anti jallikattu agitation turning into anti central//state government as in 1963

Tamil Nadu witnessing mass students uprising for jallikattu

Times of India - ‎1 hour ago‎
CHENNAI: You may call it the Tamil Nadu version of the Arab Spring, or it may even remind you of the anti-Hindi agitation in the state in the 1960s.
Jallikattu protests continue across Tamil Nadu, over 4000 protesters camped at Marina Beach
Jallikattu ban: Thousands continue protests in Chennai's Marina Beach
Jallikattu

Guts and glory: a student activism saga in Madras - The Hindu

www.thehindu.com › News › Cities › Chennai
Aug 20, 2013 - Despite being politically aware, Chennai students have largely stayed out of national agitations. The JP movement and the Anna Hazare

Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Hindi_agitations_of_Tamil_Nadu
Jump to Agitation of 1965 - The Anti-Hindi imposition agitations of Tamil Nadu were a series of ..... As 26 January 1965 approached, the anti-Hindi imposition agitation in Madras State grew in numbers and urgency. The Tamil ...

The Politics of Cultural Nationalism in South India

https://books.google.co.in/books?isbn=1400867185
Marguerite Ross Barnett - 2015 - ‎Political Science
... it reveals an extremely important fact about the Dravida Kazhagam. ... None can divide the South Indian people into two races by means of any blood test.
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History : A Chronology of Anti-Hindi Agitations in Tamil Nadu, India

www.tamiltribune.com/03/0101-anti-hindi-agitation-history.html
Jan 1, 2003 - It would have been big news but for the Tamil Nadu Students Anti-Hindi Imposition Agitation on January 25 and January 26, 1965. We provide ...

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1963: August 25
At the Thanjavoor Anti-Hindi Conference, C.N. Annadurai said, "It is the duty of the Tamil people to wage war on those who impose Hindi."
1963: October 6
Tamil Nadu Students Anti-Hindi Conference was held in Thiruchirapalli (Thiruchi or Trichi). This was the first major anti-Hindi conference by students. Students would play a major role in just less than 16 months.
1963: October 13
DMK's Anti-Hindi Protest Conference was held in Chennai (Madras). Party General-Secretary C.N. Annadurai asked volunteers to burn 17-th Part of the Indian Constitution. This is the part that makes Hindi the official language of India. In the subsequent months DMK leaders and cadres burnt the constitution all over TamilNadu. They were arrested and jailed.

