ROMAN EMPIRE ,SOLDIERS,SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA 100B.C TO 300A.D


Ancient Roman Settlement in IndiaPDFPrintE-mail
Written by Vrndavan Parker   
 S.O. News service, Monday, 14 July 2008:

Dr. Kamath, former Director of Karnataka State Gazetteer, was speaking on “Ancient India: Overseas Connections” “There is a Roman settlement in Puducherry, established for commercial activities around 2,000 years ago. Romans had a penchant for Indian perfumes, diamonds and garments and in return, there was a constant flow of gold into India,” Dr. Kamat said

:

Quote
"India, China and the Arabian peninsula take one hundred million sesterces from our empire per annum at a conservative estimate: that is what our luxuries and women cost us. For what percentage of these imports is intended for sacrifices to the gods or the spirits of the dead?" - Pliny, Historia Naturae 12.41.84.

Image result for Pliny
Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger (/ˈplɪni/), was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome. Pliny's uncle, Pliny the Elder, helped raise and educate him.

Pliny the Younger - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pliny_the_Younger


 Pliny, the Roman historian lamented, 1800 years ago, how India, the sink of precious metals, was draining Rome of gold - an appellation that resonates even today. The early Christian saint John Of Ephesus predicted that Roman love of Indian spices (paid for in gold) will be the reason for Roman downfall.
To "manage" this drain of gold, Romans started cheating the Indians. They reduced the gold content in coins. Septimus Serverus, (193 AD-xxx) further debased the currency. Indians just stopped accepting the debased coin - and demanded payment in pure gold

Figure 1

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Roman trade with India through the overland caravan routes via Anatolia and Persia, though at a relative trickle compared to later times, antedated the southern trade route via the Red Sea and monsoons which started around the beginning of the Common Era (CE) following the reign ofAugustus and his conquest of Egypt in 30 BCE.
The route so helped enhance trade between ancient states of India (present day) and Rome, that Roman politicians are on record decrying the loss of specie to pamper Roman wives, and the southern route grew to eclipse and then totally supplant the overland trade route.

Roman trade diaspora frequented the ancient Tamil country(present day Southern India) and Sri Lanka, securing trade with the seafaring Tamil states of the Chola, Pandyan andChera dynasties and establishing trading settlements which remained long after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
From Latin literature, Rome imported Indian tigers, rhinoceros, elephants, and serpents to use for circus shows - a method employed as entertainment to prevent riots in Rome. It has been noted in the Periplus that Roman women also wore Indian pearls and used a supply of herbs, spices, pepper, lyceum, costus, sesame oil and sugar for food. Indigo was used as a color while cotton cloth was used as articles of clothing, Furthermore, India exported ebony for fashioned furniture in Rome. The Roman Empire also imported Indian lime, peach, and various other fruits for medicine. Western India, as a result, was the recipient of large amounts of Roman gold during this time.
20070524_140608_clip_image001.j.gif

Tabula Peutingeriana de kaart, Museumstukken II (edited by A.M. Gerhartl-Witteveen and P. Stuart) 1993 Museum Kam, Nijmegan, the Netherlands

(Taprobane , indicated at the bottom of the map refers to Sri Lanka) Muziris is indicated by a circle and described as a pirate prone area biy Pliny


The trade started by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 130 BCE kept increasing, and according to Strabo Image result for Strabo(II.5.12.):
Strabo
Geographer
Strabo was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Wikipedia
Image result for Eudoxus of CyzicusEudoxus of Cyzicus - Extraordinary Navigator Lost at Sea - Vagobond
Vagobond
Eudoxus of Cyzicus – Extraordinary Navigator Lost at Sea

"At any rate, when Gallus was prefect of Egypt, I accompanied him and ascended the Nile as far as Syene and the frontiers of Kingdom of Aksum(Ethiopia), and I learned that as many as one hundred and twenty vessels were sailing from Myos Hormos to India,
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
Myos Hormos
Myos Hormos was a Red Sea port constructed by the Ptolemies around the 3rd century BC. Following excavations carried out recently by David Peacock and Lucy Blue of the University of Southampton, it is ... Wikipedia


whereas formerly, under the Ptolemies, only a very few ventured to undertake the voyage and to carry on traffic in Indian merchandise."

