottery at Indian sites.By that time, too, trade with southern Arabia, India and China—the three key exporters in a complex network—appeared as a growing threat to the Roman economy.
The gold and silver of the empire was draining to the east
to pay for unnecessary luxuries. “And by the lowest reckoning India, China and the Arabian Peninsula take from our empire
100 million sesterces every year—that is the sum which our luxuries and our women cost us,” wrote Pliny
in a famous passage. He returns again and again to the theme. It became a commonplace in the literature of the time to contrast the “manly” austerity of the past with the “effeminate” luxury of the present, to view Rome as emasculated by spices, aromatics, perfumes, Indian muslins and Chinese silk. In fact, 100 million sesterces was not a particularly large sum: Pliny’s nephew, Pliny the Younger, left more than three million sesterces in his will, and he was not considered particularly wealthy.

Greek traders:-
 sold or exchanged Italian and Greek wine, copper, tin, lead, coral, cloth, glass, storax and antimony for ivory, bdellium gum, onyx, myrrh, woven and unwoven silk, “mallow cloth” pepper, cardamom, turmeric



                                        ROMAN GOLD COINS DUG OUT RECENTLY:-


Obverse and reverse of the Iyyal Roman gold
coins of                                                                 Tiberius
(r.figure of clemency seated),
                                                                             Claudius (r.winged figure of Victory standing),
Nero (r.a cereal wreath),                                        Nero (r.sacerdotal objects),
and                                                                        Trajan (r.seated female figure).
The Iyyal hoard consists of the following coins: Republican period (126-86 B. C.) 4 denarii Octavian (44-31 B.C.)
12 ”                                                                        Octavian from Gaul (29-27 B. C.) 1
”                                                                              Augusts (Rome 17, Gaul 15, 36
” Ephesus 1, Pergamum 3)                                        Tiberius 6 ” 8 aureii Claudius (A.D.41-54) 4

Roman coins found in India date from second/first centuries BC to the fifth century AD and there are nearly 170 recorded finds spread over 130 sites, with a concentration in the Krishna valley in Andhra and the Coimbatore region in Tamilnadu
after the death of the Roman Emperor Caracalla in 217 C.E., the Roman Empire almost collapsed, as did its international trade





:-http://pazhayathu.blogspot.in/2009/03/roman-empire-soldierssettlements-in.html



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TAXATION IN THE ANCIENT WORLDhttp://www.centralexciseaurangabad.gov.in/htmldocs/ter/ancienthistory.html