2. 1965: The Volcano Erupts

2.1 Black Flags over Tamil Nadu
Hindi was to become the sole official language of India on January 26, 1965. January 26 is the Republic Day of India, the day on which the Indian Constitution went into force (in 1950). DMK announced January 26 as a Day of Mourning and asked volunteers to raise black flags all over Tamil Nadu. Police took many DMK leaders into preventive custody the previous night. It would have been big news but for the Tamil Nadu Students Anti-Hindi Imposition Agitation on January 25 and January 26, 1965. We provide a brief discussion of the Students Agitation in Sections 2.3 to 2.5.
2.2 Self Immolation
Before we go into the Students' Agitation, we wish to discuss the ultimate sacrifice of some Tamil patriots who poured petrol (gasoline) over their bodies, lit there bodies with fire, and offered their lives and bodies to Tamil in protest against Hindi imposition (self immolation).
These were the first instances of self-immolation in Tamil Nadu. In fact, these were the first instances of self-immolation anywhere in the world except for Vietnam where, a few years before, some Buddhist monks did the same to protest the dictatorial rule there. These are the names of the brave Tamil patriots who offered themselves as burnt sacrifices (If I left out someone please write to TAMIL TRIBUNE so their names could be added to this Honour Role of Tamil Patriots.):
Ayyampalayam Veerappan
Kellapaluvur Chinnasamy
Keranoor Muthu
Kodambakkam Sivalingam
Mayavaram Sarangapani
Satyamangalam Muthu
Veerukkambakkam Aranganathan
More details about these martyrs may be found in Reference 1. Tamil Nationalist Poet Perunchiththiranar sang of them thus: "Have you anointed yourself with black oil (petrol) and showered in fire?" (kan-nei muzuki kanal kuliththanaiyo?).
2.3 Student Protests: January 25
Since January 26 was a holiday, University of Madras students went on a one-day strike on January 25. (University of Madras has now been split into a number of universities to reflect the growth in colleges and student population. In 1965 there were only two universities in Tamil Nadu, namely, University of Madras and Annamalai University.)
Both university and school students mobilized in protest against Hindi imposition all over Tamil Nadu. Virtually all stores closed in support. This was the largest mass protest ever in the history of Tamil Nadu (with the possible exception of the protests held two days later on January 27). There was nothing like that before and there has been nothing like that since then with the possible exception of January 27.
There were protest marches in most towns and cities in Tamil Nadu. Over 50,000 people marched in Madras City (Chennai); this includes students as well as some general public who joined the march. The marches were peaceful. There were colorful placards and banners against Hindi imposition. There were slogans against Hindi imposition. In some cities students beat drums and blew bugles as they marched through the main streets. At least in one city (Coimbatore) "pall bearers" carried the "dead body" of Hindi demon, accompanied by "wailing" students, to signify the "death" of Hindi imposition in Tamil Nadu. The marches were colorful. The marches were noisy. The marches were huge. It was all peaceful. The students wanted it that way. The students did it that way.
The peaceful demonstrations turned bloody at the end in Madurai. Some members of a ruling party affiliated trade union attacked the students with small swords (arival). Tamil blood was spilled again in the protest against Hindi imposition. Many towns and cities in Tamil Nadu would be painted red with the blood of Tamil martyrs in the next two weeks.
2.4 Student Protests and first police shooting death
Annamalai University is located in Chidamparam (Chidhambaram or Chithamparam). Annamalai University students also demonstrated against Hindi imposition. There were banners, placards, slogan shouting, drums and bugles. Students marched towards the center of Chidhamparam. All was peaceful. Police asked the students to stop the march. Students refused. Police opened fire on the unarmed students. All that the students wanted was to show the world their opposition to Hindi imposition. But police fired on them. One student died (Rajendran) and another was wounded seriously (Nedumaran).
There were other student processions and demonstrations all over Tamil Nadu too. These are described in Section 2.5.
2.5 Killing Fields of Tamil Nadu: January 27 to February 13
Violence against students by pro-Government trade union members in Madurai and arrests of anti-Hindi imposition demonstrators angered the students all over Tamil Nadu. Massive protest rallies were held on January 27 all over TamilNadu. These rallies rivaled those of January 25. The public was with the students. Many stores closed in sympathy. People observed in silence as students marched through the streets. Tamil Nadu Students Anti-Hindi Agitation Committee announced an indefinite strike. There was public support for the strike. A rebellion was brewing in Tamil Nadu.
The mass participation in the Anti-Hindi Imposition Protests and the extent of public support to the students sent chills through the veins of Hindi politicians who dominated the Indian Parliament and thus the Indian Government. Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, Home Minister Gulzarilal Nanda and the subservient Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Bhaktavatsalam (who also belonged to the same Congress Party) decided to put down the anti-Hindi protests with brute force. Indian Army soldiers, Central Reserve Police and out-of-state police were rushed into Tamil Nadu. Soldiers and police shot indiscriminately into crowds of unarmed demonstrators killing "uncounted number" of protesters, maiming many and otherwise wounding many more. Many towns and cities had the blood of Tamil martyrs spilled on their streets. This went on until February 13. Unable to stop the demonstrations, even with such brute force, Chief Minister Bhaktavatsalam and Indian Government Minister Subramaniam (from Tamilnadu) promised that they would work for the enactment of laws to prevent Hindi imposition. Students called off the strike. Student leaders announced the end of the agitation in the late hours of February 12 but there were demonstrations in a few places on February 13 because word did not reach those students. Indian Parliament passed a lukewarm Language Act on August 1, 1968. It did not meet the expectations of the Tamil people. Hindi imposition continued and continues  [Reference 2].
2.6 Death Count
The exact number of people killed, maimed and wounded is not available. That is why we used the phrase "uncounted number" in the second paragraph of Section 2.5. Professor Alfred Stepan of Columbia University (USA) writes, "Police and army troops opened fire in twenty-one towns in the state, arrested over 10,000 people, and probably killed over 100 people". Thinathanthi (daily newspapers) added up the death counts published in that paper to 63. However, reading Thinathanthi, it is clear that these 63 were the ones who died at the shooting or in the hospital or on the way to hospital that day. It does not seem to include anyone who died in hospital after a day or more from the shooting. Because of the fast moving events and so many deaths occurring, newspapers did not seem to follow up the fate of the injured. Remember, over 55 of the 63 deaths were in just 5 days between February 8 and 12, 1965; thirty one deaths were reported on February 12 alone. Ages of those killed range from 13 to 50.