By the time of Augustus up to 120 ships were setting sail every year from Myos Hormos to India. Image result for Augustus
Augustus
Roman emperor
Augustus was the founder of the Roman Principate and considered the first Emperor, controlling the Roman Empire from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. He was born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian Octavii family. Wikipedia
Born: 63 BC, Rome, Italy
Died: 19 August 14 AD, Nola, Italy
Full name: Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus
Spouse: Clodia Pulchra (m. 42 BC–40 BC), Scribonia (m. 40 BC–38 BC), Livia (m. 37 BC–14 AD)

So much gold was used for this trade, and apparently recycled by the 
Kushan Empire(Kushans) for their own coinage, that Pliny the Elder (NH VI.101) complained about the drain of specie to India:
italy to india route The Muziris Heritage Project  News

In India, the ports of Barbaricum (modern Karachi), Barygaza, Muziris in Kerala, Korkai,Kaveripattinam and Arikamedu on the southern tip of India were the main centers of this trade, along with Kodumanal, an inland city

AUGUSTUS CAESAR COIN FROM SOUTH INDIA
ROMAN WINE AMPHORA FROM KERALA SOUTH INDIA

ANCIENT INDO-ROMAN TRADE

The legendary seaport of MUZIRIS, was once a bustling Indo-Roman trading center. It was situated in the KODUNGALOOR-CHETTUVA belt in the South Indian state of KERALA

and many historians believe that it was through MUZIRIS, Christianity came to India.
Many ancient literary works reveal that the entire area was occupied by trading communities, like Arabs, Jews and Chettis. Historians believe the lost port of MUZIRIS was a key center of mercantile trade between India and the Roman Empire. To the local people however it was known as VANCHI, and until recently there were no archaeological records to prove that this ancient mythical port really existed.
20070524_140922_clip_image002.jpg
However in 1983, Roman coins were found at a site around six miles from PATTANAM, which prompted historians to look for further evidences. Many speculated that MUZIRIS must have been at the mouth of River Periyar, at a place called KODUNGALOOR -

but new evidence suggests that a smaller town nearby, named PATTANAM must have the real place.

Historic Alleys-




27
jun

Introducing the Muziris Papyrus:-http://historicalleys.blogspot.com/2010/06/introducing-muziris-papyrus.html



The discovery of Port Muziris - The Story of India - BBC




This ancient town existed during the early CHERA period, an ancient dynasty which ruled South West India. The CHERAS were seafaring people and so they established trade links with Rome. The Romans brought in gold which they traded for aromatic spices and pepper which was then called the 'black gold'.

THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERY

It was however Dr K.P.Shajahan and his colleagues of the National Institute of Oceanography who stumbled upon the evidence during a geological survey. Remote sensing data, provide additional evidence that a river close to PATTANAM had changed its course and the ancient port may have been buried due to earthquakes or floods.

This is the first time that tangible evidence is available in Malabar Coast. The clay that is used is very different from what was used in India during the same period and there are a lot of black minerals present.
The most remarkable finds are the rim and handle of a

classic Italian wine amphora from Naples

.This was common during the late first century BC and 79 AD.

The pottery production in the region was however disrupted by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. PATTANAM also provides evidences of foundation of early historic structures, pieces of Roman amphora


The entire site covers an area of about 1.5 sq km with deposits that are about two meters thick. Fragments of imported Roman amphora, which were mainly used for transporting wine and olive oil were found besides


Yemenese and West Asian pottery. Bricks, tiles, pottery shards, beads and other artifacts found at PATTANAM are very similar to those found at ARIKAMEDU and other early historic sites in India.


As excavations are still in progress, more evidences are bound to come which will throw light on Ancient Indo-Roman trade

ancient roman ship route to kerala






ROMAN EMPIRE COINS FROM SOUTH INDIA

after the death of the Roman Emperor Caracalla in 217 C.E., the Roman Empire almost collapsed, as did its international trade.

Roman trade with South India
remained desultory till the middle of the 4th Century C.E. But in the second half of that century, it picked up again, as revealed by the large numbers of later copper coins found in Karur, Madurai,

Tirukkoilur

and Sri Lanka.
Early Roman coins

and been found in Coimbatore, Dindigul, Madurai, Nilgiris, Pudukkottai, Salem, Cuddalore and Karur Districts, according to reader Krishnamurthy. But, he says, after 220 C.E., Roman gold coins “hardly ever came to India.” Roman bronze coins, however, dating to the second half of the 3rd Century have been found in Tamil Nadu, as have copper coins from the second half of the 4th Century C.E.

