United States is not a dirty word in India. because ' pl 480 food aid ships' (1960) prevented a famine



Food for peace 1960:- president of USA, MR EISENHOWER signs

587 million bushels of wheat(39 bushels = 1 ton)

and 22 million bags of rice[100 bags - 1ton]

were given to India in just 4 years in addition to previous and later food aid over many many years
(about 15 million tons of wheat) in just 4 years

saved India

and pushed us towards prosperity













PL-480, or Public Law 480 is a law signed by President Eisenhower in 1954. It is also known as "Food for Peace" because it is the funding avenue by which US food can be used for overseas aid.



1960 india:-

Unfortunately, the country was dirt poor at the time. It did not have enough money to import all the food it needed to feed it's citizens. Consequently, food shortages were commonplace, and a "rationing" system was introduced by the government. Everyone was allotted about 4 pounds of rice, 1 pound of sugar and wee bits of other foodstuff every month. You were given a "ration card" by a government agency, and you took that card to officially sanctioned (but privately held) "ration shops". Naturally, the process was very corrupt: acquiring the ration cards was a monumental feat, the "ration shops" were seldom open, and they would run out of food very quickly when they did open. Those with plenty of time on their hands (e.g. children) were tasked with waiting outside ration shops in case they opened.

price of food was beyond the reach of ordinary man

The Indian government was doing all that it could possibly have done to mitigate ~ food hoarding was a serious crime, for instance; and the airwaves was flooded with public service announcements about staying calm. But, in the end, when supplies get tight, prices tend to skyrocket.


It is here that PL-480 came in handy. I grew up listening and reading stories about the "PL-480 ships" of america carrying rice from the United States. The passage of these ships was headline news on the airwaves ~ because their arrival would coincide with millions of people being able to eat. Magically, when the Pl-480 ships docked, the market prices for rice and wheat would ease, and the "ration shops" would open. PL-480 made the difference between food riots and dinner for everyone.


40% of the food aid under the PL-480 program between 1955 (the first year of the program) and 1973 was directed towards India.
Statistical Overview


The United States supplied more than $52 billion of food aid worldwide over the 43-year period 1954
(when PL 480 was enacted) through 1996. The annual commitment averaged $1.2 billion a year in current
dollars.
Fifty-nine percent of the food was provided under PL 480, mainly to governments. This
“program” food aid was generally sold on the open market to anyone with money.

The other 41 percent was provided under Title II, mainly to private voluntary organizations
(PVOs). Most of this “project” food aid was given, in kind, directly to the poor through regular foodfor-
work, maternal and child health, and school feeding programs.