Usually newspapers publish the names and brief bio-information of the dead and injured when someone is killed or injured in police shooting. For example, when Rajendran was killed and Nedumaran was injured in Annamalai University (first shooting death and injury), newspapers published their names and brief bio-information. Because so many deaths were happening, not even the names of the dead were published in many instances between February 8 and 13; they just became a number; reports were like "ten people were killed in Kumarapalayam" (no names of the prople killed). So many were injured that newspapers did not publish the number of injured in many shootings but just said, "many were injured".

3. 1967: Year of the Election

In the 1967 general election, Tamil voters expressed their opposition to Hindi imposition with their votes. The Congress Party, which people associated with Hindi imposition, was defeated thoroughly; the Chief Minister, every cabinet minister and the party president all lost the election. The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), which people associated with opposition to Hindi imposition, won a landslide victory and formed the state government. But the state government could do little to stop Hindi imposition. That power rested with the Indian Government.
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Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Hindi_agitations_of_Tamil_Nadu
Jump to Agitation of 1937–40 - The Anti-Hindi imposition agitations of Tamil Nadu were a series of agitations that happened in the Indian state of Tamil ..
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Jallikattu row: Police deployed in Madurai to implement SC's ban order

Daily News & Analysis - ‎22 minutes ago‎
The people of Tamil Nadu of Sunday urged the Supreme Court to pass the judgement on bull-taming sport Jallikattu after a proper analysis.
Rajinikanth supports Jallikattu, and other developments: 5 points
Jallikattu ban: Shops shut, heavy police deployment across Tamil Nadu
Jallikattu

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Divide and Rule: British Policy in Indian History - JStor

https://www.jstor.org/stable/40400043
by N Stewart - ‎1951 - ‎Cited by 8 - ‎Related articles
support of the Indian princes as the bulwark of British interests agai the tide of ... The policy of divide and rule, most fully comprehended by Sir J. Lawrence and ...


Dravidar Kazhagam - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidar_Kazhagam
Preceded by, Justice Party. Headquarters, Madras. Newspaper, Viduthalai Kudiyarasu. Ideology, Socialism Anti-Brahminism. Dravidar Kazhagam or Dravida Kazhagam (Dravidian Organization) was one of the first Dravidian parties in India. The party was founded by E. V. Ramaswamy, also called Thanthai Periyar.
History · ‎Ideology · ‎Conflict years · ‎Later years

Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravida_Munnetra_Kazhagam
Jump to Justice Party - DMK traces its roots to the South Indian Liberal Federation (Justice Party) formed in 1916, by P. Thyagaraya Chetty, Dr. P.T. Rajan, ...

Justice Party (India) - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justice_Party_(India)
The Justice Party, officially the South Indian Liberal Federation, was a political party in the ... The Justice Party and the Dravidar Kazhagam are the ideological ... parties like the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and the All-India Anna Dravida ...Page 49 of Divide and Rule: British Policy in Indian History

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comment:-
central government is busy with  coming elections in UP etc
AIADMK  is worried about sashikala etc
hope somebody make some amendments to "jallikattu dilemma" soon; before it gets out of hand as in 1965
with 1965 students agitation congress never again came to power in tamil nadu
now is it the turn of AIADMK to repeat congress history?
soon  extremists  and non friendly countries of  India may get  involved .

Jallikattu agitation: Madras High Court declines to 'interfere' on protests issue

The Indian Express - ‎41 minutes a