In 1847 a most fascinating discovery of Roman coins was reported from Kottayam near Kannur (British Malabar), yet another evidence for the existence of a great deal of trade between Kerala and the west in the first centuries B.C./A.D.

The next significant and properly documented discovery of Roman coins in Kerala was from Iyyal , very near Palayoor in the Trichur District, the location of one of the seven Malabar or west coast churches the founding of which is traditionally and in the Rambhan song attributed to St. Thomas. In an earthern jar discovered by Tharayil Karuppan Krishnan there were
34 punch-marked coins,
12 Roman gold coins
, and 71 Roman silver coins.
The entire hoard was acquired by the Arch. Dept. of india


Roman gold coins excavated in PudukottaiIndia. One coin of Caligula (31-41 CE), and two coins of Nero (54-68). British Museum


Silver denarius of Tiberius (14-37 CE) found in India. Indian copy of the same, 1st century CE. Coin of Kushan king Kujula Kadphises
copying a coin of Augustus.







Coin of the Roman emperor Augustusfound at the Pudukottai hoard. British Museum.

Roman piece of pottery from Arezzo,Latium, found at Virampatnam, Arikamedu(1st century CE). Musee Guimet.

Muziris

Muziris is a lost port city in the South Indian state of Kerala which was a major center of trade in Tamilakkam between the Chera Empire and the Roman Empire.Large hoards of coins and innumerable shards of amphorae found in the town ofPattanam have elicited recent archeological interest in finding a probable location of this port city


Muziris, as shown in the Tabula Peutingeriana, with a "Templum Augusti".



Trade of exotic animals

Existed an exotic animal trade between India Ocean harbours and Mediterranean harbours. The evidence of this we can to find in the mosaicsand frescoes of the remains of Roman villas in Italy. For example Villa del Casale has mosaics depicting the capture of exotic animals inIndia,
Villa Romana del Casale 
Historical place in Italy
The Villa Romana del Casale is a Roman villa urbana built in the first quarter of the 4th century and located about 3 km outside the town of Piazza Armerina, Sicily, southern Italy. Wikipedia
Address: Strada Provinciale 90, 94015 Piazza Armerina EN, Italy
Hours:
Open today · 9AM–6PM

Phone: +39 0935 687667
Architectural style: Ancient Roman architecture

 Indonesia and in Africa. The intercontinental trade of exotic animals was one of the sources of richness of the owners of the villa. In theAmbulacro della Grande Caccia, the hunting scenes, especially the capture of live animals are well represented with many details, it is possible to identify the species. There is a scene that shows the technique to distract the mother Tiger to take the puppies using a shimmering ball of glass or mirror. It is also represented the hunt of Tiger with red ribbons. In the mosaic there are also numerous other animals as Rhinoceros, Indian Elephant recognizable from the ears, with his Indian conductor and Indian Peafowl, and other exotic birds.





Arikamedu


Arikamedu in Tamil Nadu, a centre of early Chola trade (now part of Ariyankuppam), about 2 miles from the modern Pondicherry Huntingford further notes that Roman pottery was found at Arikamedu in 1937, and archeological excavations between 1944 and 1949 showed that it was "a trading station to which goods of Roman manufacture were imported during the first half of the 1st century AD 


Region:
Arikamedu is located in India
{{{alt}}}
Location in Tamil Nadu, India

IMPORTS TO ARIKAMEDU
  1. Amphora Jars
  2. Cups and Plates of Terra Sigallata
  3. Ceramic Lamps
  4. Unguentaria ( Vessel for holding perfumed oil or unguen)
  5. Blue glazed Faience ( Tin glazed or decorated earthen ware or pottery originally made in Faenzain Italy)
  6. Glass Bowls
  7. Gems
  8. The most common imported items was amphora Jars
Ms. Will identified following pieces of imports from Mediterranean
  1. Pieces of containers for wine from KosKnidos and Rhodes ( 1 BC to 1 AD)
  2. Spanish Jars for Garum Sauce and Olive oil.
  3. Olive jars from Istrian Peninsula in the Northern Adriatic sea


Location in Tamil Nadu, India

THE WESTERNERS IN ARIKAMEDU WERE MIDDLE MEN?
On the basis of Periplus, Lionel Casson in several of his recent publications proposed that western ships did not , at least on a regular basis, sail to the East Coast of India.Image result for Periplus,

