kerala's undressed dress sense of 1950 due to poverty and caste system [IT REMAINED A MYSTERY TO ORDINARY MAN IN KERALA:-WHY WHITE MAN SHIT INTO A CLEAN ENAMEL CUP??? AND DIRTY IT??!!]


[ kerala had the most cruel and rigid caste system in India. From 800 AD onwards the elite Hindu caste - the Namboodiris - held control. People of low castes were banned from public markets and had to go NAKED above the waist - regardless of gender. The Namboodiris considered themselves polluted if they as much as saw someone of low caste a hundred metres away and could punish them by death. ]

IT WAS COMMON TO SEE WOMEN IN 1950 MALABAR; DOING AGRICULTURAL WORK IN FIELD WITH JUST A LUNGI OR WHITE MUNDU AND NO CLOTHS ABOVE ,MEANS HALF NAKED



1970 KERALA -PHOTO -TRIVANDRUM WELCOME TO INDIRA GANDHI- PLEASE NOTE THAT -WEARING PANTS/TROUSERS/JEANS NOT YET A FASHION FOR MEN [NOW IT IS A FASHION FOR WOMEN ALSO] WEARING OF CHAPPALS- FOR FEET- WAS GETTING POPULAR AFTER 1955 ,BEFORE THAT ALL WALKED BARE FEET ,EXCEPT A FEW GOVT OFFICERS .
ALSO THERE WAS A LOT OF POVERTY :-
due to poverty many or most could not have a proper dress ,or afford to have chappals/slipons /or shoe etc
some very poor men just could afford to have just a "konam"(in malayalam ) langotti(in hindi) loin cloth(in english)











loin cloth

and used to walk with that on road and it was not noticed by any one;once i saw such a scene in kayamkulam town of late 1940's

later in life while travelling from kerala to Bombay on the then newly made highway in 1972 was surprised to see men walking on the deserted highway wearing , just that __a 'konam'- north of uduppi town near karwar town '

And i have seen topless women,both young and old working on fields as agriculture labour in Malabar 1960's;which was the fashion then among some agriculture workers,in malabar

school dress:-[ A TYPICAL SCHOOL "UNIFORM"MEANS NO UNIFORM ,NO SHOES,NO SOCKS,UPTO AND INCLUDING SCHOOL FINAL CLASS-11TH CLASS]


MOST STUDENTS OF 1950 TO 1970 ATTENDED COLLEGE WITH WHITE MUNDU AND SHIRT AND MOSTLY NO SHOES OR EVEN CHAPPEL-
THOSE DAYS WEARING PANTS WAS NOT YET FASHIONABLE !! AND MANY STUDENTS WERE TOO POOR TO BUY THAT

there was no school uniforms in any school of 1950
children were allowed to use whatever dress they could afford and attend the school
children were allowed to use the same dress for home and school ,means any type of dress of any color ;
naturally due to poverty children used to attend school without shoes or any type of foot wear
i myself attended my school classes with just bare feet ,walking all the way from home[NO SCHOOL BUSES THEN;WHILE THE CITY BUS SERVICE STARTED MANY YEARS LATER] ,could remember once i used the same off white pyjama to sleep and absentmindedly used it in school also with out anybody noticing it at all;

shoes:-(1950)

shoes were worn by Anglo Indians mainly .also a few upper class officers and some anglicanised christian(means those malayali Christians who adopted English man's dress) and a very few Hindu families

in fact nobody used pants or trousers except the above mentioned category of people ;
if any body used pant and shoe;he was thought to be an angloindian; and HE WAS CALLED A "COPPA"





means a person who uses a cup shaped shit pot[flush out] made from the same material as from which a tea cup is made!! and only angloindians and white men used flush pot for shitting;those days .[IT REMAINED A MYSTERY TO ORDINARY MAN IN KERALA:-WHY WHITE MAN SHIT INTO A CLEAN ENAMEL CUP??? AND DIRTY IT??!!]

LATER WHEN MY RELATIVES FROM AN INTERIOR VILLAGE OF KERALA ARRIVED TO STAY WITH US ;IT WAS A SURPRISE FOR THEM TO SEE THE" COPPA" IN OUR TOILET.THEIR FIRST QUESTION WAS HOW TO USE IT?WHY YOU USE IT? WHY YOU DON'T HAVE THE REGULAR TOILET WHERE SCAVENGERS TAKE AWAY THE NIGHT SOIL? FINALLY THEY CUT SHORT THEIR VISIT FOR A DAY AND LEFT BECAUSE THEY COULD NOT GET ADJUSTED TO THE 'COPPA"







Because at that time 1950 kerala people used to shitting on road side;and shitting into temporary dug pits, and "Thoottis"(Malayalam)bhangi(Hindi)(scavenger)a man usually from the most BACKward in the caste system; used to come in the morning with a bucket and blade to carry away the" night soil"(shit)!! and most people of kerala were happy with that system !!

woman carrying night soil(shit)in china




in fact i can remember it was difficult to walk on streets in the morning ;because the sides were full of shit !!

kerala has improved tremendously now from all that .now most people use flushout system and nobody shit on roads
naturally people using pant and shoe are not called COPPA now because all use COPPA(flushout) to shit now adays!! and most use pants and shoe

"Thootti "caste along with their thotti(bucket) disappeared for good in half century

and angloindians are also disappearing slowly,most migrated to white man's lands


Manual Scavenging Says, ''I Am Living In The Gujarat'' (4 Pictures & Texts)

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Name : Mansukh Bhangi
Work Place : Public Toilet, Adesar, Tehsil : Rapar, District : Kutch
Date : 7-2-12, Time : 11 am (around)
Native Village Of Mansukh Bhangi : Baaspa (12 km away from Adesar)
MANUAL SCAVENGING OF SHIT-GUJERAT
MANUAL SCAVENGING OF SHIT -U.P.
MANUAL SCAVENGING OF SHIT -BIHAR