The story of AIDS and HIV

The story of AIDS and HIV -So did it definitely come from Africa?

The first recognised cases of AIDS occurred in the USA in the early 1980s


HOW?


It is now generally accepted that HIV is a descendant of a Simian(MONKEY) Immunodeficiency Virus because certain strains of SIVs bear a very close resemblance to HIV-1 and HIV-2, the two types of AIDS VIRUS


How could HIV have crossed species?{FROM MONKEY TO MAN}


[1]The most commonly accepted theory is:- as a result of chimps being killed and eaten or their blood getting into cuts or woundsof man


[2]The Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) theory:-


In his book, The River, the journalist Edward Hooper suggests that HIV can be traced to the testing of an oral polio vaccine called Chat, given to about a million people in the Belgian Congo, Ruanda and Urundi in the late 1950s. To be reproduced, live polio vaccine needs to be cultivated in living tissue, and Hooper's belief is that Chat was grown in kidney cells taken from local chimps infected with SIVcmz


WHEN?
Dr. Anne-Mieke Vandamme, published a report:-"the virus had originated in Guinea-Bissau and that its spread was most likely precipitated by the independence war that took place in the country between 1963 and 1974 (Guinea-Bissau is a former Portuguese colony)"


So did it definitely come from Africa?:-(monkeys from Asia and South America have never been found to have SIVs that could cause HIV in humans). In May 2006, the same group of researchers concluded that the chimpanzees found in this area of africa were highly likely the origin of both the pandemic Group M of HIV-1


HIV Group N principally affects people living in South-central Cameroon


Group M, the group that has caused the worldwide pandemic, was however first identified in Kinshasa, in the Democratic Republic of Congo


Just as we do not know exactly who spread the virus from Cameroon to Kinshasa, how the virus spread from Africa to America is also not entirely clear. However, recent evidence suggests that the virus may have arrived via the Caribbean island of Haiti.


The strain had probably been brought to Haiti from Africa by a single person in around 1966; a time when many Haitians would have been returning from working in the Congo.


Genetic analysis then showed that subtype B spread slowly from person to person on the island, before being transferred to the US, again probably by a single individual, at some point between 1969 and 1972


It is possible that HIV had entered the US several times before subtype B took a firm hold (which would explain the infection of the St. Louis teenager in the early to mid-1960s


Once the virus had established itself in the gay community, in would have spread fairly rapidly (anal intercourse carries a very high transmission risk), with transmission occurring within and between the US and Haiti




What caused the epidemic to spread so suddenly?:-


[1]Both national and international travel undoubtedly had a major role in the initial spread of HIV of infected people and unprotected sex


[2]As blood transfusions became a routine part of medical practice, an industry to meet this increased demand for blood began to develop rapidly. In some countries such as the USA , donors were paid to give blood, a policy that often attracted those most desperate for cash; among them intravenous drug users. In the early stages of the epidemic, doctors were unaware of how easily HIV could be spread and blood




[3]Drug Use




CONCLUSIONS:-


the spread of AIDS could quite conceivably have been induced by a combination of many different events. Whether through injections, travel, wars, colonial practices or genetic engineering, the realities of the 20th Century .