Periplus - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periplus
A periplus (/ˈpɛrɪplʌs/) is a manuscript document that lists the ports and coastal landmarks, in order and with approximate intervening distances, that the captain of a vessel could expect to find along a shore.
The merchants and Romeand Egypt bought eastern products from Malabar. The forwarding of merchandise between the two coasts were in local vessels (Casson 1989.16 n 24:25) . In order to reconcile the evidence of Western residents in Arikamedu and Kaveripattinam with that of Periplus Casson suggests that westerners residing on the east coast were chiefly middle men engaged in forwarding goods to their associate on the Malabar coast and not all the way to Egypt .
Reference on Yavanas or Westerners in Tamil literature ( Puram 50 Volume 16:21 from Zvelebil:402) “ having increased the joy by giving to the girls of shining bangles , who every day have taken in hands vessels beautified by gold to drink the cool fragrant wine brought by Yavanas in beautiful bowls”
Kaveripattinam:-
Puhar (Tamilபூம்புகார்) (also known as Poompuhar) is a town in the Nagapattinam district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It was once a flourishing ancient port city known as Kaveripattinam, which for a while served as the capital of the early Chola kings inTamilakkam It is located near the mouth of the Kaveri river, aside the sea coast. Much of the town was washed away by what is now speculated to be a tsunami around 500 AD. Ancient pottery dating back to the 4th or 5th century AD have been discovered off shore around this town




Puhar
Location of Puhar
in Tamil Nadu and India
The town of Kāveripattinam is believed to have disappeared in between the 3d and the 6th centur,by a Tsunami

Puhar
Town in India
Puhar is a town in the Nagapattinam district in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It was once a flourishing ancient port city known as Kaveri poompattinam, which for a while served as the capital of the early Chola kings in Tamilakam. Wikipedia
Elevation: 1 m
Weather: 29°C, Wind NE at 11 km/h, 52% Humidity
Local time: Friday 3:22 PM
Area code: 04364

Puhar (Poompuhar)(Kaveri poompattinam) | Facebook

https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=a.918610594897258.1073741837...3
... finds of submerged ruins off the coast of modern Poompuhar.The town of Kāveripattinam is believed to have disappeared around 300 BC due to this tsunami.
Image result for krakatoa tsunami height
Introduction.
The paroxysmal explosion and collapse of the volcano of Krakatoa generated formidable tsunami waves that were up to 37 m (120 feet) in height. These waves destroyed 295 towns and villages in the Sunda Strait in Western Java and Southern Sumatra. A total of 36,417 people were drowned.
Image result for 2004 December tsunami  flood the KKNPP installations chennai koodankulam nuclear plant will get damaged /destroyed by a 120 feet high tsunami causing radiation as in japan

KRAKATOA (KRAKATOA VOLCANO) - THE GREAT TSUNAMI OF ...

www.drgeorgepc.com/Tsunami1883Krakatoa.html

The Indian Ocean Tsunami - Page 13 - Google Books Result

https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1134140320
Tad S. Murty, ‎U. Aswathanarayana, ‎Niru Nirupama - 2007 - ‎Science
1.3.2 Krakatau explosive eruption (1883) According to ancient Japanese scriptures,
 the first known supercolossal eruption of Krakatau occurred in the year 416 AD ...
 It was a flourishing ancient town known as Kaveripattinam that was washed away...

Atmospheric Shock Waves Recorded Throughout the World

The Great Explosion of the Krakatau Volcano ("Krakatoa") of August ...

www.drgeorgepc.com/Volcano1883Krakatoa.html
At its peak, Krakatoa reached a height of 790 m (2,600 ft.) above sea level
. Its first known eruption occurred in 416 A. D. However, this eruption destroyed the .



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Puhar - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puhar
Puhar (also known as Poompuhar) is a town in the Nagapattinam district in the southern Indian .... ruins off the coast of modern Poompuhar. The town of Kāveripattinam is believed to have disappeared around 300 BC due to this tsunami ...-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 

 HUNDREDS OF ROMAN GOLD COINS CAN BE SEEN IN THIS PALACE NEAR TRIVANDRUM
....................................................................................................................

Image result for 2004 December tsunami flood chennai kalpakkam nuclear plant



Image result for 2004 December tsunami kalpakkam nuclear plant

Impact on Kalpakkam Tsunami – 26 Dec 2004
About 50 people died in and around Kalpakkam
 Nuclear Reactors in the vicinity...


Image result for 2004 December tsunami kalpakkam nuclear plantHow vulnerable are India's nuclear power plants to disaster

Related image
Seismic Zones India PDF Download - Master Plans India



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